Evolution



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EVOLUTION

  • EVOLUTION
  • An __________________ is a living thing.
  • ________________________________ This is the process by which modern organisms have _______ from ancient organisms.
  • An organism is a living thing.
  • Evolution means _________________.
  • This is the process by which modern organisms have ________from ancient organisms.
  • An organism is a living thing.
  • Evolution means “to change over time.” This is the process by which modern organisms have _________from ancient organisms.
  • An organism is a living thing.
  • Evolution means “to change over time. This is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
  • A __________________is a group of similar animals that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • __________________ – the ability to reproduce
  • Example – _____________, ___________, and ____________ are each a different species.
  • When organisms evolve they form different species. This process is called _____________________.
  • A species is a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • __________________ – the ability to reproduce
  • Example – _____________, ___________, and ____________ are each a different species.
  • When organisms evolve they form different species. This process is called _____________________.
  • A species is a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • fertile – the ability to reproduce
  • Example – _____________, ___________, and ____________ are each a different species.
  • When organisms evolve they form different species. This process is called _____________________.
  • A species is a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • fertile – the ability to reproduce
  • Example – polar bears, grizzly bears, and black bears are each a different species.
  • When organisms evolve they form different species. This process is called _____________________.
  • A species is a group of similar organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring.
  • fertile – the ability to reproduce
  • Example – polar bears, grizzly bears, and black bears are each a different species.
  • When organisms evolve they form different species. This process is called speciation.

ORIGINS OF EVOLUTIONARY THOUGHT

  • Charles Darwin developed the central idea of evolution by natural selection, but others before and during his time also built essential parts of the theory.

Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory!?! video

  • Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory!?! video
  • In 1798, Thomas Malthus predicted the human population would grow faster than the space and food needed to sustain it.
  • Origins of Evolutionary Thought
  • Sound familiar…carrying capacity!
  • (Fall Semester: Ecology Unit)

In 1809, Jean Baptiste Lamarck published his hypotheses of the inheritance of acquired traits during an organism’s lifetime. The ideas were flawed, but he was one of the first to try and explain how organisms change over time.

  • In 1809, Jean Baptiste Lamarck published his hypotheses of the inheritance of acquired traits during an organism’s lifetime. The ideas were flawed, but he was one of the first to try and explain how organisms change over time.
  • Origins of Evolutionary Thought

LAMARCK’S HYPOTHESIS

  • This does NOT happen in an individual.
  • Giraffe
  • Okapi aka Forest Giraffe

In 1858, Alfred Wallace wrote an essay to Darwin in which he summarized his thoughts on evolutionary change that Darwin had been thinking about for over 25 years.

  • In 1858, Alfred Wallace wrote an essay to Darwin in which he summarized his thoughts on evolutionary change that Darwin had been thinking about for over 25 years.
  • Origins of Evolutionary Thought

This prompted Darwin to publish the results of his years of work in a revolutionary view of the living world called On the Origin of Species in 1859.

