Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System



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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath)

Chapter 6 The Skeletal System
Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Functions of the skeletal system include

A) support.

B) storage.

C) protection.

D) blood cell production.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-1

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


2) Regulatory functions of the skeletal system include

A) maintaining blood calcium levels.

B) absorbing the shock of unexpected rapid body movements.

C) facilitating transmission of nerve impulses.

D) cushioning abdominal organs such as the kidneys.

E) all of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-1

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


3) Which of the following is a function of the skeletal system?

A) storage of inorganic salts

B) protection of vital organs

C) locomotion

D) support

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-1

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


4) Bone cells capable of breaking down bonds are termed

A) osteocytes.

B) osteoblasts.

C) osteoclasts.

D) chondrocytes.

E) osteons.

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

5) Immature, active bone cells are termed

A) osteocytes.

B) stem cells.

C) osteoblasts.

D) osteoclasts.

E) chondrocytes.

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


6) Red bone marrow functions in the formation of

A) adipose tissue.

B) new bone.

C) blood cells.

D) osteoblasts.

E) both C and D

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


7) Osseous tissue is classified as which of the following?

A) neural tissue

B) muscle tissue

C) connective tissue

D) epithelial tissue

E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


8) Organic components of the matrix of bone include

A) calcium phosphate.

B) collagen fibers.

C) calcium carbonate.

D) all of the above

E) A and B only

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

9) Layers of bone are referred to as

A) osteons.

B) canaliculi.

C) lamellae.

D) osteoclasts.

E) central canals.

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


10) In the skeletal system, compact bone is located

A) where bones are most heavily stressed.

B) where stresses arrive from many directions.

C) in a ring around the perimeter of long bones.

D) in direct contact with articular cartilages.

E) in all of the places listed above

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


11) Spongy bone is made up of a network of bony spines called

A) trabeculae.

B) osteons.

C) lamellae.

D) canaliculi.

E) perforating canals.

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


12) Perforating canals (canals of Volkmann)

A) are arranged parallel to the surface of the bone.

B) are always associated with osteons in spongy bone.

C) transmit blood vessels to osteons deep inside the bone.

D) occur in growing juvenile bone, but are obliterated in adult bone.

E) all of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

13) The connective tissue covering the outer surface of a bone is (the)

A) matrix.

B) osteon.

C) periosteum.

D) endosteum.

E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


14) Which of the following make up most of the bone tissue?

A) cells


B) protein fibers

C) hydroxyapatite crystals

D) osteons

E) polysaccharides

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


15) The bones of the limbs are classified as

A) short bones.

B) long bones.

C) flat bones.

D) sesamoid bones.

E) irregular bones.

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


16) Which of the following is only found in compact bone?

A) trabeculae

B) canaliculi

C) osteoblasts

D) osteons

E) marrow

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

17) In addition to osseous tissue, a typical bone contains

A) other connective tissues.

B) smooth muscle tissues (in blood vessel walls).

C) neural tissues.

D) all of the above

E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-2

Skill Level: 2 Reviewing Concepts


18) Which of the following is a step in intramembranous ossification?

A) Hyaline cartilage model forms.

B) Periosteum forms a collar around the cartilage.

C) Fibrous connective tissue is converted to bone tissue.

D) Osteoblasts deposit bone in areas of cartilage loss.

E) none of the above; all are part of endochondral ossification

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-3

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


19) In intramembranous ossification,

A) osteoblasts differentiate within a connective tissue.

B) osteoblasts cluster together and secrete organic matrix.

C) ossification occurs at the ossification center.

D) only A and C

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-3

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


20) The presence of an epiphyseal line indicates

A) epiphyseal growth has ended.

B) epiphyseal growth is just beginning.

C) growth in bone diameter is just beginning.

D) the bone is fractured at that location.

E) The presence of an epiphyseal line does not indicate any particular event.

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-3

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

21) The following are major steps in the process of endochondral ossification:

1. Blood vessels invade the perichondrium.

2. Osteoclasts create a marrow cavity.

3. Chondrocytes enlarge and calcify.

4. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone.

5. The perichondrium is converted into periosteum, and the inner layer produces bone.

The correct order for these events is

A) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2

B) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2

C) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2

D) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4

E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-3

Skill Level: 2 Reviewing Concepts


22) The hormone calcitonin functions to

A) stimulate osteoclast activity.

B) decrease the rate of calcium excretion.

C) increase the rate of bone deposition.

D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood.

E) all of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-4

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


23) A compound fracture

A) is caused by an underlying pathology.

