English Writing Part 4: Introduction & Conclusion



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  • English Writing
  • John E. Clayton
  • Nanjing University, Spring, 2005
  • Please Turn In Your Homework
  • Turn-in your
  • introduction
  • to an essay
  • “I Can’t Change Someone
  • Else…or Can I?”
  • Syllabus
  • 03/02 Introduction; Overview; Writing a good paragraph
  • 03/09 Information Form; Essays – structure, thesis
  • 03/16 Thesis Focus; Movie: Johnny Lingo Journal 1
  • 03/23 Essay Introduction and Conclusion
  • 03/30 Movie: Dave Journal 2
  • 04/06 Review for mid-term exam; Overcoming Fear
  • 04/13 Mid-term exam Journal 1
  • 04/20 Resume
  • 04/27 Resume Journal 2
  • 05/04 Holiday
  • 05/11 Business Letters Journal 1
  • 05/18 Statement of Purpose
  • 05/25 Statement of Purpose Journal 2
  • 06/01 Review for final exam
  • 06/08 Final exam
  • 5 Paragraph Essay Structure
  • Body Paragraphs
  • Conclusion
  • Say the thesis in a different way
  • “Grab” the reader, so he/she will not forget. Might include a prediction, a recommendation or a solution
  • Introduction
  • Motivate and interest the reader
  • State your position - thesis
  • Tell a little more about what to expect
  • Ways to Start the Introduction
  • A Quotation
  • Abraham Lincoln, in his famous Gettysburg address, suggested that “the world will little note nor long remember the things we do here today”. He was wrong, of course, as the world not only remembers, but honors what took place that day.
  • A Question
  • No one has ever died from eating canteen food, so why is the question constantly on the students lips “why must we suffer the awful creations of the student canteen?”
  • Do students get hurt playing sports at university? Of course, it has happened, and it will happen in the future. But the benefits derived from sports far outweigh the potential dangers.
  • An Interesting Fact
  • Western students are sometimes criticized by their Asian counterparts for marrying while still in university. But studies show that the stability of marriage generally allows the married student to focus far more easily on his studies than the undisciplined, party-loving, PC game playing single student.
  • A Definition or Explanation
  • “Love” is a word often used in the world today, but it means many things. To me, “love” means caring more about someone else than you do for yourself. True love is not a physical thing, but a beautiful state of mind.
  • A Poor Introduction Can Block Your Essay
  • Make one last effort to convince the reader
  • Suggest larger implications now that the evidence has been presented
  • Provide a satisfying sense of closure
  • The Essay Conclusion
  • Make a useful quotation, analogy or comparison.
  • Suggest specific actions the reader should take.
  • Speculate about what your thesis implies for the
  • future.
  • Make a brief remark that sums up your feelings and main points.
  • A Useful Quotation
  • This paper has proposed and supported the idea that cooperation, rather than competition, will allow us to be true winners in the game of life. So, in the future, when life is hard, and you are thinking of giving up, remember Vince Lombardi, who once said, “winning isn’t everything – it’s the only thing”.
  • As we have seen in this essay, increased memory capability is possible for the majority of the population. Because it is such an important skill, I suggest that we all enroll in the memory enhancement program today.
  • Speculate on Future Implications
  • So, if families continue to be restricted to one child, the need for sewing skills will begin to diminish. After all, there will be no younger brother or sister to hand used clothing down to.
  • Brief Summary of Feelings
  • The conclusion then, is clear. I have shown that teen-age smoking is a disaster for the community, as it leads to chronic health problems, huge medical expenses, and, ultimately, to an early death.
  • Things To Avoid
  • The empty cliche
    • "So ends the analysis of myself and the question of who am I has been answered in a brief form."
  • The unnecessary announcement
    • "And in conclusion, let me say...."
  • The trite truism
    • "And as for the future, only time will tell."
  • Things To Avoid
  • The waste basket ending
  • Do not try in the final paragraph to say everything you didn't have room for in the body of the paper.
  • The wild surmise
  • "From this we see the utter futility of ever trying to help another person."
  • The mirror image (the most common problem)
  • The writer merely repeats the thesis and summarizes the main points--a dull and mechanical conclusion.
  • Homework Assignment
  • Complete the essay
  • “I Can’t Change Someone
  • Else…or Can I?”
  • by improving the introduction, adding three support paragraphs, and a conclusion


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