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{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy3664\absw10471\absh505\f9\i\fs22 \li287 \fi-287 2. Should we completely switch from contracted to uncontracted braille? \par\sb0\fi0 \i0 All research we reviewed, ongoing discussions with practitioners, and our survey results point to adding alphabetic\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy4276\absw10525\absh2274\f5\fs22 braille as an instructional strategy, rather than advocating taking away Grade 2 Braille. As in all decisions, careful consideration and assessment should determine the child\rquote s learning media. If a child is successfully progressing using contractions, clearly he/she is learning in the most appropriate medium. For most braille readers wishing to access published literature at the highest speed, the goal will be to master all of Grade 2 Braille. Currently, standardized tests such as the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills are produced in Grade 2 Braille, as are most other normed test materials. The alphabetic braille code can be an entry for many who, once hooked on the excitement of fluent reading, transition into more advanced literacy instruction. In some areas of Canada and a few American districts, braille readers move to contracted reading in upper elementary grades. Others will transition earlier or later, as appropriate to their learning styles. Uncontracted braille offers early successes with the mechanical challenges of braille reading.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy7156\absw10515\absh505\f9\i\fs22 \li287 \fi-287 3. Could we increase the literacy options for our students with learning disabilities? \par\sb0\fi0 \i0 All students are different, and no one method of teaching reading will work for all students. It is essential to have a\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy7768\absw10542\absh1516\f5\fs22 variety of approaches to match individual student needs, especially for students with specialized learning challenges. Several reading strategies commonly used for students with learning disabilities are not recommended for braille read- ers because \ldblquote of the contractions in the braille code that do not always provide for single letters.\rdblquote (Sacks & Silberman, 1998) Phonics-based reading, code-emphasis instruction, and the Orton-Gillingham methods all fall into this category. Rather than limiting the potential methodologies used to teach reading, alphabetic braille instruction for students with visual impairments and learning disabilities may expand the teacher\rquote s ability to individualize reading instruction.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy9784\absw7862\absh264\f9\i\fs23 4. Could we increase the literacy options for our students with multiple disabilities?\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy10108\absw10150\absh2171\f5\fs21 \fi326 Sighted students who have cognitive disabilities read and write using print to their maximum abilities. The teachers working with these students are motivated to continue providing reading instruction because they see the importance of their students being able to read and write their names, write lists for shopping, read a menu, or write a short note to a friend. Our students with visual impairments and cognitive impairments should have the same opportunity and means to complete these functional tasks. If braille is their medium, they need sufficient practice in reading and writing. Uncontracted braille may be the strategy that allows them to acquire functional literacy. Using uncontracted braille, they could braille a list for the grocery story, read a braille menu at McDonald\rquote s, braille phone numbers of their friends and family, and read the signage in many public buildings. Uncontracted braille would also be easier for the teachers and staff working with the student to learn, and would allow them to give immediate feedback to the student.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy12988\absw10500\absh758\f5\fs22 \fi287 Sighted students are able to use materials that pair words with pictures and symbols that help decode the print. Students with visual impairments and additional disabilities may also benefit from tactual symbols that are paired with uncontracted braille to support communication and literacy activities.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy14140\absw10249\absh482\f9\i\fs21 \li287 \fi-287 5. How would using uncontracted braille impact the braille reader in the mainstream? \par\sb0\fi0 \i0 Alphabetic braille in its simplicity allows everyone in the reader\rquote s life to become a participant in the reader\rquote s literacy.\par}

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{\phpg\posx6180\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 26\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy748\absw10150\absh965\f5\fs21 General education staff, peers, and family can quickly learn the letter symbols and punctuation signs. Use of alphabetic braille in early learning allows the braille student to listen to and learn the same reading lessons as their peers in the classroom. The rules governing spelling of words is the same for all students, and the materials can be more easily checked by the general education teacher without waiting for a skilled braille reading TVI to arrive.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy2188\absw10545\absh1768\f5\fs22 \fi287 The certified TVI may need to explore available published resources to find alphabetic braille materials. Agencies such as APH are beginning to research the use of alphabetic braille and plan to produce some titles in this format in the future. The first sixteen clusters of {\i BRAILLE FUNdamentals}, a new TSBVI braille curriculum, teach the alphabetic code. The textbook division of the Texas Education Agency will consider requests for Grade 1 Braille texts and currently produces some titles that have been requested in that format. At this time, most existing publications are available in Grade 2 Braille; however, with electronic files, all formats can be produced. It is exciting that advances in technology for braille production have given our students more options for literacy.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy4492\absw10172\absh1689\f5\fs21 \fi287 After compiling the survey responses, examining some of the available resources and speaking with TVIs from around Texas, we are convinced that the use of alphabetic braille has potential to increase literacy options for many students with visual impairments in Texas. Have you had experiences teaching uncontracted braille? We would love to hear about them. Does this article spark your interest? Do you want to try this strategy with your students? We are very interested in teaming with districts or TVIs who want to explore instruction in alphabetic braille. To be hooked up with a member of our VI Outreach team, you can contact Ann Rash at (512) 206-9269 or or Cyral Miller at (512) 206-9224 or .\par}