  • This prompted Darwin to publish the results of his years of work in a revolutionary view of the living world called On the Origin of Species in 1859.
  • - collected and studied ______________ (preserved remains of ancient organisms) and compared them to living animals
  • - Traveled to the ________________ and studied _______________. He noticed that different tortoises had adapted different characteristics depending on the ___________________.
  • - collected and studied fossils (preserved remains of ancient organisms) and compared them to living animals
  • - Traveled to the ________________ and studied _______________. He noticed that different tortoises had adapted different characteristics depending on the ___________________.
  • - collected and studied fossils (preserved remains of ancient organisms) and compared them to living animals
  • - Traveled to the Galapagos Islands and studied _______________. He noticed that different tortoises had adapted different characteristics depending on the ___________________.
  • - collected and studied fossils (preserved remains of ancient organisms) and compared them to living animals
  • - Traveled to the Galapagos Islands and studied tortoises. He noticed different tortoises had adapted different characteristics depending on the ___________________.
  • - collected and studied fossils (preserved remains of ancient organisms) and compared them to living ones
  • - Traveled to the Galapagos Islands and studied tortoises. He noticed different tortoises had adapted different characteristics depending on the types of food available.
  • Darwin theorized the Isabela Island Tortoises have short necks because they __________________________
  • The Hood Island species have long necks because they eat vegetation that _____________________ on trees.
  • Darwin theorized the Isabela Island Tortoises have short necks because they eat plants that grow close to the ground.
  • The Hood Island species have long necks because they eat vegetation that _____________________ on trees.
  • Darwin theorized the Isabela Island Tortoises have short necks because they eat plants that grow close to the ground.
  • The Hood Island species have long necks because they eat vegetation that _____________________ on trees.
  • Darwin theorized the Isabela Island Tortoises have short necks because they eat plants that grow close to the ground.
  • The Hood Island species have long necks because they eat vegetation that grows higher on trees.
  • Each species of living things is in a ________________________ for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the __________________________________.
  • _________________ – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – ________________________________________
  • _________________ – animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – ___________________________________________
  • Each species of living organisms is in a competition with one another for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the __________________________________.
  • _________________ – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – ________________________________________
  • _________________ – animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – ___________________________________________
  • Each species of living organisms is in a competition with one another for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the Struggle for Existence.
  • _________________ – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – ________________________________________
  • _________________ – animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – ___________________________________________
  • Each species of living organisms is in a competition with one another for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the Struggle for Existence.
  • Predators – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – ________________________________________
  • _________________ – animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – ___________________________________________
  • Each species of living organisms is in a competition with one another for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the Struggle for Existence.
  • Predators – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – lions, tigers, bears, sharks
  • _________________ – animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – ___________________________________________
  • Each species of living organisms is in a competition with one another for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the Struggle for Existence.
  • Predators – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – lions, tigers, bears, sharks
  • Prey– animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – ___________________________________________
  • Each species of living organisms is in a competition with one another for food, land and shelter with other members of the community. This is called the Struggle for Existence.
  • Predators – animals who catch and eat other animals
  • Ex – lions, tigers, bears, sharks
  • Prey– animals that are hunted by predators
  • Ex – zebra, mice, deer, small fish
  • Predator
  • Prey
  • Predator animals who are faster catch more food. Prey animals who are faster or smarter are harder to catch.
  • _______________________________________________ - Better adapted organisms have a better chance of surviving longer.
  • Predator animals who are faster catch more food. Prey animals who are faster or smarter are harder to catch.
  • Survival of the Fittest / Natural Selection - Better adapted organisms have a better chance of surviving longer.
  • _____________ – an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.
  • _____________ – any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chances of survival.
  • Ex- The porcupine has adapted________ that make it difficult for other animals to eat it. Quills make the porcupine ________________ for living with predators such as lions.
  • Fitness – an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.
  • _____________ – any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chances of survival.
  • Ex- The porcupine has adapted ________ that make it difficult for other animals to eat it. Quills make the porcupine ________________ for living with predators such as lions.
  • Fitness – an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.
  • Adaptation – any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chances of survival.
  • Ex- The porcupine has adapted ________ that make it difficult for other animals to eat it. Quills make the porcupine ________________ for living with predators such as lions.
  • Fitness – an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.
  • Adaptation – any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chances of survival.
  • Ex- The porcupine has adapted quills that make it difficult for other animals to eat it. Quills make the porcupine ________________ for living with predators such as lions.
  • Fitness – an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.
  • Adaptation – any inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chances of survival.
  • Ex- The porcupine has adapted quills that make it difficult for other animals to eat it. Quills make the porcupine
  • more fit for living with predators such as lions.

If an organism is more fit for its environment, it will live longer. If an organism is able to live longer, it will be able to produce more __________________________.

  • If an organism is more fit for its environment, it will live longer. If an organism is able to live longer, it will be able to produce more __________________________.
  • Change over time occurs in a population due to the fact the fittest organisms survive and reproduce more successfully. This means that better suited genes are being passed down to each subsequent generation.

