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Study Guide – Final Exams, June 2015

English 1201 and 2201

Exam Worth: 25% of final mark

Exam Time:

English 1201 – Monday, June 15th, 12:00pm

English 2201 – Monday, June 15th, 8:30am
NOTE: For entry into the exam room, all novels must be returned before the start of the exam. Students cannot leave until one hour into the exam; students cannot enter after one hour of the exam time as passed.
Exam Format:



Unseen Prose

8 multiple choice (1 mark each)

2 constructed response (6 marks each)


Visual (media)

4 multiple choice (1 mark each)

1 constructed response (6 marks)


Analytical Essay

Based on Unseen Prose



4 multiple choice (1 mark each)

1 constructed response (6 marks)

NOTE: Listening will be given outside of the exam schedule.

1201 (Grade Ten) – Thursday, June 11th at 9am

2201 (Grade Eleven) – Thursday, June 11th at 10am


Exam Total

60 marks

How to Write an Exam in English – Some Points to Consider

  1. If there is some concept that you are having difficulty with (i.e. what are the five methods of creating coherence), make it the last thing you read before you enter the exam room. Repeat them to yourself as if they were a telephone number you had to remember when you had no pen. Write down the troubling information the minute you see a piece of paper; this is not cheating – it’s just common sense.

  2. You will have a selection of unseen prose (short story or essay) . You must quote directly from these extensively or you will lose marks. These give your writing more authority, and will force the markers to sit up and take notice of you.

  3. Put your hand up and ask questions – any questions. If you’re lucky, you might get the hint you need. The worst they can say is “no.” Never leave any space blank – write something down. You may get a mark for it.

  4. When you receive the exam paper, immediately read it all through so that you don’t get surprised at the 2-hour mark with something you don’t understand. Read all instructions carefully – don’t give them three paragraphs if they want only one, etc.

  5. Essays – I know I am repeating myself, but: a) do an outline first – remind yourself of what you want to say and what the elements of a good essay are; b) don’t forget your structure – structured vagueness is often worth more than messy detail. c) But be as detailed as you can. d) think about getting your essays done first, the unseen after.

For the Listening Section: Students will be given the questions at the beginning of the session.  They will have two minutes to read over the questions.  They will then hear the text for the first time.  Following the first listening, students will be given two minutes to make notes and/or respond to any questions they choose.  The text will then be heard for a second time.  Following the second listening, students will complete the assigned questions.  The total time (from start to finish) allowed for this assessment will be 40 minutes.

How to write constructed response answers

When writing a constructed response, remember to include the following:


Define what is being asked (eg, conflict)






Explain the Answer



  • When asked for references, ensure you give examples, rather than retelling the story. Always connect them back to the question.

  • Ensure you know what is being asked and address the full question. If it asks how one term helps develop a second term (eg, how does conflict help develop the theme) ensure you answer both parts (conflict and theme) and relate them.

  • Restate the question in your answer when possible.

  • A lot of students struggle with English because a lot of the time, the answers are open to your own interpretation and perspective. THERE ARE WRONG ANSWERS IN ENGLISH! However, you must always YOU NEED TO BACK UP WHAT YOU SAY!!

  • If you can't find at least TWO pieces of evidence in a visual, story, poem – whatever, to support your ideas, then you should probably think your answer through a little further!

For example:

  1. What is the major internal struggle experienced by the speaker? Support your response with two references from the text. (6 marks)

Internal conflict is a psychological battle for a dramatic or literary character in a literary work. In ‘Versabraille’ by Bill Schermbrucker, the speaker experiences a major internal struggle. He has realized that he is disconnected from the story of his family, a disconnect he hopes to change. One instance of this in the work is in paragraph eight where he says to his Uncle Jim that his “father doesn’t seem to have been ambitious”. When the narrator is told of the unselfishness of his grandfather and his choice of family over personal ambition, he realizes he did not know much about his grandfather as a person. Another occurrence in this work is when the Uncle Jim hangs up after talking to the narrator in paragraph 33. The narrator realizes that he still does not have answers to all of his questions and he may not have a chance to learn them all, given the age of his uncle and how hard it is to connect with him.

If this was a question on the exam, it would have been marked as follows:

1 mark for definition, 1 mark for answer, 1 mark reference one, 1 mark reference one explanation, 1 mark reference two, 1 mark reference two explanation.

Analytical Essay Planning
When planning an essay remember the following:

Five paragraph format:



Paragraph One

Introduction. Includes a definion, title and author, restating of question, thesis statement (showing the order of your points)

Paragraph Two

Body Paragraph One. Includes a topic sentence that links back to your thesis statement. Terms as necessary will be defined. Gives references to support your answer and explains them and their relation to the question fully.