{\phpg\posx1127\pvpg\posy6796\absw3578\absh275\f3\b\fs24 REFERENCES AND READINGS\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy7204\absw10216\absh529\f9\i\fs23 \fi288 Beginning Reading Instruction: Components and Features of a Research-Based Reading Program{\i0 (1997).} \i0 Publication Number CU7 105 01. Texas Education Agency, Austin, Texas.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy8068\absw10376\absh529\f5\fs23 \fi287 Harley, R. K., Truan, M. B., and Sanford, L. D., (1987). {\i Communication Skills for Visually Impaired Learn-} \i ers.{\i0 Charles C. Thomas, Publishers, Springfield, Ill. p. 233.}\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy8932\absw10219\absh505\f5\fs22 \fi287 Lowenfeld, B., Abel, G.L. & Hatlen, P.H. (1969). {\i Blind Children Learn to Read}. Charles C. Thomas, Publish- ers, Springfield, Illinois, p.27.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy9796\absw10333\absh529\f5\fs23 \fi287 Nolan, C.Y. & Kederis, C.J. (1969). {\i Perceptual Factors in Braille Word Recognition. Research Series No.} \i 20{\i0 . American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY, p.43.}\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy10660\absw10164\absh529\f5\fs23 \fi287 Sacks, S.Z. & Silberman, R.K. (1998). {\i Educating Students who have Visual Impairments with Other Dis-} \i abilities{\i0 . Paul Brookes Publishing Co., Baltimore, MD, p.171.}\par}

{\phpg\posx1367\pvpg\posy11524\absw8940\absh264\f5\fs23 Troughton, M. (1992). {\i One is Fun: Guidelines for Better Braille Literacy}. Brantford, Ontario.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy12100\absw10261\absh505\f5\fs22 \fi288 Wormsley, D.P. (2000). {\i Braille Literacy Curriculum.} Towers Press, Overbrook School for the Blind, Philadel- phia, PA.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy12964\absw10498\absh551\f5\fs24 \fi287 Wormsley, D.P. & D\rquote Andrea, F.M., eds. (1997). {\i Instructional Strategies for Braille Literacy}. American Foundation for the Blind, New York, pp. 161-162.\par}

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{\phpg\posx5807\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 27\par}

{\phpg\posx3031\pvpg\posy758\absw6169\absh690\f4\b\fs30 \li751 \fi-751 Early Identification of Hearing and Vision Loss is Critical to a Child\rquote s Development\par}

