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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpfhdr0\shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt1\shpz1\shpleft11360\shptop7899\shpright11859\shpbottom7899{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 20}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25907}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}}}

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{\phpg\posx5820\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 17\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy748\absw3473\absh264\f3\b\fs23 Tips from old teachers to new ones\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy1216\absw9789\absh758\f5\fs22 \li252 \fi-252 {\f0\bullet} Hold and play with the baby so the two of you can bond. Make your time with the child pleasurable. You will be a more effective service provider and might give parents some useful ideas about bonding with their baby.\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy2224\absw9602\absh505\f5\fs22 \li252 \fi-252 {\f0\bullet} Stress that you are providing parent-infant training as a team: the parents with expert knowledge of their child and you with expert knowledge of visual impairments.\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy2944\absw7440\absh252\f5\fs22 {\f0\bullet} Shoot for the stars with every infant; maintain an \ldblquote anything is possible\rdblquote attitude.\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy3376\absw4723\absh252\f5\fs22 {\f0\bullet} Visit the child often enough to make a difference.\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy3808\absw9911\absh505\f5\fs22 \li252 \fi-252 {\f0\bullet} If the child is not responding as much as you would like, become a detective and search out possible reasons (time of day you visit, previous therapies that day, seizure activity, medications, etc.).\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy4528\absw6965\absh252\f5\fs22 {\f0\bullet} Be reliable about appointments and encourage your parents to do the same.\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy4960\absw8496\absh252\f5\fs22 {\f0\bullet} Assist parents in developing self-advocacy skills by providing resource information to them.\par}

{\phpg\posx1053\pvpg\posy5392\absw9505\absh252\f5\fs22 {\f0\bullet} Play an active role in the child\rquote s transition to public school. Coach parents about the ARD/IEP process.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy6040\absw10170\absh1689\f5\fs21 \fi287 If this is the first infant you\rquote ve become involved with, seek assistance from a mentor teacher. If one is not available, keep in mind that every TVI has a long list of firsts in his or her career: first braille student, first student with severe multiple disabilities, first gifted low vision student, first adaptive technology user, AND first infant. You will feel inad- equate, but competency will develop over time. One of the hallmarks of successful TVIs is that we seek out resources, conduct research to find answers to pressing questions, and feel comfortable taking responsibility for jumping in and doing things we\rquote ve never done before. The determination to willingly accept that responsibility is critical to developing the array of skills needed by a typical itinerant TVI.\par}

{\phpg\posx4891\pvpg\posy9038\absw2542\absh355\f4\b\fs31 Q & A with Marty\par}

{\phpg\posx2008\pvpg\posy9415\absw7864\absh310\f7\fs27 By Marty Murrell, VI Program Administrator, Texas Education Agency\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy10084\absw10551\absh552\f9\i\fs24 \fi287 Editor\rquote s note: Marty recently received some e-mailed questions about issues related to vision services for young children. Here are the questions and her responses.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy10948\absw10197\absh758\f3\b\fs22 \fi287 For children from birth through 2 years of age, who should make the referral for an orientation and mobility (O&M) evaluation? Can it come directly from one team member or should the referral be an IFSP team decision? What if the services are provided by the education service center?\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy12100\absw10231\absh529\f5\fs23 \fi287 Services to a child with a disability (birth-2) are provided as a result of a decision by the child\rquote s IFSP team. Assessment is considered a service and therefore the IFSP team should determine the need for the assessment.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy12964\absw10536\absh1516\f5\fs22 \fi287 If the parent, the vision teacher, or anyone else on the team suspects there is a need for an O&M evaluation, then that should be discussed in an IFSP meeting. The team determines if there is, in fact, a need, who will do it, when it needs to occur, etc. If the IFSP team agrees that there is a need, then the ECI program provides the notice to the parents and obtains the parent\rquote s consent according to IDEA-Part C requirements. Once the consent is obtained, ECI will follow the previously arranged logistical procedures to provide to the district the appropriate paperwork, including such things as copies of the notice and consent.\par}