B) results in bone breaking the skin.

C) is a type of incomplete fracture.

D) never happens.

E) is also called a greenstick fracture.

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-4

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


24) The parathyroid hormone

A) stimulates osteoclast activity.

B) increases the rate of calcium absorption.

C) decreases the rate of calcium excretion.

D) A and C only

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-4

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

25) The appendicular skeleton consists of

A) the bones of the arms.

B) the bones of the legs.

C) the bones of the hands and feet.

D) the bones that connect the limbs to the axial skeleton.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-6

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


26) Which of the following is part of the appendicular skeleton?

A) the skull

B) the manubrium

C) the sternum

D) the scapula

E) the vertebrae

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-6

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


27) The divisions of the skeletal system include (the)

A) dorsal and ventral.

B) axial and appendicular.

C) proximal and distal.

D) cranial, caudal, and anterior.

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-6

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


28) Most bones in the appendicular skeleton develop from

A) fibrous connective tissue.

B) hyaline cartilage.

C) the process of intramembranous ossification.

D) the process of endochondral ossification.

E) both B and D

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-6

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

29) The appendicular skeleton contains ________ bones.

A) 80


B) 206

C) 126


D) 64

E) 62


Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-6

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


30) The smooth, rounded, or oval articular process of a bone is termed a

A) crest.

B) ridge.

C) head.


D) condyle.

E) trochlea.

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-6

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


31) The pituitary gland is located in the

A) cribriform plate.

B) sella turcica.

C) sphenoid sinus.

D) glenoid fossa.

E) hypophysis.

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


32) The nasal septum includes which of the following?

A) vomer


B) perpendicular plate of the ethmoid

C) nasal bones

D) inferior nasal conchae

E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

33) The jugular foramen is made from depressions of which pair of bones?

A) temporal and occipital

B) zygomatic and sphenoid

C) temporal and sphenoid

D) maxillary and zygomatic

E) maxillary and temporal

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


34) The primary curves of the vertebral column are the

A) cervical and lumbar.

B) cervical and thoracic.

C) cervical and pelvic.

D) thoracic and pelvic.

E) thoracic and lumbar.

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


35) The atlas is classified as a ________ vertebra.

A) thoracic

B) lumbar

C) sacral

D) cervical

E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


36) Which of the following is part of the nasal septum?

A) vomer bone

B) zygomatic bone

C) maxillary bone

D) frontal bone

E) sphenoid bone

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

37) Ribs that join the sternum directly are called ________ ribs.

A) false


B) true

C) floating

D) broken

E) sternal

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


38) The parietal, temporal, frontal, and occipital bones are part of (the)

A) cranium.

B) skull.

C) facial bones.

D) axial skeleton.

E) none of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


39) Which of the following bones contain the cribriform foramina?

A) zygomatic

B) maxilla

C) frontal

D) ethmoid

E) sphenoid

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


40) The structure that houses the pituitary gland is called the

A) crista galli.

B) greater wing.

C) lesser wing.

D) dorsum sellae.

E) sella turcica.

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

41) The coronal suture is the boundary between which bones?

A) frontal and parietal

B) frontal and nasal

C) frontal and sphenoid

D) parietal and temporal

E) nasal and vomer

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


42) Bones of the skull that articulate with the zygomatic bone include (the)

A) temporal bone.

B) frontal bone.

C) maxillary bone.

D) sphenoid.

E) all of the above.

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


43) Features of the maxillae include

A) sinuses.

B) alveolar processes.

C) orbital rims.

D) inferior orbital foramina.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


44) Paranasal sinuses are located within which of the following bones?

(1) frontal bone

(2) sphenoid

(3) ethmoid

(4) maxilla

(5) nasal bone

A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

B) 1, 2, 3, 4

C) 1, 3, 5

D) 1, 2, 3

E) 3, 4, 5

Answer: B

Diff: 1

Learning Outcome: 6-7



Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

45) Functions of the curves of the vertebral column include which of the following?

A) accommodation of the thoracic and abdominopelvic viscera

B) aligning the weight of the trunk over the arms

C) shifting the weight of the trunk forward

D) increasing the ability to extend the limbs

E) all of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1

Learning Outcome: 6-7



Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms
46) The vertebral arches surround and protect the

A) spinal nerves.

B) cranial nerves.

C) vertebrae.

D) spinal cord.

E) ribs.


Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


47) A cleft palate is malformation of which bone?

A) vomer


B) ethmoid

C) sphenoid

D) mandible

E) maxillary

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


48) The suture that forms the articulation of the parietal bone with the temporal bone is the

A) lambdoidal suture.

