'NO MORE CAKES & ALE'?: PURITANISM, POPULAR RELIGION & CULTURAL CONFLICT. Marsh, Christopher. Popular Religion in Sixteenth-Century England (London, 1988), pp.1-26.
Reay, Barry. Popular Cultures in England, 1550-1750 (London, 1988), pp.71-100, 198-223.
Spurr, John. English Puritanism, 1603-1689 (London, 1998), chs.1-6.
Alldridge, Nick. 'Loyalty and Identity in Chester Parishes, 1540-1640', in S.J. Wright (ed.), Parish, Church and People: Local Studies in Lay Religion, 1350-1750 (London, 1988), pp.85-124.
Aylmer, Gerald. 'Collective Mentalities in Mid-Seventeenth-Century England, I: The Puritan Outlook', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th ser. 36 (1986), 1-25.
Carlson, Eric Josef. ‘Good Pastors or Careless Shepherds? Parish Ministers and the English Reformation’, History 88 [no.291] (2003), 424-36.
Collinson, Patrick. 'Cranbrook and the Fletchers: Popular and Unpopular Religion in the Kentish Weald', in P. Collinson, Godly People: Essays in English Protestantism and Puritanism (London, 1984), pp.399-428.
Collinson, Patrick. 'Ecclesiastical Vitriol: Religious Satire in the 1590s and the Invention of Puritanism', in John Guy (ed.), The Reign of Elizabeth I: Court and Culture in the Last Decade (Cambridge, 1995), pp.150-70.
Collinson, Patrick. The Birthpangs of Protestant England: Religious and Cultural Change in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (London, 1988), chs.2,4 & 5.
Collinson, Patrick. The Religion of Protestants: The Church in English Society, 1559-1625 (Oxford, 1982),
Collinson, Patrick. ‘Merry England on the Ropes: The Contested Culture of the Early Modern English Town’, in Simon Ditchfield (ed.), Christianity and Community in the West: Essays for John Bossy (Aldershot, 2001), pp.131-47.
Cressy, David. Bonfires and Bells: National Memory and the Protestant Calendar in Elizabethan and Stuart England (London, 1989).
Cressy, David. 'Conflict, Consensus, and the Willingness to Wink: The Erosion of Community in Charles I's England', Huntington Library Quarterly 61:2 (2000), 131-49
Duffy, Eamon. 'The Godly and the Multitude in Stuart England', The Seventeenth Century 1 (1986), 31-49.
Duffy, Eamon. 'The Long Reformation: Catholicism, Protestantism and the Multitude', in Nicholas Tyacke (ed.), England's Long Reformation, 1500-1800 (London, 1997), pp.33-70.
Fielding, John. 'Arminianism in the Localities: Peterborough Diocese, 1603-1640', in Kenneth Fincham (ed.), The Early Stuart Church, 1603-1642 (London, 1993), pp.93-114.
Fincham, Kenneth, & Lake, Peter. 'Popularity, Prelacy and Puritanism in the 1630s: Joseph Hall Explains Himself', English Historical Review 111 (September 1996), 856-81.
Foster, Andrew. 'Churchwardens Accounts of Early Modern England: Some Problems to Noted But Much to Be Gained', in Katherine L. French, Gary C. Gibbs & Beat A. Kumin (eds.), The Parish in English Life, 1400-1600 (Manchester, 1997), pp.74-93.
Fox, Adam. 'Religious Satire in English Towns', in Patrick Collinson & John Craig (eds), The Reformation in English Towns, 1500-1640 (London, 1998), pp.221-40.
Friedeberg, Robert von. 'Reformation of Manners and the Social Composition of Offenders in an East Anglian Cloth Village: Earls Colne, Essex, 1531-1642', Journal of British Studies 29 (October 1990), 347-85.
Haigh, Christopher. 'The Troubles of Thomas Pestell: Parish Squabbles and Ecclesiastical Politics in Caroline England', Journal of British Studies 41: 4 (October 2002), 403-28.
Haigh, Christopher. ‘The Character of an Anti-Puritan’, Sixteenth-Century Journal 35:3 (2004), 671-88. Hill, Christopher. Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (1964), ch.8.
Hindle, Steve. 'Custom, Festival and Protest in Early Modern England: The Little Budworth Wakes, St Peter's Day, 1596', Rural History 6:2 (1995), 155-78.
Hindle, Steve. 'Hierarchy and Community in the Elizabethan Parish: The Swallowfield Articles of 1596', Historical Journal 42:3 (1999), 835-51.
Hindle, Steve. The State and Social Change in Early Modern England, c.1550-1640 (London, 2000), pp.176-203.
Hoyle, Richard. 'Advancing the Reformation in the North: Orders From York High Commission, 1583 and 1592', Northern History 28 (1992), 217-27. Hughes, Ann. 'Religion and Society in Stratford Upon Avon, 1619-38', Midland History 19 (1994), 58-84.