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{\phpg\posx6180\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 18\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy748\absw10408\absh1010\f5\fs22 \fi287 According to the ECI/TEA MOU, the district is responsible for providing orientation and mobility services, which include evaluation. If the district relies on O&M evaluation and instruction provided by an education service center (ESC), the {\ul district} should forward appropriate referral information to the ESC, according to procedures set forth by the ESC.\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy2188\absw10395\absh529\f3\b\fs23 \fi287 Sometimes physicians are hesitant to estimate visual acuities for very young children. How should this be documented on the Texas Eye Examination Report?\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy3052\absw10120\absh1206\f5\fs21 \fi287 For most infants, an eye doctor should be able to get a general idea of acuity from direct ophthalmoscopy. Reluc- tance to give an estimate may be a result of not knowing specifically how the information will be used. Sometimes this can be addressed by providing technical assistance to the doctor. If the doctor indicates that he/she was unable to test and does not give any estimation of visual abilities, then there may be a need for an evaluation by a doctor with more experience and skill with similar children.\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy4780\absw10161\absh1447\f5\fs21 \fi287 If the doctor has had little experience with young children, especially those who are very difficult to assess, there are two excellent videos by Deborah Chen, Ph.D. and Deborah Orel-Bixler, Ph.D., O.D., that can be shared with the doctor to demonstrate effective diagnostic techniques to use with babies. The titles are \ldblquote Vision Tests for Infants\rdblquote and \ldblquote What can Baby See? Vision Tests and Interventions for Infants with Multiple Disabilities.\rdblquote These may be purchased from the American Foundation for the Blind or may be available on loan from your regional education service center or the TSBVI.\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy6796\absw10232\absh505\f5\fs22 \fi287 When referring children to the eye doctor, parents should be directed to doctors with the expertise to provide the information that is needed to make decisions about the needs of the child.\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy7660\absw10416\absh552\f3\b\fs24 \fi287 Sometimes it takes several weeks or even longer to obtain the eye report from the eye doctor. How should we document this? Do you have any suggestions?\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy8524\absw10418\absh758\f5\fs22 \fi287 For students 3 years or older who need eye reports as part of their special education evaluation, the district can use such things as logs or contact reports to document attempts to get copies of the reports. However, this documentation does not eliminate the district\rquote s responsibility to adhere to the required timelines.\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy9676\absw10550\absh1263\f5\fs22 \fi287 Since the cost of the eye doctor evaluation and report is a district responsibility, the district does have the option of choosing who will provide the evaluation and report. If a specific doctor does not respond to reasonable timelines, does not provide the information the district needs, and does not respond to efforts by the district to explain the critical need for timely and quality information, the district should identify doctors who will do these things, and refer students to them. The district may establish a contract with a specific doctor in order to meet its responsibilities under IDEA.\par}

{\phpg\posx1367\pvpg\posy11404\absw10156\absh252\f5\fs22 For children under 3 years, obtaining the eye doctor evaluation and report is the responsibility of the ECI program.\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy11980\absw10230\absh724\f5\fs21 \fi287 Timely eye reports may be an issue that can be addressed effectively through the Regional Plan for Students with Visual Impairments, since the planning group includes the agencies for which this is typically a problem (ECI, TCB, and districts.).\par}

{\phpg\posx1080\pvpg\posy13132\absw10376\absh758\f5\fs22 \fi287 Some strategies that have been suggested by others include visiting with the doctors to share information; inviting doctors to a luncheon meeting; developing informational brochures/packets for the doctors; developing a cover letter to accompany the eye report form explaining the critical need for timely and complete information.\par}

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{\phpg\posx5820\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 19\par}

{\phpg\posx2642\pvpg\posy758\absw6915\absh345\f4\b\fs30 Almost 100 Motor Activities for Infants and Toddlers\par}

{\phpg\posx1560\pvpg\posy1135\absw8683\absh310\f7\fs27 By Olga Uriegas, VI and O&M Specialist, Region 11 Education Service Center\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy1756\absw10381\absh1323\f9\i\fs23 \fi287 Editor\rquote s note: This article first appeared in the Fall 1996 issue of SEE/HEAR, almost five years ago, but we thought it was worth reprinting for our readers who may not have received SEE/HEAR back then. Olga\rquote s ideas are pretty easy to implement. However, you may want to consult with your child\rquote s Orientation & Mobility Specialist about where to begin, given your child\rquote s current skills. She/He may also be able to demonstrate the best ways to support the baby\rquote s body as you help him/her with specific movements.\par}

