Figure 1 Philosophy and Professionalism



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Figure 6.1 Philosophy and Professionalism

  • ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • All Rights Reserved

Table 6.1 The Traditional Schools of Philosophy

  • Instruction emphasizes discussion designed to increase individual self-awareness.
  • Curricula and instruction focus on problem solving and the scientific method.
  • Curricula focus on content that emphasizes natural laws.
  • Curricula focus on content that emphasizes time-honored ideas.
  • Values are chosen by the individual.
  • Values are relative.
  • Values are absolute based on natural law.
  • Values are absolute based on enduring ideas.
  • Axiology
  • Knowing is making personal choice.
  • Knowing is the result of experience based on the scientific method.
  • Knowing is observing and understanding natural laws.
  • Knowing is the personal rethinking of universal ideas.
  • Epistemology
  • Reality is the subjective interpretation of the physical world.
  • Reality is the interaction of the individual and the environment.
  • Reality is the physical world.
  • Reality is the world of unchanging ideas.
  • Metaphysics
  • Existentialism
  • Pragmatism
  • Realism
  • Idealism
  • ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • All Rights Reserved
  • Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2nd Edition
  • Kauchak and Eggen

Table 6.2 Classroom Applications of the Educational Philosophies

  • Critically examine today’s institutions; elevate the status of marginalized people (women and cultural minorities).
  • Acquire ability to function in the real world; develop problem-solving skills.
  • Acquire basic skills; acquire knowledge needed to function in today’s world.
  • Train the intellect; moral development.
  • Educational Goals
  • Collaborative between teacher and student; emphasis on the exposure of hidden assumptions.
  • Continuous feedback; informal monitoring of student progress.
  • Frequent objective, essay, and performance tests.
  • Frequent objective and essay tests.
  • Assessment
  • Community-oriented; self-regulated.
  • Collaborative; self-regulated; democratic.
  • High structure; high levels of time on task.
  • High structure; high levels of time on task.
  • Learning Environment
  • Discussion; role play; simulation; personal research.
  • Problem-based learning, cooperative learning; guided discovery.
  • Lecture; practice and feedback; questioning.
  • Lecture; questioning; coaching in intellectual thinking.
  • Teaching Methods
  • Facilitate discussions that involve clarifying issues.
  • Guide learning with questioning; develop and guide practical problem-solving activities.
  • Deliver clear lectures; increase student understanding with critical questions.
  • Deliver clear lectures; increase student understanding with critical questions.
  • Role of the Teacher
  • Emphasis on the works of marginalized people.
  • Emphasis on problem solving and skills needed in today’s world.
  • Emphasis on basic skills.
  • Emphasis on enduring ideas.
  • Curriculum
  • Existentialism
  • Pragmatism
  • Idealism, Realism
  • Idealism, Realism
  • Traditional Philosophy Most Closely Related
  • Postmodernism
  • Progressivism
  • Essentialism
  • Perennialism
  • ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • All Rights Reserved
  • Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2nd Edition
  • Kauchak and Eggen

Table 6.3 An Analysis of Allie’s Philosophy of Education

  • “We’re going to have class discussions, do homework, go over it, have quizzes, and go over them.”
  • “There’s real, practical stuff out there that they need to know, and there’s only one way they’re gonna learn it ... That’s practice and experience.”
  • “The more they learn about the topics, the better they like what they study. Relevance isn’t as critical to the kids’ motivation as understanding and success are.”
  • “The more they know about a topic, the better they like it.”
  • “If the kids understand the stuff, they’ll like it, and the better they’ll feel about themselves.”
  • “I want them to know why, how they know, and what would happen when conditions change.”
  • “Some of them might be in it mostly for grades to start with.”
  • “They’re not intrinsically motivated.”
  • “Kids basically want to learn.”
  • “They want to believe they did learn something when they’re finished with a topic, or class . . .”
  • “They may not be too crazy about it initially . . .”
  • “They [kids] don’t come to school with the same . . . desire to learn as they once did.”
  • Component of Her Philosophy
  • Belief Statement
  • ©2005 by Pearson Education, Inc.
  • All Rights Reserved
  • Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional, 2nd Edition
  • Kauchak and Eggen


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