{\phpg\posx2092\pvpg\posy1519\absw7615\absh620\f7\fs27 \fi1874 By Gigi Newton, INSITE Specialist \par\sb0\fi0 and Kate Moss, Family Specialist, TSBVI, Texas Deafblind Outreach\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy2476\absw8740\absh264\f3\b\fs23 IMPORTANCE OF VISION AND HEARING TO DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy2884\absw10168\absh2654\f5\fs21 \fi287 Although every one of our senses plays a role in early development, vision and hearing certainly seem to lead the way. Much of early parent/child bonding has to do with the child\rquote s ability to make eye contact and sustain a gaze with his parents, respond to their voices by gurgling and cooing, and to be comforted by the sight and sound of them. Much of the reason an infant tries to move is because he sees or hears something that intrigues him. He learns that things and people exist in the world primarily because he sees and hears them come and go. He visually tracks an object he pitches to the ground or hears it hit the floor. That tells him the object still exists, even though it is not in his hands any longer. When she cries she can hear Daddy calling to her or see Momma walk into the room. She can inspire her parents to linger and play with her by cooing and making eye contact, the earliest form of conversation. He learns about size, shape, color, functions of objects, social interactions, and so much more just by listening and looking at the world at work. Early development has critical links to a child having full use of his/her vision and hearing. When these senses don\rquote t work perfectly or not very well, everything is impacted.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy6340\absw8818\absh264\f3\b\fs23 IT\rquote S HARD TO TELL A PARENT THERE MAY BE VISION AND HEARING ISSUES\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy6748\absw10301\absh1206\f5\fs21 \fi287 Professionals working with infants and families may have a hard time suggesting that there is a problem with a child\rquote s vision or hearing. This is especially true when the family is already dealing with their child\rquote s other medical or disability issues. After all, a family can only deal with so much at one time. Because infants are much harder to test for vision and hearing loss, many mild impairments (or sometimes even major impairments) may not be diagnosed quickly. Subject- ing the family to another round of testing is always a hard call.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy8476\absw8687\absh264\f3\b\fs23 LEARNING ABOUT HEARING AND VISION LOSS IMMEDIATELY IS CRITICAL\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy8884\absw10138\absh1448\f5\fs21 \fi287 As we said earlier, much of the sensory information that is vital to children\rquote s development comes through the senses of vision and hearing. During the first three years of a child\rquote s life major neural networks are being formed in the brain. Much of this development comes from distance senses, i.e., vision and hearing, which allows us to know about things and people in the world even when we are not in physical contact with them. After the first three years, development of these neural networks becomes slower. Skills that may be gained in early intervention cannot be made as quickly when the child is older.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy10900\absw10286\absh1689\f5\fs21 \fi287 For these and other reasons, children should be regularly checked for vision and hearing problems. We know that even mild problems with these senses can have major impact on learning. A mild hearing loss in a noisy home or daycare center can result in a child who misses critical bits of information. He may miss sounds that let him develop normal language and speech patterns. He may miss instructions his parents or babysitter gave him and appear to be misbehaving. He may become withdrawn because he is not sure what is expected of him. If he has a visual field loss he may constantly be stumbling over things. This has great impact on self-concept. A child who is sensitive to light may not enjoy or feel secure playing out of doors.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy13204\absw10259\absh1206\f5\fs21 \fi287 Every child, with or without a disability, should have regular and periodic vision and hearing checks. If the child is severely disabled, this can be even more important since their other senses may not be as useful in compensating for what they miss visually and auditorially. In fact, this is so important that schools complete vision and hearing screenings at regular intervals throughout the remainder of the child\rquote s educational career. These types of screenings are even more critical from birth to age three.\par}

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{\phpg\posx6192\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 28\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy748\absw5103\absh264\f3\b\fs23 PARENTS SHOULD TRUST THEIR INTUITION\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy1156\absw10449\absh758\f5\fs22 \fi287 Parents know more about their child than anyone else does. Often we meet parents who tell us that they knew something was wrong with their child\rquote s vision and hearing before any of the doctors mentioned it. In fact, many have been told that they shouldn\rquote t go looking for trouble or that their child would \ldblquote grow out of it.\rdblquote \par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy2308\absw10159\absh723\f5\fs21 \fi287 Parents should trust themselves when they feel there is something wrong with the way their baby uses his vision or hearing. They should feel comfortable insisting that vision and hearing are tested, especially if their child is at high risk for vision and hearing loss.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy3460\absw1425\absh276\f3\b\fs24 RED FLAGS\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy3868\absw10258\absh723\f5\fs21 \fi287 There are many red flags associated with vision and hearing loss. Below are the syndromes, diseases and condi- tions, listed on the Texas Deafblind Census, that put a child at high risk for deafblindness. Children with these etiologies should be watched closely for vision and hearing problems.\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy5020\absw3654\absh529\f3\b\fs23 Syndromes, Diseases and Conditions \b0 \i Hereditary/Chromosomal\par}

{\phpg\posx1079\pvpg\posy5862\absw2757\absh7581\f5\fs22 Aicardi \par\sb0\fi0 Alport \par Alstrom \par Apert \par Bardet-Biedl \par Batten Disease \par CHARGE \par Chromosome 18, Ring 18 Cockayne \par Cogan \par Cornelia de Lange \par Cri du Chat \par Crigler-Najjar \par Crouzon \par Dandy Walker \par Down \par Goldenhar Hand-Schuller-Christian Hallgren \par Herpes-Zoster (or Hunt) Hunter (MPS II) \par Hurler (MPS I-H) Kearns-Sayre \par Klippel-Feil Sequence Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Kniest Dysplasia \par Leber\rquote s Congenital Amaurosis Leigh Disease \par Marfan \par Marshall\par}