{\phpg\posx720\pvpg\posy3628\absw10127\absh482\f5\fs21 \fi287 Initial orientation and mobility lessons should be with and for the parents of children with visual impairments. Here are some things you can do, Mom and Dad, with your infant or toddler.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy4492\absw9373\absh505\f5\fs22 Mom and Dad hold baby close to your body, let him/her hear your heart beat, smell your scent, bond with you, etc.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy5212\absw3845\absh252\f5\fs22 Say the baby\rquote s name as you touch him/her.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy5644\absw6676\absh252\f5\fs22 Mom and Dad, talk to your baby while you actively move the baby\rquote s body.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy6076\absw6424\absh252\f5\fs22 Mom call baby\rquote s name while Dad assists baby to turn from back to side.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy6508\absw6549\absh252\f5\fs22 Rattle toy and assist baby to turn from back to side to touch the noisy toy.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy6940\absw9306\absh505\f5\fs22 Dad or Mom assist baby to turn from back to left side and back to right side while in the crib, on the bed, or on the floor.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy7660\absw9381\absh505\f5\fs22 Mom or Dad assist baby to turn from stomach to right side or stomach to left side while in the crib, on the bed, or on the floor.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy8380\absw7212\absh264\f5\fs23 Mom or Dad assist baby to turn from stomach to back, from back to stomach.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy8812\absw5949\absh252\f5\fs22 Mom or Dad assist baby to turn from back to front using a blanket.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy9244\absw8200\absh252\f5\fs22 Say the baby\rquote s name as you touch him/her, talk to the baby, tell him/her what you are doing.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy9676\absw9513\absh505\f5\fs22 Lie the baby on his/her back and gently massage baby lotion on the baby\rquote s arms. (Talk to baby and tell him or her \ldblquote This is your arm.\rdblquote )\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy10396\absw7587\absh252\f5\fs22 Gently bring the baby\rquote s hands together and massage baby lotion on those little hands.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy10828\absw9598\absh505\f5\fs22 Lie baby on his/her back and gently massage baby lotion on his /her legs. (Talk to the baby and say, \ldblquote This is your right leg.\rdblquote )\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy11548\absw9448\absh505\f5\fs22 Lie baby on his/her back and gently massage baby lotion on the baby\rquote s tummy. (Talk to baby and tell him/ her \ldblquote This is your tummy.\rdblquote )\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy12268\absw8640\absh252\f5\fs22 Perform body massage while offering consistent body part labeling, rhythm (sing!) and language.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy12700\absw9350\absh505\f5\fs22 Lie baby on his/her stomach on top of Dad\rquote s stomach, baby should be facing Dad\rquote s chest/neck area (Dad, talk to the baby).\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy13420\absw9679\absh252\f5\fs22 Lie the baby on his/her stomach on your knees and rock calmly and slowly while talking or singing a lullaby.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy13852\absw9588\absh505\f5\fs22 Lie baby on his stomach, in your lap and gently rock him/her while singing, stop rocking when you pause in your singing.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy14572\absw1672\absh264\f5\fs23 Enjoy your baby!\par}