B) rostral suture.

C) coronal suture.

D) squamosal suture.

E) sagittal suture.

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

49) The long, skinny process near the external auditory meatus is the

A) mastoid process.

B) styloid process.

C) occipital condyle.

D) condyloid process.

E) temporal process.

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


50) The bone that makes up the lower jaw is the

A) mandible.

B) maxillary.

C) zygomatic.

D) temporal.

E) cribriform plate.

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


51) The bony roof of the mouth is formed by

A) palatine bones.

B) the vomer.

C) maxillae.

D) the sphenoid bone.

E) both A and C

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


52) The paranasal sinuses are located in the ________ bone.

A) frontal

B) ethmoid

C) sphenoid

D) maxillary

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

53) One role of the fontanels is to

A) allow for compression of the skull during childbirth.

B) serve as ossification centers for the facial bones.

C) serve as the final bony plates of the skull.

D) lighten the weight of the skull bones.

E) none of the above

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


54) Which of the following curves develops as a child begins to stand and walk?

A) lumbar

B) thoracic

C) sacral

D) cervical

E) cervical and sacral

Answer: A

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


55) An exaggerated lateral curvature is termed

A) kyphosis.

B) lordosis.

C) scoliosis.

D) gomphosis.

E) none of the above

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


56) The vertebral column contains ________ cervical vertebrae.

A) 4


B) 5

C) 7


D) 12

E) 31


Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

57) Costal processes are located on ________ vertebrae.

A) cervical

B) thoracic

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) coccygeal

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


58) The vertebral column contains ________ lumbar vertebrae.

A) 4


B) 5

C) 7


D) 12

E) 31


Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


59) Which of the following is most likely to be damaged during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)?

A) styloid process

B) mastoid process

C) xiphoid process

D) odontoid process

E) transverse process

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


60) The ribs articulate with

A) the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

B) the transverse processes of the vertebrae.

C) the laminae of the vertebrae.

D) the pedicles of the vertebrae.

E) both A and B

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

61) Humans have ________ pairs of ribs.

A) 2


B) 6

C) 10


D) 12

E) 24


Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


62) Proof of the fusion of vertebrae in the sacrum is evidenced by the

A) lateral sacral crest.

B) medial sacral crest.

C) sacral foramina.

D) transverse sacral ridges.

E) sacral hiatus.

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


63) The coccyx is composed of ________ fused vertebrae.

A) 1-2


B) 3-5

C) 6-7


D) 7-8

E) 9-11


Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


64) The most inferior portion of the sternum is called the

A) manubrium.

B) body.

C) xiphoid process.

D) sternal angle.

E) sternal groove.

Answer: C

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

65) The point of attachment for muscles that extend and rotate the head is the

A) styloid process.

B) mastoid process.

C) posterior clinoid process.

D) articular tubercle.

E) inion.

Answer: B

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


66) Which of the following bones bear teeth?

A) maxillae

B) mandible

C) palatine bones

D) all of the above

E) A and B only

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


67) Which of the following problems might be due to injury of structures associated with the hyoid bone?

A) difficulty in swallowing

B) laryngitis

C) soreness upon movement of the back of the tongue

D) A and B

E) A and C

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


68) Bones within the temporal bone that are important to hearing are called

A) acoustic bones.

B) external acoustic meatus.

C) internal acoustic meatus.

D) auditory ossicles.

E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms

69) The bony structure of the orbit is composed of which of the following?

A) maxilla, zygomatic, lacrimal, and palatine only

B) ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal, lacrimal, maxilla, zygomatic, and palatine

C) zygomatic, nasal, frontal, and sphenoid only

D) zygomatic, nasal, frontal, sphenoid, palatine, lacrimal, and temporal

E) none of the above

Answer: B

Diff: 2


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 1 Reviewing Facts and Terms


70) As you proceed from the head inferiorly down the vertebral column,

A) the vertebrae become larger.

B) the transverse processes become shorter.

C) the body of the vertebrae become heavier.

D) the spinous processes become larger.

E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 2 Reviewing Concepts


71) Improper administration of CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) can force the ________ into the liver.

A) floating ribs

B) lumbar vertebrae

C) manubrium of the sternum

D) costal cartilage

E) xiphoid process

Answer: E

Diff: 1


Learning Outcome: 6-7

Skill Level: 2 Reviewing Concepts


72) Coxal bones include the

A) pubis.

B) ischium.

C) ilium.

D) all of the above

E) none of the above

Answer: D



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