Paragraph Three

Body Paragraph Two. Includes a topic sentence that links back to your thesis statement. Terms as necessary will be defined. Gives references to support your answer and explains them and their relation to the question fully.

Paragraph Four

Body Paragraph Three. Includes a topic sentence that links back to your thesis statement. Terms as necessary will be defined. Gives references to support your answer and explains them and their relation to the question fully.

Paragraph Five

Conclusion. Restates your thesis. Summarizes all points made in the essay.

  • Ensure you fully explain all references. Give paragraph numbers to aid your reader

  • Do not retell the story.

  • Ensure you answer all parts of the question throughout your essay.

  • Planning in advance will help you write a strong piece of work

  • This is not an opinion piece – ‘I’ should not be used (eg, ‘I think...’, ‘In this essay I will talk about’, etc)


What is Bill Schrombucker’s message in Versabraille? Explain how this is communicated through –flashback






Define Message: Overall idea a writer wants to convey with a piece of writing.

Message: It is never too late to make connections

Thesis Statement: This message is conveyed to the reader through the use of flashback, tone and foreshadowing


Define Flashback. Talk about story jim tells – makes the narrator realize he needs to make connections.


Define Tone. Talk about wistfulness and how he regrets not reaching out sooner


Define Foreshadowing. Talk about how Jim was able to read longer and now is the one with the stories. Talk about occurrences of the versabraille


Restate thesis: Through the use of flashback, tone and foreshadowing, Schrombucker is able to leave the reader with an overall feeling that it is never too late to make connections.

From this plan, you can develop your essay to cover all points – relating each of the paragraphs back to the message and ensuring you have touched on all points.

Analytical Essay
Possible terms applicable to Analytical Essay prompts. These may be used individually or in conjunction with one another.

  1. Allegory

  2. Author’s purpose

  3. Characterization

  4. Conflict

  5. Diction

  6. Emphasis (listing, font, punctuation, repetition, parallel structure,

  7. sentence fragment, varying sentence length)

  8. Epiphany, realization

  9. Figurative language (extended metaphor, metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, etc.)

  10. Flashback

  11. Foreshadowing

  12. Genre

  13. Imagery

  14. Irony

  15. Juxtaposition

  16. Language style (jargon, colloquialism, dialect, euphemism, informal, formal, slang)

  17. Methods of development

  18. Mood

  19. Motif

  20. Paradox

  21. Point of view

  22. Relationships, consequences, decisions

  23. Satire

  24. Stereotypes, bias

  25. Subplot

  26. Suspense

  27. Symbol

  28. Theme

  29. Tone

  30. Unity, coherence, transition, closing by return, repetition, topic sentence, thesis statement

  31. Voice

Analytical Essay Scoring Rubric

Analytical Scoring Guide for Essays





  • content displays an outstanding knowledge of subject matter

  • content effectively responds to a given prompt

  • choice of content is consistently clear, specific and serves to answer the question

  • selections are consistently supported with specific and effective references


  • introduction and conclusion are compelling reinforcing unity

  • structure (nearly flawless with ideas that are logically sequenced and developed)

  • mechanics (strong)


  • content displays a strong knowledge of subject matter

  • content usually responds to a given


  • choice of content is usually clear, specific and serves to answer the question

  • selections are strongly supported with references that relate to the task


  • introduction and conclusion are strong, clear and unified

  • structure (strong with ideas that are logically sequenced and developed despite some evidence of disunity

  • mechanics (good)


  • content displays a satisfactory knowledge of subject matter

  • content sometimes responds to a given prompt

  • choice of content is sometimes clear, specific and serves to answer the question

  • selections are sometimes supported

with references


  • introduction and conclusion are general and contribute to unity

  • structure (general with ideas that are sometimes coherent and unified)

  • mechanics (satisfactory)


  • content displays a limited knowledge of subject matter

  • content rarely responds to a given prompt

  • choice of content is rarely clear, specific and serves to answer the question

  • selections are rarely supported with references


  • introduction has little direction

  • conclusion, although present, is limited and does little to tie the piece together

  • structure (limited;unity and coherence falter)

  • mechanics (errors are frequent and are beginning to affect readability)


  • content displays an unclear knowledge of subject matter

  • content does not respond to a given prompt

  • choice of content is unclear and does not serve to answer the question

  • selections are never supported with references


  • introduction is unclear

  • conclusion is unconnected or does not exist

  • structure (there is no unity and coherence)

  • mechanics (errors are making readability impossible)


Out of 15

Out of 5

Total out of 20

ATMOSPHERE – the prevailing mood of a literary work, particularly when that mood is established in part by setting (i.e., opening of “The Highwayman”).
CLIMAX – the highest point of emotional interest, after which the only thing left to do is tie up loose ends
CHARACTERIZATION – the way in which an author reveals an aspect or aspects of a character’s personality.
Direct Characterization

The author comes right out and tells the reader what a character is like.