If an organism is more fit for its environment, it will live longer. If an organism is able to live longer, it will be able to produce more offspring.

  • If an organism is more fit for its environment, it will live longer. If an organism is able to live longer, it will be able to produce more offspring.
  • Change over time occurs in a population due to the fact the fittest organisms survive and reproduce more successfully. This means that better suited genes are being passed down to each subsequent generation.

It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:

  • It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:
    • 1)
    • 2)
    • 3)

It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:

  • It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:
    • 1) Availability of food

It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:

  • It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:
    • 1) Availability of food
    • 2) Availability of space

It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:

  • It’s not just predation that causes organisms to not survive. It could be:
    • 1) Availability of food
    • 2) Availability of space
    • 3) Availability of mates
    • If an organism cannot get these things in its environment, it will not survive or reproduce successfully.

We can, it’s called ___________________ and it involves breeding only the organisms with the most desired traits in order to get the best product possible.

  • We can, it’s called ___________________ and it involves breeding only the organisms with the most desired traits in order to get the best product possible.
  • Just look at what’s happened to corn through the use of ___________________________!

We can, it’s called farming and it involves breeding only the organisms with the most desired traits in order to get the best product possible.

  • We can, it’s called farming and it involves breeding only the organisms with the most desired traits in order to get the best product possible.
  • Just look at what’s happened to corn through the use of artificial selection!

ARTIFICIAL SELECTION IN ANIMALS

  • All modern domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are descendants of the gray wolf. The different breeds have been developed by humans by the process of artificial selection.
  • Canis lupus
  • Canis familiaris
  • Darwin argued living things have been ___________________. Evidence of this can be found in:
  • 1.______________________________ - By comparing fossils in older rock layers with fossils in younger rock layers, Darwin could argue that life on earth has ________________________.
  • Darwin argued living things have been evolving for millions of years
  • Evidence of this can be found in:
  • 1._____________________________ - By comparing fossils in older rock layers with fossils in younger rock layers, Darwin could argue that life on earth has ________________________.
  • Darwin argued living things have been evolving for millions of years
  • Evidence of this can be found in:
  • 1.The fossil record - By comparing fossils in older rock layers with fossils in younger rock layers, Darwin could argue that life on earth has ________________________.
  • Darwin argued living things have been evolving for millions of years
  • Evidence of this can be found in:
  • 1.The fossil record - By comparing fossils in older rock layers with fossils in younger rock layers, Darwin could argue that life on earth has changed over time.
  • Fossil Rock Anthem video
  • 2. The __________________________ of living species – similar species in different locations are products of evolutionary decent. This means that all organisms come from a __________________________.
  • 2. The Geographic Distribution of living species – similar species in different locations are products of evolutionary descent. This means all organisms come from a _____________________.
  • 2. The Geographic Distribution of living species – similar species in different locations are products of evolutionary descent. This means all organisms come from a common ancestor.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

  • Beaver
  • Muskrat
  • Beaver &
  • Muskrat
  • Coypu
  • Capybara
  • Coypu & Capybara
  • Similar animals in different locations were the product of different lines of evolutionary descent.
  • 3. Darwin theorized all the finches in the Galapagos came from one common ancestor, but _________________________depending which food source was available.
  • 3. Darwin theorized all the finches in the Galapagos came from one common ancestor, but separated into different species depending which food source was available.
  • Vampire Finches video
  • 4. _______________________________ – animals with backbones (called vertebrates) share similar body structures.
  • Example - All vertebrates have “arm-like structures” that develop from the same clump of cells in the embryo (unborn baby)
  • 4. Homologous Structures – animals with backbones (called vertebrates) share similar body structures.
  • Example - All vertebrates have “arm-like structures” that develop from the same clump of cells in the embryo (unborn baby)
  • 4. Homologous Structures – animals with backbones (called vertebrates) share similar body structures.
  • Example - All vertebrates have “arm-like structures” that develop from the same clump of cells in the embryo (unborn baby)
  • Human Cat Whale Bat
  • ______________________ – the embryos of many animal species look very similar to one another.
  • Similarities in Embryos– the embryos of many animal species look very similar to one another.
  • Cat Embryo Human Embryo

