Final Exam Review Guide


Unit 5: The Renaissance and Reformation



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Unit 5: The Renaissance and Reformation


  1. This excerpt is from The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, (1878) by Jacob Burchhardt.

In the Middle Ages, both sides of human consciousness lay dreaming or half awake beneath a common veil. The veil was woven of faith, illusion, and childish prepossession….man was conscious of himself only as member of a race, people, party, family, or corporation-only through some general category. In Italy this veil first melted into air…; man became a spiritual individual, and recognized himself as such. In the same way the Greek had once distinguished himself from barbarian….

When this impulse to the highest individual development was combined with a powerful and varied nature …then arose the “all-sided man”…in Italy at the time of the renaissance we find artist who in every branch created new and perfect works, and who also made the greatest impression as men. According to historian Jacob Burchhardt, was there a difference or similarity between the people of the Middle Ages and people of the Renaissance? What were the differences or similarities? What do you think the author means by “who also made the greatest impression as men”?



  1. Which economic system is most closely associated with the activities shown in this art work?

A) manorialism B) capitalism C) communism D) socialism




  1. How did Johann Gutenberg’s invention, the printing press, affect Europe in the late 1400s and 1500s?

  1. Books quickly became collectors’ items and sold for very large sums of money.

  2. More people learned to read, and they gained access to a broad range of knowledge.

  3. The printing press provided hundreds of jobs for Chinese pressmen.

  4. Outraged rulers banned the use of the press, fearing it would be used for producing propaganda




  1. All of the following were causes of the Reformation EXCEPT

  1. 100 Years War and Black Death.

  2. Scientific advances which contradicted with the Church teachings.

  3. The desire to spread Islam to Western Europe

  4. The corruption within the Catholic Church.




  1. Which of the following contributed to the birth of the Renaissance in Italy?

  1. A new translation of the Bible

  2. A wealthy and powerful merchant class

  3. The development of oil painting

  4. The rise of Protestantism



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