Indirect Characterization

The author provides clues about the character through:

  1. what the character says;

  2. what the character does;

  3. the character’s name;

  4. the character’s appearance/surroundings;

  5. what other people say about the character;

  6. how other people act toward the character;

  7. how animals react to the charge.

What about FLAT and ROUND characters? The first is undeveloped, showing only one trait usually, while the second is realistic, with numerous traits.

CONFLICT – the struggle that grows out of the interplay of two opposing forces in a plot. It provides interest, suspense, tension. The protagonist (usually) may be involved in one of those conflicts:

INTERNAL – struggle within




PLOT - the imitation of an action; the arrangement of the incidents; the action imitated should be a whole – having a beginning, a middle and an ending. A plot should have UNITY: imitate one action and that a whole, the structural union of the parts being such that, if any one of them is displaced or removed, the whole will be disjointed. This unit should leave the reader with an impression.
Characters + Actions = Theme

(Conflict will be present)

POINT OF VIEW – the vantage point from which the author presents the action of the story.


  1. Third person omniscient – the author is not restricted to time, place or character and free to move and to comment at will (thoughts);

  2. First person major – the main character tells the story (I);

  3. First person minor – minor character tells story (I);

  4. Third person limited – someone outside the story is telling it, but does not know the characters’ thoughts.

Other definitions sometimes used when discussing point of view:

Naïve narrator – if the character does not comprehend the implications of what he or she is telling.
Panoramic – when actions and conversations are presented in summary rather than in detail.
On the other hand, the author may present actions/conversations in detail without authorial comment – called scenic method.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


The physical, and sometimes spiritual, background against which the action of a narrative takes place.


  1. geographical location;

  2. the occupations and daily living of the characters;

  3. the time or period in which the action takes place;

  4. the general environment of the characters, for example, religious, mental, moral, social and emotional conditions through which the people in the narrative move.


SHORT STORY – a relatively brief fictional narrative in prose. It may range in length from 500 words up to 15,000 words. It has a definite construction plot. It finds unit in PLOT, THEME, CHARACTER, TONE, MOOD and, on occasion, STYLE. It tends to reveal character through ACTION (a series of events or ordeals), the purpose of the story being accomplished when the reader comes to know the true nature of a CHARACTER (or sometimes a SITUATION).



conflict foreshadowing

setting &

characters resolution


SYMBOLISM – when the author uses something concrete (a person, place or thing) to represent something abstract (an idea, a feeling for example); symbolism is often used to reveal theme. FLAG = PATRIOTISM
THEME – a central or dominating idea of a work.

In non-fiction prose, it will be called the thesis.

In fiction, it is the abstract concept that is made concrete through character, action, etc…

Both theme and thesis imply a subject and a predicate

Other useful terminology:


Allegory – a narrative in which abstract ideas are personified; a description to convey a different meaning from that which is expressed; a continued metaphor; in allegory, the characters in a narrative have other meanings that lie outside the narrative: the Lord of the Flies island is also our world that we are barbarically destroying and Roger is the worst of our race, standing for the cruelty inside mankind
Allusion – a passing or indirect reference; in literature, an author will often make an allusion to a famous book such as the Bible, or a famous work of art
Archetype – the original pattern or model from which a thing is made or copied; prototype i.e. Dracula is the archetype from which Buffy and the Sesame Street Count gained their existence.
Autobiographical – written about oneself
Biography – the detailed story of a person’s life and achievements
Caricature – a ludicrous exaggeration (sometimes in picture form) of peculiar personal characteristics; to exaggerate or distort, in words or pictorial form
Complication – something that tangles the plot
Dialect – way of speaking common to a particular area or group, i.e. people in Massachusetts.
Dialogue – conversation.
Epiphany - a sudden insight, a new way of looking at something, thought by some to be a manifestation of god
Exposition – the beginning of the plot triangle, where setting, characters, and problem are introduced
Fiction –literature dealing with imaginary characters and situations
Flashback – the presentation of scenes or incidents that occurred prior to the opening scene of the work.