All organisms are based on the same genetic code (__________________________)

  • All organisms are based on the same genetic code (__________________________)
  • All organisms have DNA that is composed of the bases ____________________
  • Comparing one human to another, they will be 99.5% similar
  • However, even when you compare humans to fruit flies they are still _______ similar

All organisms are based on the same genetic code (biochemical similarities)

  • All organisms are based on the same genetic code (biochemical similarities)
  • All organisms have DNA that is composed of the bases A, T, C, & G
  • Comparing one human to another, they will be 99.5% similar
  • However, even when you compare humans to fruit flies they are still 60% similar

Genetic Recombination and Mutations

  • Genetic Recombination and Mutations
    • Due to genetic recombination (crossing over and sexual reproduction) and mutations, members of a population show variations.
    • These variations can possibly help or hurt an organism to survive in its environment.

Genetic Mutation

  • Genetic Mutation
  • Gene flow – transfer of genes between populations
  • ex: people moving from one country to another; migration of animals to another population
  • When U.S. soldiers had children in Southeast Asia with Vietnamese women during the Vietnam War, they altered the gene pool frequencies of the Vietnamese population.
  • Some organs in animals are not important. They are reduced in size because they do not have a function. These are called ____________.
  • Example – ________________________________________
  • Have it, but don’t need it!
  • Some organs in animals are not important. They are reduced in size because they do not have a function. These are called vestigial organs.
  • Example – coccyx (tail bone) in humans, femur in whales
  • Have it, but don’t need it!
  • A summary of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution:
  • _______________ exist within populations
  • Example – _______________________________________________
  • A summary of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution:
  • Variations exist within populations
  • Example – _______________________________________________
  • A summary of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution:
  • Variations exist within populations
  • Example – no two organisms are EXACTLY alike in every way.
  • 2. Some variations are __________________for survival and reproduction than others
  • Example – ________________________________________________
  • 2. Some variations are more advantageous for survival and reproduction than others
  • Example – ______________________________________________
  • 2. Some variations are more advantageous for survival and reproduction than others
  • Example – In a snowy climate, animals with white fur are more likely to survive.
  • 3. Organisms ____________________________than will survive
  • Example –. _____________________________________________
  • 3. Organisms produce more offspring than will survive
  • Example –. _____________________________________________
  • 3. Organisms produce more offspring than will survive
  • Example – Sea turtles lay hundreds of eggs, hoping that a few hatchings will make it to adulthood.
  • 4. Over time, ________________________will make up a larger percentage of the population.
  • Example- _________________________________________
  • 4. Over time, offspring of survivors will make up a larger percentage of the population.
  • Example- _________________________________________
  • 4. Over time, offspring of survivors will make up a larger percentage of the population.
  • Example- stronger tigers tend to have stronger cubs
  • 5. Descent with modification - each living species has descended, with changes, from common ancestor
  • -- all species (extant and extinct)
  • were derived from common
  • ancestor
  • -- a single tree of life links all
  • living things
  • Common descent:
  • 6. Evolution as genetic change
  • A. Evolution by Natural selection:
  • -acts on entire populations not just individual organisms.
  • -never acts directly on genes entire organisms survive to reproduce, or die and do not reproduce.
  • Single-gene and Polygenic Traits
  • 1. Single-gene: natural selection on single gene traits can lead to changes in allele frequencies and thus to evolution.
    • Ex: A population of lizards is normally brown, but experiences a mutation that produces red and black forms.
  • 2. Polygenic Traits: effects on allele frequencies much more complex
  • a. directional selection – individuals at one end of curve have higher fitness
  • ex. anteaters with long tongue better for capturing ants
  • b. stabilizing selection – individuals near center of curve have higher fitness