{\phpg\posx4641\pvpg\posy5843\absw2155\absh1588\f5\fs23 Maroteaux-Lamy Moebius \par\sb0\fi0 Monosomy 10p Morquio \par Norrie NF-Neurofibromatosis\par}

{\phpg\posx4641\pvpg\posy7571\absw2918\absh529\f5\fs23 \fi79 (von Recklinghausen Disease) NF2-Bilateral Acoustic\par}

{\phpg\posx4641\pvpg\posy8147\absw2321\absh529\f5\fs23 \fi80 Neurofibromatosis Optico-Cochleo-Dentate\par}

{\phpg\posx4641\pvpg\posy8723\absw3194\absh5054\f5\fs22 \fi80 Degeneration \par\sb0\fi0 Pfieffer \par Prader-Willi \par Pierre-Robin \par Refsum \par Scheie (MPS I-S) Smith-Lemli-Opitz \par Stickler \par Sturge-Weber \par Treacher Collins \par Trisomy 13 (Trisomy 13-15, Patau) Trisomy 18 (Edwards) \par Turner \par Usher I \par Usher II \par Usher III \par Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Waardenburg \par Wildervanck \par Wolf-Hirschhorn (Trisomy 4p)\par}

{\phpg\posx549\pvpg\posy8149\absw257\absh23\f11\b\i\fs2 SYNDROMES/CONDITIONS\par}

{\phpg\posx8200\pvpg\posy5382\absw2153\absh275\f9\i\fs24 Pre-Natal/Congenital\par}

{\phpg\posx8200\pvpg\posy5850\absw2409\absh2274\f5\fs22 Congenital Rubella Congenital Syphilis Congenital Toxoplasmosis Cytomegalovirus \par\sb0\fi0 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Hydrocephaly \par Maternal Drug Use Microcephaly \par Neonatal Herpes Simplex\par}

{\phpg\posx8200\pvpg\posy8730\absw2713\absh275\f9\i\fs24 Post-Natal/Non-Congenital\par}

{\phpg\posx8200\pvpg\posy9198\absw3271\absh2274\f5\fs22 Asphyxia \par\sb0\fi0 Direct Trauma to the Eye and/or Ear Encephalitis \par Infections \par Meningitis \par Severe Head Injury \par Stroke \par Tumors \par Chemically Induced\par}

{\phpg\posx8200\pvpg\posy12078\absw2259\absh275\f9\i\fs24 Related to Prematurity\par}

{\phpg\posx8200\pvpg\posy12546\absw2673\absh252\f5\fs22 Complications of Prematurity\par}

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{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy748\absw10114\absh723\f5\fs21 \fi287 Sometimes the child\rquote s etiology is unknown or the child may have only one diagnosed sensory loss. Professionals working with infants and young babies, as well as parents, should be aware of the red flags that may indicate a problem with either vision or hearing.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy1900\absw1553\absh551\f3\b\fs24 Hearing Loss \b0 \i At Risk Factors\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy2692\absw204\absh276\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy2692\absw3674\absh252\f5\fs22 Malformation of the ear, nose, and throat\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy3124\absw204\absh276\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy3124\absw2341\absh252\f5\fs22 Rubella during pregnancy\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy3556\absw204\absh276\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy3556\absw1713\absh252\f5\fs22 Rh incompatibility\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy3988\absw204\absh276\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy3988\absw2697\absh252\f5\fs22 Family history of hearing loss\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy4420\absw204\absh276\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy4420\absw2047\absh264\f5\fs23 Apgar score from 0-3\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy4852\absw204\absh275\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy4852\absw2377\absh252\f5\fs22 Severe neonatal infections\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy5284\absw204\absh275\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy5284\absw1009\absh252\f5\fs22 Meningitis\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy5716\absw204\absh275\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy5716\absw2985\absh252\f5\fs22 Low birth weight (under 3.3 lbs.)\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy6148\absw204\absh275\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1439\pvpg\posy6148\absw1792\absh252\f5\fs22 Hyperbilirubinemia\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy6580\absw204\absh275\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy6580\absw2033\absh264\f5\fs23 Ototoxic medications\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy7012\absw204\absh275\f5\fs24 {\f0\bullet} \par}



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