Foreshadowing – hints or clues about what will happen later.

*Foreshadowing can result from:

  1. the establishment of an atmosphere;

  2. an event;

  3. the appearance of physical objects;

  4. the revelation of a fundamental character trait.

Genre – a kind, sort or style: All literature can be sorted into different genres.
Irony – the recognition of a reality different from appearance.
Verbal Irony – a figure of speech in which the actual intent of a statement is expressed in words that carry the opposite meaning (lighter than sarcasm). Sarcasm is a taunt or sneer. It is bitterly satirical and cutting.
Dramatic Irony – refers to knowledge held by the audience but hidden from the character(s).
Tragic Irony – a form of dramatic irony in which characters use words that mean one thing to them but have foreboding, different meaning for those whom understand the situation better.
Cosmic Irony – destiny controls one’s fate.

Juxtaposition – the act of placing side by side
Memoir – reminiscences; a short biographical sketch
Metaphor – a direct comparison of two unlike things i.e. the moon was a ghostly galleon.
Motif – an idea running through literary works, such as the damsel in need of rescue (in Cinderella, Snow White, and Sleeping Beauty)
Motivation – what makes the character “tick”
Myth – a legend embodying primitive faith in the supernatural; an invented story; many myths from different cultures have similarities, as these cultures made up answers to questions about the world around them
Narrator – the person telling the story
Nonfiction – a true account of events
Oxymoron – a self-contradictory combination of words.

i.e. Romeo’s speech referring to “loving hate” and “sick health”, “feather of lead”,

“heavy lightness” pretty ugly

emphasizes trial of love bittersweet

Parable – a simple story used to give a lesson in morals (right vs. wrong); the best known are Biblical, including “The Feeding of the 5,000”, “The Lost Coin”, and “The Prodigal Son”
Parody – an imitation of a poem, song, whatever, where the style is the same but the theme is ludicrously different; a feeble imitation (i.e. “The Pints of Snails”)
Persona – in literature, the character who “speaks to” the reader or imagined audience; also called the speaker in a poem (a persona may be completely different than the actual author); a friend of mine (female) always wrote her poems using a male persona, a fact that one professor commented upon
Personification – giving inanimate objects human characteristics i.e. the leaves danced in the gentle wind.
Propagandathe systematic, purposeful spreading of ideas, both good and bad
Pun – a play on words based on the similarity of sound between two words with different meanings.


“The sun of Rome is set”. Antony re: Brutus
Simile – a comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as” i.e. the water curled like snakes.
Stereotype – a gross misrepresentation of people; to reduce a person to an empty formula, where individuality is lost, i.e. He is a ________ and so he must be ________. (Nflder/stupid)
Subplot – secondary action of a story, reinforcing or contrasting with the main plot (i.e. the Boo Radley story running side by side with the Tom Robinson story in To Kill A Mockingbird; connected subplots enhance our understanding of a story, while unconnected ones provide a temporary break from the main story

The ESSAY is a moderately brief prose discussion of a restricted topic. This topic is otherwise known as the SUBJECT.
Every essay will have a PURPOSE, which is the central concern or reason behind the writing. The THESIS STATEMENT will indicate the main idea behind the essay, revealing its purpose. The thesis statement will usually be found at the beginning or end of paragraph one.
Every individual paragraph will have a main point, revealed by the TOPIC SENTENCE of the paragraph.
An essay will also have an intended AUDIENCE, those people that the writer is intending to speak to specifically. Sometimes an audience may be a very general group.
TONE is a term that refers to the attitudes toward the subject and toward the audience. An essay may have a tone that is: formal, informal, intimate, solemn, somber, playful, serious, ironic, condescending, and so on. Tone may be aided by diction, sentence structure, repetition, imagery, alliteration, assonance, consonance, and so on.
An essay’s PLAN is the ordered arrangement of the ideas in an essay. It is also known as an outline.
A writer’s STYLE is the arrangement of words in a manner best expressing the individuality of the author and the idea and intent in the author’s mind. Style involves the way a writer uses language – how s/he handles words, phrases, sentences, non-sentences, and paragraphs.

 Long or short sentences and paragraphs?

 Personal feeling? Philosophy?

 Wide vocabulary?

 Appealing to the senses?

 Denotation/connotation?