Hutton, Ronald. The Rise and Fall of Merry England: the Ritual Year, 1400-1700 (Oxford, 1994), chs.4-5.
Ingram, Martin. 'Communities and Courts: Law and Disorder in Early-Seventeenth-Century Wiltshire', in J.S. Cockburn (ed.), Crime in England, 1550-1800 (London, 1977), pp.110-34.
Ingram, Martin. 'From Reformation to Toleration: Popular Religious Cultures in England, 1540-1690', in Tim Harris (ed.), Popular Culture in England, c.1500-1850 (London, 1995), pp.95-123.
Ingram, Martin. 'Puritans and the Church Courts, 1560-1640', in Christopher Durston & Jacqueline Eales (eds), The Culture of English Puritanism, 1560-1700 (London, 1996), pp.58-91.
Ingram, Martin. 'Reformation of Manners in Early Modern England', in Paul Griffiths, Adam Fox & Steve Hindle (eds), The Experience of Authority in Early Modern England (London, 1996), pp.47-88.
Ingram, Martin. 'Religion, Communities and Moral Discipline in Late Sixteenth- and Early-Seventeenth-Century England: Case Studies', in K. von Greyerz (ed.), Religion and Society in Early Modern Europe (London, 1984), pp.177-93.
Ingram, Martin. Church Courts, Sex and Marriage in England, 1570-1640 (Cambridge, 1987), ch.3.
Johnston, Alexandra F., & McLean, Sally F. 'Reformation and Resistance in Thames/Severn Parishes: The Dramatic Witness', in Katherine L. French, Gary C. Gibbs & Beat A. Kumin (eds.), The Parish in English Life, 1400-1600 (Manchester, 1997), pp.178-202.
Lake, Peter. 'Anti-Popery: The Structure of a Prejudice', in Richard Cust & Ann Hughes (eds), Conflict in Early Stuart England: Studies in Religion and Politics, 1603-1642 (London, 1989), pp.72-106.
Lake, Peter. 'Puritanism, Arminianism and a Shropshire Axe-Murder', Midland History 15 (1990), 37-64.
Lake, Peter. 'Deeds Against Nature: Cheap Print, Protestantism and Murder in Early Seventeenth Century England', in Kevin Sharpe & Peter Lake (eds), Culture and Politics in Early Stuart England (London & New York, 1994), pp.257-84.
Lake, Peter. 'Popular Form, Puritan Content? Two Puritan Appropriations of the Murder Pamphlet From Mid-Seventeenth-Century London', in Anthony Fletcher & Peter Roberts (eds), Religion, Culture and Society in Early Modern Britain: Essays in Honour of Patrick Collinson (Cambridge, 1994), pp.313-34.
Lake, Peter. '"A Charitable Christian Hatred": The Godly and Their Enemies in the 1630s', in Christopher Durston & Jacqueline Eales (eds), The Culture of English Puritanism, 1560-1700 (London, 1996), pp.145-83.
Lake, Peter. 'Order, Orthodoxy and Resistance: The Ambiguous Legacy of English Puritanism or Just How Moderate Was Stephen Denison?', in Michael Braddick and John Walter (eds), Negotiating Power in Early Modern Society: Order, Hierarchy and Subordination in Britain and Ireland (Cambridge, 2001), pp.206-26.
Maltby, Judith. '"By This Book": Parishioners, the Prayer Book and the Established Church', in Kenneth Fincham (ed.), The Early Stuart Church, 1603-1642 (London, 1993), pp.115-38.
Maltby, Judith. Prayer Book and People in Elizabethan and Early Stuart England (Cambridge, 1998).
Marchant, R.A. The Church Under the Law: Justice, Administration and Discipline in the Diocese of York, 1560-1640 (Cambridge, 1969). Marsh, Christopher. 'Piety and Persuasion in Elizabethan England', in Nicholas Tyacke (ed.), England's Long Reformation, 1500-1800 (London, 1997), pp.141-65.
Marsh, Christopher. 'The Gravestone of Thomas Lawrence Revisited (or the Family of Love and the Local Community in Balsham, 1560-1630)', in Margaret Spufford (ed.), The World of Rural Dissenters, 1520-1725 (Cambridge, 1995), pp.208-35.
Marsh, Christopher. The Family of Love in English Society, 1550-1630 (Cambridge, 1994).
Marsh, Christopher. '"Common Prayer" in England, 1560-1640: The View From the Pew', Past & Present 171 (May 2001), 66-94.
Marsh, Christopher. 'Sacred Space in England, 1560-1640: The View from the Pew', Journal of Ecclesiastical History 53:2 (April 2002), 286-311.
