Final Exam Review Guide

Unit 6: European Exploration

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Unit 6: European Exploration

  1. Which of the following was a major result of the Age of Exploration?

A) A long period of peace and prosperity for the nations of Western Europe

B) Extensive migration of people from the Western Hemisphere to Europe and Asia

C) The fall of European national monarchies and the end of the power of the Catholic Church

D) The end of regional isolation and the beginning of a period of European global domination

  1. Which of these events during the Age of Exploration was a cause of the other three?

A) Europeans brought food, animals, and ideas from one continent to another

B) European diseases had an adverse effect on the native populations of new territories

C) Warfare increased as European nations competed for land and power

D) Advances in learning and technology made long ocean voyages possible

  1. What was the Columbian Exchange? How did it impact people in Europe and the New World?

  1. The Crusades indirectly contributed to the discovery of the New World by

a. Forcing the religious conversion of the Muslim population

b. Forcing the Turks to flee from Constantinople

c. Stimulating Europeans demand for goods from the East

d. Increasing the power of the feudal lords

What is the best title for this map?

A) Gold and Petroleum Trade Routes B) Sources and Destinations of Enslaved Africans

C) Obstacles to Colonization of the Western Hemisphere D) Origin and Spread of Nationalist Revolutions
What was the Middle Passage? What is the significance to the Triangular Trade system during the Age of Exploration?
Unit 7: Absolutism, The Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment
1. Who is the main person in this cartoon? What is the cartoon describing?

2. “. . .The person of the King is sacred, and to attack him in any way is an attack on religion itself. Kings represent the divine majesty and have been appointed by Him to carry out His purposes. Serving God and respecting kings are bound together.”

—Bishop Jacques Bossuet

This statement describes the philosophy that existed during what time period?

What concept is being described in this passage?

3. The political liberty of the subject is a tranquility of mind, arising from the opinion each person has of his safety. In order to have this liberty, it is requisite the government be so constituted as one man need not be afraid of` another.

When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner.

Again, there is no liberty, if the power of judging be not separated from the legislative and executive powers. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control, for the judge would then be the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with all the violence of an oppressor.

The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu

What enlightenment idea is Montesquieu pushing for?

What does he say are the benefits of this?

4. How did the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Beccaria influence the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution? Include their beliefs on natural rights, the purpose of government, and the rights of citizen.

5. What is the name of each the universal theories below?



Who is the gentleman most responsible for proving the theory in #2?



Unit 8: Revolutions

  1. Which issue was a cause of the French Revolution?

(a) ineffective rule of Napoleon Bonaparte (b) nationalization of the Church

(c) outrage over the use of the guillotine by the Committee of Public Safety

(d) demand of the Third Estate for more political power
"The pretended power of suspending [ending] of laws. ... by [the king's] authority without consent of Parliament is illegal. ... It is the right of the subjects to petition the king. ... The levying of money for ... the use of the crown ... without grant of Parliament ... is illegal. The raising and keeping of a standing army within the kingdom in time of peace unless it be with the consent of Parliament is against the law. The speech and debates ... in Parliament ought not to be ... questioned in any court or place out of Parliament. ... Excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishments inflicted."

Bill of Rights, England (1689)

"Men are born free and remain equal in rights. ... Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally or through his representative in its [the law's] formation. ... All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law ... no person shall be accused, arrested, or imprisoned except in the cases and according to the forms prescribed by law. No one shall be disquieted [attacked] on account of his opinions, including his religious views. ... Every citizen may speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law."

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, France (1789)

"Congress shall make no law respecting [having to do with] an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging [taking away] the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government. ...

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner. ...

... Nor shall [any person] be compelled ... to be a witness against himself ...

... the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury ...; to be confronted with witnesses against him. ...Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

Bill of Rights, United States (1791)

  1. How do the above documents illustrate cultural diffusion?

Unit 9: The Industrial Revolution

  1. Based on these maps, state one change that occurred in Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution and be sure to explain why.

  1. Which of the following did not increase as an early result of the Industrial Revolution?

    1. Urbanization c. The size of the middle class

    2. the length of the average work day d. The life expectancy

  1. Based on these pictures above, state two changes in how cloth was produced.

  1. Which is necessary for industrialization to occur?

    1. A dependence on subsistence agriculture c. The availability of investment capital

    2. The capture of foreign lands d. A strong monarchy

  1. “Minds, like bodies, will often fall into a pimpled, ill-conditioned state from mere excess of comfort.” “Day was shining radiantly upon the town then, and the high chimneys had the sky to themselves. Puffing out their poisonous volumes, they would not be long in hiding it; but, for half an hour, some of the many windows were golden.” These quotations were written by which English author who described living conditions in England during the Industrial Revolution:

    1. Beethoven c. Van Gogh

    2. Mann d. Dickens

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