Sometimes an essay may use SATIRE, when a serious subject is treated in a humorous way, exaggerated, ridiculed, so that on the surface it becomes a laughing matter.
Sometimes ANALOGY is used, whereby a relationship, or likeness, or parallelism is used for explaining something: “This course is like a long hike. If you have the right provisions, and you follow the right path, you’ll make great discoveries and enjoy the journey with your companions. But you shouldn’t fall behind.”
Other useful data:
Bias – prejudice
Cliché – a worn out phrase
Closing by return – ending an essay with a reference to the same anecdote or personal experience that was used to open the essay
Colon – (:) this punctuation signals a list or an explanation
Conventions – accepted usage of language, capital letters, punctuation, etc…i.e. A convention of letter writing would be the inside address.
Connotation – ideas and images associated with words that go beyond dictionary meaning, i.e. New Orleans
Denotation – dictionary meaning of a word
Ellipsis – (…) this punctuation indicates that something has been left out; it is often used for implication, i.e. “If I told you once, …”
Figurative meaning is not literal, i.e. crawling the walls (very bored); literal meaning, on the other hand, would involve doing a wall at Walnuts.
Paradox – a statement that seems to be absurd or self-contradictory, but it is really founded on truth (i.e. “More haste, less speed.)
Punctuation – the system of separating the written word (sentences, clauses) by the use of punctuation marks; we will review the uses of each in class (capitalization, colon, dash, exclamation mark, hyphen, italics, period, quotation marks, semicolon)
Rhetorical question – statement in the form of a question to which no answer is expected
Syntax – rules governing sentence construction
Voice – the personality of the speaker or creator that is revealed in a literary work through such elements as style, tone, diction, etc.


Style - the arrangement of words in a manner best expressing the individuality of the author and the intent in the author’s mind; adaptation of one’s language to one’s ideas
Points to consider:

  1. arrangement of ideas

  • sentence variety (short? long? simple? compound? complex?) SEPARATE HANDOUT TO FOLLOW

  • paragraphs (long? short?)

  1. diction (word choice)

  1. standard diction - words found in the dictionary  formal writing style

  2. colloquialism - conversational, informal language  informal writing style

  3. journalese - newspaper writing

  4. slang - language of a particular place or age group

  1. repetition creates emphasis by focusing the reader’s attention on a word, idea or line over and over

Coherence - logical order; showing the relationship between ideas

  1. Transitional Terms - are words or phrases which help to achieve carry-over within sentences, between sentences, and between paragraphs. Many good examples of transitional terms are listed in the table on page 87. (Review the sample sentences in your notes.)

  1. Pronoun Reference - is the use of a pronoun in one sentence or clause to refer to a noun in a preceding sentence or clause.

  1. Repetition of a Key Word or its Synonym - Sometimes repeating a word can lend

  2. coherence to your writing, emphasizing your ideas.

  1. Parallel Structure - Parallel structure requires that all ideas presented in a series or list have the same grammatical form.

  2. Example

  3. Going to school, listening to teachers, and ____________________ are not my idea of a good time.

  4. Organization – spatial, chronological, or logical order

(5) figurative language

  1. imagery - words and phrases which appeal to any of the five senses; a writer uses imagery to make us see what s/he sees, i.e. the sunset was a mixture of varying hues of red, orange, and the most magnificent purple

  2. simile - a comparison of two unlike things, using like or as, i.e. beginning each day with a smile is as easy as falling off a log

  3. metaphor - a comparison of two unlike things, i.e. the cat’s eyes were two green emeralds (...and yes, I am referring to a living creature)

(6) purpose - the reason(s) for writing

(7) tone - the writer’s attitude toward subject and audience
(8) the use of dialogue and/or dialect
Here are some words which may be used to describe a writer’s style. This list is by no means all-inclusive; however, it will give you an idea of how to talk about someone’s style.

-poetic -journalistic -humorous

-straightforward (explicit) -dull -sophisticated

-scientific -vivid -exaggerated

-descriptive -dramatic -subtle (implicit)

Exposition is writing which explains.

The subcategories include:

 Cause and effect - i.e. This happened because… OR A result of this was…

 Classification and division - i.e. Every society can be broken down into these groups…

 Comparison and contrast - i.e. A morning person vs. a night owl

 Example and illustration - i.e. One example of Newfoundland’s uniqueness …

 Definition - i.e. A good student is one who…

 Process Analysis – i.e. How to [make, be, obtain]…

Description is writing which describes a person, place, or object. Its main purpose is to create a dominant impression (main feeling) about that which is being described. Use spatial order and numerous adjectives.

Narration is writing which tells a story, but in a narrative essay the story is a means by which the writer can make a point, rather than a narrative shared more for entertainment purposes. There will be a thesis statement.