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{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy748\absw6944\absh264\f5\fs23 Carry baby in front baby pack, let body awareness and bonding take place.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy1180\absw7787\absh252\f5\fs22 Lie baby on his/her stomach on favorite blanket and give the baby a ride across the bed.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy1612\absw9418\absh505\f5\fs22 Lie baby on his/her stomach on a favorite blanket and give the baby a ride across the carpet or the wooden floor or the grassy backyard.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy2332\absw6652\absh252\f5\fs22 Mom or Dad help baby to turn in the crib or the bed from stomach to back.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy2764\absw9418\absh758\f5\fs22 Dad and Mom assist the baby to turn to noisemaking toy that you are holding. Gently guide baby\rquote s hand toward the sound of the toy. Assist the baby with grasping a toy. Allow him/her plenty of time to explore the toy. Vary toys, but at first explore one or two toys which the baby prefers.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy3772\absw8985\absh505\f5\fs22 Gently guide baby\rquote s hand toward the crib slats. Then guide the hand to grasp and shake (attach noise makers to the top of the slats).\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy4492\absw5728\absh252\f5\fs22 Assist baby to reach for a noisy mobile suspended from the crib.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy4924\absw9117\absh505\f5\fs22 Combat crawl (with stomach contact) in the crib, on the carpet, on the linoleum floor. Combat crawl in cross pattern (with stomach contact) on the wooden floor.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy5644\absw9040\absh252\f5\fs22 Straddle baby and assist him/her to creep across the surface moving arms, then moving arms and legs.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy6076\absw7651\absh252\f5\fs22 Straddle baby to assist him/her to creep across surface at least 5 feet in a cross pattern.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy6508\absw5578\absh252\f5\fs22 Assist baby to maintain sitting position for at least one minute.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy6940\absw9431\absh252\f5\fs22 Have the baby sit with the sofa as a support. Place a small beach ball (with rice inside) in your baby\rquote s lap.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy7372\absw4671\absh252\f5\fs22 Sit baby in the infant seat and explore a favorite toy.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy7804\absw9079\absh505\f5\fs22 Sit baby in the infant seat placed on the grocery cart, while Mom brings items to touch, smell, and feel before she places them in the cart.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy8524\absw4098\absh252\f5\fs22 Sit in a warm sandbox with pillow as support.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy8956\absw5437\absh252\f5\fs22 Sit in warm sudsy water in the bathtub with Mom as support.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy9388\absw5301\absh252\f5\fs22 Sit the baby in his/her high chair and explore a favorite toy.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy9820\absw7862\absh252\f5\fs22 Mom or Dad sit behind baby and with your hands move baby\rquote s hands to play patty cake.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy10252\absw5564\absh252\f5\fs22 Place baby on his/her tummy, assist baby to push up on hands.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy10684\absw5356\absh252\f5\fs22 Roll a beach ball from Mom to baby, from Dad to baby, etc.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy11116\absw5892\absh252\f5\fs22 Guide baby by the forearm (rather than a hand) to reach noisy toy.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy11548\absw5254\absh252\f5\fs22 Assist baby to pull self to standing positions using support.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy11980\absw5657\absh252\f5\fs22 Assist baby to stand and maintain his/her position with support.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy12412\absw5730\absh264\f5\fs23 Dad, stand baby on your lap, support baby at trunk and waist.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy12844\absw5083\absh252\f5\fs22 Allow baby to assume standing position without support.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy13276\absw6722\absh252\f5\fs22 Assist baby in grasping a toy by lightly guiding the arm from the shoulders.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy13708\absw5172\absh252\f5\fs22 Mom and Dad support baby to make walking movements.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy14140\absw5313\absh252\f5\fs22 Let the baby walk with the support of the sofa, table or bed.\par}

{\phpg\posx1800\pvpg\posy14572\absw3999\absh252\f5\fs22 Walk the baby without support from objects.\par}

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{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpfhdr0\shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt1\shpz1\shpleft11859\shptop4340\shpright11859\shpbottom7899{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 20}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25907}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}}}

{\shp{\*\shpinst\shpfhdr0\shpbxpage\shpbypage\shpwr3\shpfblwtxt1\shpz1\shpleft11360\shptop7899\shpright11859\shpbottom7899{\sp{\sn shapeType}{\sv 20}}{\sp{\sn fFlipH}{\sv 1}}{\sp{\sn lineWidth}{\sv 25907}}{\sp{\sn lineColor}{\sv 0}}{\sp{\sn lineDashing}{\sv 0}}}}

{\phpg\posx5820\pvpg\posy14946\absw300\absh275\f5\fs24 21\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy748\absw8112\absh252\f5\fs22 Walk without support of objects with his/her arms outstretched with a wide base at the feet.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy1180\absw7392\absh252\f5\fs22 Walk with weight evenly distributed, toes pointed in the direction he/she is headed.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy1612\absw5320\absh252\f5\fs22 Walk from Mom to Dad with arms swinging at his/her side.\par}

{\phpg\posx1440\pvpg\posy2044\absw9420\absh241\f5\fs21 Mom and Dad give baby the opportunity to walk on even and uneven surfaces . . . sloping hills, driveways, etc.\par}



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