By Changing the Verb Form (from Active to Passive)
By Changing the Word Class (e.g. from verb to noun phrase)
By Synthesis (to combine two/more pieces of information from other writers)
She examined the difficulties that … . becomes
She investigated the problems that … .
Johns (1987:115) analyzed the students’ difficulties and … . becomes
The students’ difficulties were analyzed by Johns (1987:115) and … .
The reports were completed in May … . becomes
The completion of the reports in May ensured that the students had time to revise before their examination
Johns and Dudley (1985:75) touched on the problems created by the lecturers’ use of colloquial words and phrases … This use of informal language was also noted by Jackson and Bilton (2006:115) who investigated geology lectures given in English …
REPORTING VERBS COMMONLY USED IN PARAPHRASES & SUMMARIES
Therefore/thus/on this basis/given this, it can/may be concluded/deduced/infered that …
Menurut Verhaar, sintaksis adalah tata bahasa yang membahas hubungan antar-kata dalam tuturan1. E. Sapir dalam R. Lado menyatakan bahwa tata bahasa sering kali diartikan sebagai definisi-definisi tradisional yang diberikan kepada bagian-bagian kalimat/tuturan (part of speech) yang tidak menunjukkan fakta2.
Hartmann dan Stork mengemukakan sintaksis adalah cabang tata bahasa mengenai studi perhimpunan kata-kata dalam kalimat-kalimat dan alat hubungan seperti tertib kata atau infleksi3. Mario Pei dan F. Gaynor menambahkan bahwa sistaksis adalah studi dan aturan-aturan dari hubungan kata-kata satu sama lainnya sebagai pernyataan gagasan dan sebagai bagian-bagain dari struktur-struktur kalimat; studi dan ilmu bangunan4.
Dari pernyataan yang dikemukakan di atas dapat dirumuskan bahwa sintaksis adalah studi perhimpunan dan hubungan antar kata, frasa, dan klausa dalam bentuk kalimat atau tuturan.
When you include quotations, they should be acknowledged with correct reference conventions and listed at the end of your writing
BASIC WAYS OF USING QUOTATIONS
Quotation Marks (inverted commas)
They are put around the author’s actual words, which are then incorporated in the text.
The indented Quotation
It starts further from the margin than the other lines, and it may be in a different type size or style; the quotations marks are usually omitted. This is normally used for longer quotations (three or more lines)
Academic writers need to be cautious in their claims. In this respect, vague language is important as “it allows claims to be made with due caution, modesty, and humility” (Hyland, 1994:241)
Jordan (1977: 240) also draws attention to the necessity for being careful:
A feature of academic writing is the need to be cautious in one’s claims and statements. In other words, you may indicate your certainty and commitment in varying degrees.
At the end of an essay, arranged in alphabetical order (A-Z) of the author’s surname or the name of organization.
If more than one author has the same surname, they should appear in alphabetical order of the initial of the first name.
If more than one reference is given by the same author, the earlier dated reference will appear first.
If two or more references by the same author appear in the same year, they will be labeled in sequence with letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year