Essay Development

  • argumentation / persuasion -- an essay that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer’s point of view; the writer can be either serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion

  • cause and effect -- an author may look at the cause-effect relationship, or may discuss the causes or effects of something. The aim is to explain the causes (reasons) or the effects (results) of an event or situation

  • compare and contrast -- an author discusses the similarities and differences between characters, people, things, et cetera.

  • description – the exercise of representing characters, scenes, ideas or actions to make the writing more vivid and appealing for the reader

  • examples and illustration -- With almost every paragraph, a example is offered as to clarify and inform.

  • exposition -- an essay that is explanatory in nature. It deals with the world of ideas and is logically arranged. The methods of development for essays include compare and contrast, classification and division, example and illustration, process analysis, and definition. (There is usually a combination of methods in any expository essay, but quite often, there is one dominant method.)

  • narration -- writing that tells a story or part of a story; includes characters, setting, conflict, suspense, etc. Narratives are chronologically arranged and must involve some type of conflict.

  • process analysis -- a pattern of essay development in which the author explains how to do something (Example: How to be a successful student.)

Coherence: The logical arrangement and progression of ideas in writing.
Coherence is used to:

  • Provide logical connections between ideas.

  • Keep the plot tied together.

  • Help the reader follow the story or argument.

Methods of developing coherence:

  • Repetition of key ideas - Repeating key words or phrases throughout a piece of writing gives it flow and allows a main point to carry throughout.

  • Pronoun /antecedent references - Replacing nouns with words such as ‘he’, ‘she’, ‘it’, etc. can make explicit reference back to a form mentioned earlier. This is less distracting to a reader, adding to coherence.

  • Parallel structure - Using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This technique is the oldest, most overlooked, but probably the most elegant method of creating coherence. It gives a piece of writing a smooth flow and provides a level of ease and expectation for the reader.

  • Transitional words and phrases – These help develop connections and create flow from one idea to the next (but, however, besides, another, therefore, of course, finally, etc.).

Unity: When a work contains only what is relevant to the subject or topic.
Methods of developing unity:

  • Use of a dominant tone.

  • Use of a consistent point of view.

  • Use a thesis statement to connect the essay.

  • Use of topic sentences – Each paragraph in a piece of writing should have a topic sentence that can be linked back to the overall thesis of the essay.

  • Supporting evidence – all ideas/points put forward in a paragraph should be linked to or in support of the topic sentence.

  • Closing by return – The conclusion of a well-constructed essay often returns back to the main point given in the introduction.

Media forms of public communication (such as newspaper, radio, television, information network, poster, or brochure) that is designed to reach large numbers of people.

Media Literacy – evaluating media texts for comparison, message, intended audience, etc.

Advertisementthe promotion of goods or services for sale through impersonal media, such as radio or television; the physical promotion of a product (commercial or magazine)

Agenda – a list or program of things to be done or considered; could also mean the purpose or motive behind a media text

Blog – a website that contains an online personal journal with reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks provided by the author

Brochure – a booklet of printed informational matter, like a pamphlet, often for promotional purposes

Caption – the words beneath a photograph that explain the subject and give background information; help to shape the meaning of the photo, sometimes in misleading ways

Commercial – a public promotion of a product or service

Deconstruction – breaking a text down into its components to see what messages and assumptions it carries

Demographic – a portion of a population, especially considered as consumers

Endorsement - a message issued on behalf of some product, cause, idea, person, or institution; usually involves companies and their products

Format – style, plan or arrangement

Form – smaller division within a genre (Ex: poetry is a genre; haiku, a type of poetry, is a form of the genre)

Headline the heading, title or caption of a newspaper article; usually very attention-grabbing.

Icon – in media, it can be referred to as an image; in literature, it is known as a description of a person or thing, usually using a figure of speech

Image – an object that usually represents a larger idea

Intent – an aim or purpose

Lead – the introductory section of a news article/story; usually a news story of major importance in a newspaper

Logo an identifying symbol used to advertise and promote an organization, event, product or service. Usually, such symbols combine pictorial and textual elements in a distinctive manner. When consisting solely of stylized textual elements, such symbols are referred to as logotypes or wordmarks.

