1. The authors identify three forces that combine to mandate the use of teams to solve problems. Identify the force that the authors did not name.
a) The growing demand for a broad range of complex, sophisticated, customized goods and services
b) The exponential expansion of human knowledge
c) The interaction of supply and demand
d) The evolution of worldwide competitive markets for the production and consumption of goods and services
Response: see p. 1
2. Identify the example that would not usually be considered a project.
a) Building a house
b) Developing a computer software application program
c) Designing a new product
d) Manufacturing automobiles
Response: While it is true that automobiles have an element of customization, process management techniques are used to mass-produce the vehicles. Refer to the section titled “Three Project Objectives.”
26. The shape of cumulative progress in a conventional project lifecycle is best described using a graph called the ________.
Ans: S-curve or relative cumulative frequency distribution
Response: Refer to section 1.3.
27. The ________ project is generally credited with beginning the era of modern project management.
Response: Refer to the section titled “Recent Changes in Managing Organizations.”
28. An important implication of the project lifecycle concept is that a project will resist __________ of its existence.
Response: Refer to section 1.3.
29. Conflicting expectations among stakeholders related to performance, cost, and time will require the project manager to make appropriate ____________ in order to balance competing demands related to these objectives.
Response: Refer to the section titled “Conflict.”
30. Discuss the factors that have contributed to the growth of the Project Management Institute.
Ans: The complexity of problems faced by the project manager and the rapid growth in the number project-oriented organizations has contributed to the professionalization of project management. The growth in membership reflects the growth in the use of projects as well as the importance of PMI in the development of project management as a profession. The mission of PMI is to foster the growth of project management and to build professionalism in the field. PMI is responsible for codifying the areas of learning required for competent project management. In this capacity, PMI maintains the PMBOK Guidelines, which serve as the ANSI standard in North America for project management. The PMI maintains certification standards such as the designation for PMP, which is the acronym for Project Management Professional.
Response: Refer to the section titled” The Project Manager.”
31. Explain why it is important for the project team to understand the purpose of a project.
Ans: Given the complexity of modern projects and the need for an interdisciplinary approach to problem solving, the uncertainties of executing projects make it impractical to give specific instructions regarding every aspect of project execution. Therefore, team members will need to fill gaps in information by making decisions that support project objectives. If team members understand the purpose of the project, there is an increased probability that those decisions will support project success.
Response: This question requires the student to build a concept from the information presented in chapter 1.
32. Explain the conflict that often exists between the client and the parent organization.
Ans: As the project is executed, clients will often request that changes be made in the project’s outputs. On the other hand, the parent organization is seeking to make a profit by performing the work required to produce those outputs. If the changes are made, the level of profitability may be reduced. This creates a natural antagonism between the client and the parent organization.
Response: Refer to the section titled ”Conflict.”
33. Name four benefits of project management.
Ans: The project form of organization allows the project manager to be responsive to (1) the client and the environment, (2) identify and correct problems at an early date (3) make timely decisions about trade-offs between conflicting project goals, and (4) ensure that managers of the separate tasks that comprise the project do not optimize the performance of their individual tasks at the expense of the total project.