  • ex. Human baby weight at birth – too small low survival, but too large difficult birth
  • c. disruptive selection – upper and lower ends of curve have higher fitness
  • ex. large and small seeds common – birds beaks are large or small
  • B. Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
    • 1. Gradualism: change that occurs in a species at a slow steady pace
    • 2. Punctuated equilibrium: rapid sudden change in a species
  • ex: light brown and black pocket mice after volcanic eruption in New Mexico
  • C. Evolution by Genetic Drift – a random change in allele frequency
  • Certain individuals may leave more descendants than others, and over time this can cause an allele to become common in the population. Caused by chance, not natural selection.
  • Genetic Drift:
  • How do different species evolve?
  • As new species evolve, they become ___________________from one another.
  • How do different species evolve?
  • As new species arise, they become reproductively isolated from one another.
  • Reproductive isolation = when members of two populations cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
  • 1. ____________________– when 2 species are capable of breeding but have different mating rituals and strategies.
  • Example – 2 populations of birds that have overlapping habitats may be behaviorally isolated because they have ____________________, therefore they do not recognize one another as potential mates.
  • 1. Behavioral Isolation – when 2 species are capable of breeding but have different mating rituals and strategies.
  • Example – 2 populations of birds that have overlapping habitats may be behaviorally isolated because they have ____________________, therefore they do not recognize one another as potential mates.
  • 1. Behavioral Isolation – when 2 species are capable of breeding but have different mating rituals and strategies.
  • Example – 2 populations of birds that have overlapping habitats may be behaviorally isolated because they have different mating songs, therefore they do not recognize one another as potential mates.
  • 2. _________________– 2 populations may be physically separated by a river ,mountain, etc.
  • Example – the Abert and Kaibab Squirrels are geographically separated by the _______________________
  • 2. Geographic Isolation – 2 populations may be physically separated by a river ,mountain, etc.
  • Example – the Abert and Kaibab Squirrels are geographically separated by the _______________________
  • 2. Geographic Isolation – 2 populations may be physically separated by a river ,mountain, etc.
  • Example – the Abert and Kaibab Squirrels are geographically separated by the Colorado River
  • 3. ________________– Populations that live close to one another but have different reproductive seasons
  • Example - 3 species of orchids (a type of flower) may grow near each other but because they produce pollen on different days of the year, they cannot interbreed.
  • 3. Temporal Isolation – Populations that live close to one another but have different reproductive seasons
  • Example - 3 species of orchids (a type of flower) may grow near each other but because they produce pollen on different days of the year, they cannot interbreed.
  • Darwin’s finches – an example of speciation
  • - descended from a common ancestor from mainland S. America
  • - natural selection shaped beaks as they adapted to different foods on different islands
  • A. Divergent Evolutionprocess of 2 or more related species becoming more and more dissimilar
  • ex: red fox and kit fox
  • --red fox lives in forest where red color blends with trees; kit fox lives in deserts where its light brown color blends in with sandy environment
  • --similarity in structure indicates a common ancestor, but as they adapted to different environments the appearance of 2 species diverged
  • B. Convergent Evolutionunrelated species become more and more similar as they adapt to same kind of environment
  • ex: cactus growing in American desert resembles cactus which grows in African desert. Both have fleshy stems for storing water and spines to ward off predators.
  • Aloe cactus in Africa
  • Saguro cactus in
  • Arizona
  • Common ancestor
  • A Phylogenetic tree is a diagram that shows evolutionary relationships among different species.
  • According to the diagram, how have elephants changed over the past 55 million years? ______________________________________
  • According to the diagram, how have elephants changed over the past 55 million years? They are now larger, with shorter tusks, larger ears
  • What is the closest common ancestor of the modern elephants? ____________________________
  • What is the closest common ancestor of the modern elephants? Primelephas
  • The Peppered Moth


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