Mass media when media methods are used to communicate to thousands of people at the same time

Media texts – any communication product, including radio and television, movies, billboards, magazine and television advertisements, books, paintings, photographs, collages, posters, comics, and web pages

Medium – a means of mass communication, such as newpapers, magazines, radio, or television

Motive – the underlying purpose behind a text

Poster – a sign usually consisting of a combination of print and visuals; mainly designed to attract and hold the attention of the audience; may convey a message to make people think

Product – any text

Product placement - placing a product in a scene to subliminally promote that product

Propaganda – attempts to sway popular opinion and beliefs through distortions of the truth or outright lies. It is the way of presenting a belief that seeks to generate acceptance without regard to facts or the right of others to be heard. Propaganda often presents the same argument repeatedly, in the simplest terms and ignores all rebuttal or counter-argument. It is essentially self- interested and often associated with authoritarian regimes. Propaganda is often used to convey official descriptions of reality, when it may be allied with bureaucratic control of media, censorship of opposing opinions and deliberate misinformation.

Dialogue bubbles/Speech balloons – a graphic convention used mostly in comics, cartoons, and graphic novels which contain a character’s spoken words (balloons are shaped with smooth circular lines) as well as their thoughts (words are contained in balloons shaped like clouds); thoughts sometimes appear in boxes in the upper corners of the graphic

Script – the text of a play, broadcast, or movie

Screenplay a script for a film including dialogue and descriptions of characters and sets

Target audience consumer group most likely to buy a specific product and identified by region, age, demographics, or economic status. Effective ads are created and placed in media with the target audience clearly in mind.

Foreground part of a scene, landscape, etc., which is near the viewer (between the observer and up to l/4 or 1/2 mile distant). The surface patterns or objects and visual elements are important in the "foreground" portions of views

Background distance part of a landscape; surroundings, especially those behind something, and providing harmony and contrast; area located from 3-5 miles to infinity from the viewer, characterized by perception of outline shape, landforms, and patterns of light and dark. Skylines or ridgelines against other land surfaces are the strongest visual elements of background.

Angle slant; a biased way of looking at or presenting something

Lighting illumination, can often establish mood or serve a symbolic purpose

Contrast perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of very different colors. Occurs when there is a visual difference between things or qualities being compared; degrees of dynamic imbalance between elements of a composition which draw the eye and demand resolution (dominance) to establish unity and overall balance in the design as a whole.

Logical fallacies errors of reasoning, errors which may be recognized and corrected by prudent thinkers

Colour appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue and lightness (or brightness) and saturation

Message any thought, idea, or information, whether expressed in plain or in secret language, prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication.

Text choice often reflects purpose and target audience (ex: Big, bold if appealing to children and elegant if appealing to young women)

Bias is a mental leaning or inclination; partiality; prejudice; bent. It is sometimes delivered to the audience subconsciously.

Subliminal message – used by advertisers as a way to sell their product; it can be defined as any sensory stimuli below an individual’s threshold of perception (an individual does not know they are subjected to the message or object); a form of advertising on film or television that employs subliminal images to influence the viewer unconsciously

Subtext – the implicit meaning or theme of a literary text; a message which is not stated directly but can be inferred

Web page – a page of information on a website; may include text, graphics, and links to other pages

Whitespace – space on a page or poster not covered by print or graphic matter
Media Strategies
An advertisement is a public announcement in a newspaper, magazine or on the radio, television, or Internet advertising something such as a product for sale or an event.

In order to tackle this portion of your exam, you will need to KNOW the following definitions.

1.Bandwagon - this technique appeals to your desire for conformity; if you don't buy the product, you are not up-to-date or part of the in crowd, so jump on the bandwagon

Example: Every day, thousands are switching to Lay's Potato Chips.

2. Cartoon/Cute Characters - this technique relies on the entertainment value of the cute character to encourage us to purchase the product

Example: The Charmin bear uses toilet tissue.

3. Celebrity Endorsement - this technique involves a public figure speaking on behalf of a product; the plan is that your admiration for the singer or sports star will cause you to buy the product

Example: Lady Gaga wears Red Door perfume, and so should you.

4. Emotional Appeal - this technique appeals to one of our emotional needs

Example: Buy Nutella and you will be a great parent, providing your child with good nutrition.

5. Facts and Figures - this technique tells the consumer that this product has been proven to be the best buy or the most effective or whatever; often "tests" have been conducted to prove this

Example: In clinical studies, Crest has been clinically proven to whiten teeth.

6. Gender/Sex Appeal - this technique uses sex or gender connection to sell a product

Example: Buy Axe and all the women will want you.

7. Name Calling - this technique uses slander of the opponent to win support

Example: The current government has not managed your tax dollars well. They have been wasteful.

8. Plain Folks - this technique appeals to people who feel that they want products for ordinary folks; often these people are family oriented, and certainly those who feel that they are down-to-earth, part of average society

Example: Shop at Walmart; we make family budgets go further.

9. Shock Appeal - this technique involves shocking you into believing that you should buy or do something

Example: there is a very scary old ad for a cell phone that has a woman stranded on a deserted road with no phone and an unknown man in a pickup stopping to check on her

10. Snob Appeal - this technique involves convincing you that the product is for people who will have only the best; people who choose the product involved here are "in a league above the rest"

Example: Come dine at The Keg, where we cater to those who deserve the best.

11. Testimonials - This technique is aimed at those who worry about growing older; for those who want to hang on to their youth

Example: I'm Kate and I use Tide to wash the soccer uniforms of my four kids - it works every time.

(Artistic) Visual Terms
Genre - The kind or category of visuals.

Ex. Landscape, portrait, nature photography, abstract painting, etc.

Composition - The arrangement of visual elements within a picture (layout of the elements)
Balance - The way shapes are arranged. When shapes are balanced, they create a feeling of order or harmony. When shapes are not balanced, they create tension.
Color - The appearance of objects (or light sources) described in terms of a person's perception of their hue/tint. It is used to represent the ways things really look and also to create feeling
Intensity - Purity or strength of a color (brightness or dullness)
Value - Lightness or darkness of a color
Emphasis - Drawing attention to something by use of color, size or placement
Focal Point - Part of a visual that is the main area of interest
Form - The height, width and depth of a structure, all of which can create a perspective
Harmony - The quality that binds the parts of a visual image into a whole. It is often created through simplicity and repetition
Line - The basic unit of any image that has both length and direction
Movement - A sense of energy in a visual, determined by the spaces between shapes and by the shapes themselves
Emphatic Devices – used by authors to emphasize an idea. Methods to achieve this include repetition, font [bold and italics], short sentences, punctuation, and interrupted movement.

  • Listing (numerical order, bullets, sequencing)

  • Font – (bold, unusual capitalization, italics, underlining). Example: Hello. Hello! HELLO!!

  • Punctuation (colon, dash, exclamation mark, ellipsis, brackets) - show breaks in thought and shifts in tone

  • Repetition -- the repeated use of the same word or word pattern. Example: – It is important you study for your test. If you do not study, you will not get the marks you deserve! So, not studying could cost you valuable marks.

  • Parallel structure – Be sure to eat your supper, complete your homework, and study your notes before going to sleep tonight.

  • Sentence fragments – an incomplete sentence that can be missing a subject or verb. Example: So, like, there we were! (I was a Teen Ingenue)

  • Short sentence – very simple sentence. Example: I froze.

Sound Terminology

Cacophony – a harsh, disagreeable sound
Euphony – the opposite of cacophony, pleasantness or smoothness of a sound; assonance; assimilation of the sounds of syllables to facilitate pronunciation and to please the ear
Figurative Language – intentional departure from normal order, construction, or meaning of words in order to gain strength and freshness of expression, to create a pictorial effect, to describe by analogy, or to discover and illustrate similarities in otherwise dissimilar things.

  1. Antithesis – characterized by strongly contrasting words; balancing of one term against another

  1. Apostrophe – someone (usually absent), or some abstract quality, or a nonexistent being is directly addressed as though present (Lady Luck, smile on me.)

  1. Hyperbole – conscious exaggeration, to heighten effect, or produce comic effect (This dog, with teeth the size of axe blades, started chewing at the seat of my pants.)

  1. Oxymoron (Gk. Oxus, sharp and moros, dull) – a figure of speech in which two words or phrases of opposite meaning are set together for emphasis or effect, i.e. falsely true

  1. Metonymy – the substitution of a term naming an object closely associated with the word in mind for the word itself (i.e. the skirt, the badge)

Imagery – using words which appeal to one of the five senses i.e. The path through the forest was a lush green velvet color.
Lyrics – words of a song
Onomatopoeia – the use of words that by their sound suggest their meaning i.e. meow, crunch
Poetic License – the poet’s privilege of departing from normal order
Repetition – repeating a word or phrase for emphasis
Alliteration – the use of words beginning with the same consonants or any vowel sounds in successive or closely associated syllables, especially stressed syllables i.e. “In a summer season, where soft was sun…” OR “Apt alliteration’s artful aid is often an occasional ornament in prose.”
Assonance – similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds i.e. “Lake” and “fake” demonstrate rhyme. “Lake” and “fate” show assonance.


Consonance – the use at the end of verses of words in which the final consonants in the stressed syllables agree but the vowels that precede them differ i.e. “add-read,” “bill-ball,” “born-burn”
Parallelism – the repeated use of a grammatical pattern in a line or lines of a poem

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