McIntosh, Marjorie K. A Community Transformed: The Manor and Liberty of Havering, 1500-1620 (Cambridge, 1991), ch.3.
McIntosh, Marjorie K. Controlling Misbehaviour in England, 1370-1600 (Cambridge, 1998), pp.1-19, 186-213 [& see Paul Seaver et al, 'Symposium: Controlling (Mis)behaviour', Journal of British Studies 37 (July 1998), 231-305.
Racaut, L. 'The "Book of Sports" and Sabbatarian Legislation in Lancashire, 1579-1616', Northern History 33 (1997), 73-87.
Sharpe, Pamela. Population and Society in an East Devon Parish: Reproducing Colyton, 1540-1840 (Exeter, 2002), pp.29-64.
Smith, A. Hassell. 'Puritanism and Neighbourhood: A Case Study in late Sixteenth- and Early-Seventeenth-Century Norfolk', in Edward Royle (ed.), Regional Studies in the History of Religion in Britain Since the Later Middle Ages (Humberside, 1984) [SRC].
Spufford, Margaret. 'Puritanism and Social Control?', in Anthony Fletcher & John Stevenson (eds), Order and Disorder in Early Modern England (Cambridge, 1985), pp.41-58.
Spufford, Margaret. 'The Importance of Religion in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries', in Margaret Spufford (ed.), The World of Rural Dissenters, 1520-1725 (Cambridge, 1995), pp.1-102.
Underdown, David. 'Regional Cultures? Local Variations in Popular Culture During the Early Modern Period', in Tim Harris (ed.), Popular Culture in England, c.1500-1850 (London, 1995), pp.28-47.
Underdown, David. Fire From Heaven: Life in an English Town in the Seventeenth Century (London, 1992), chs.4-5.
Underdown, David. Revel, Riot and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603-1660 (Oxford, 1985), chs.1-5.
Walsham, Alexandra. '"A Glose of Godlines": Philip Stubbes, Elizabethan Grub Street and the Invention of Puritanism', in Susan Wabuda and Caroline Litzenberger (eds), Belief and Practice in Reformation England: A Tribute to Patrick Collinson From His Students (Aldershot, 1998), pp.177-206.
Walsham, Alexandra. '"Frantick Hackett": Prophecy, Sorcery, Insanity and the Elizabethan Puritan Movement', Historical Journal 41:1 (1998), 27-66.
Walsham, Alexandra. '"The Fatal Vesper": Providentialism and Anti-Popery in Late Jacobean London', Past & Present 144 (August 1994), 36-87.
Walsham, Alexandra. 'The Parochial Roots of Laudianism Revisited: Catholics, Anti-Calvinists and 'Parish Anglicans' in Early Stuart England', Journal of Ecclesiastical History 49:4 (October, 1998) 620-51.
Walsham, Alexandra. 'Reformed Folklore? Cautionary Tales and Oral Tradition in Early Modern England', in Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf (eds), The Spoken Word: Oral Culture in Britain, 1500-1850 (Manchester, 2002), pp.173-95.
Walter, John. ‘Abolishing Superstition with Sedition’? The Politics of Popular Iconoclasm in England, 1640-1642’, Past and Present no.183 (May 2004), 79-125
Walter, John. ‘Popular Iconoclasm and the Politics of the Parish in Eastern England, 1640-1642’, Historical Journal 47:2 (2004), 261-90.
Watt, Tessa. 'Piety in the Pedlar's Pack: Continuity and Change, 1578-1630', in Margaret Spufford (ed.), The World of Rural Dissenters, 1520-1725 (Cambridge, 1995), pp.235-72.
Watt, Tessa. Cheap Print and Popular Piety, 1550-1640 (Cambridge, 1991).
27. Philip Stubbes [DNB], The Anatomie of Abuses: Contayninge a Discoverie of Vices in a Verie Famous Island Called Ailgnia, Made Dialogue-wise (London, 1583) [STC 23376], extracts [& see Alexandra Walsham, '"A Glose of Godlines": Philip Stubbes, Elizabethan Grub Street and the Invention of Puritanism', in Susan Wabuda and Caroline Litzenberger (eds), Belief and Practice in Reformation England: A Tribute to Patrick Collinson From His Students (Aldershot, 1998), pp.177-206].
29. The King's Majesties Declaration to His Subiects, Concerning Lawfull Sports to be Used (1633): [extract] printed in David Cressy & Lori Ann Ferrell (eds), Religion and Society in Early Modern England: A Sourcebook (London, 1996), pp.145-48 [& see David Underdown, Revel, Riot and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1603-1660 (Oxford, 1985), pp.66-68.
30. Bishop Piers [DNB]: Report on Somerset Parish Feasts (1633): [extract] printed in David Cressy & Lori Ann Ferrell (eds), Religion and Society in Early Modern England: A Sourcebook (London, 1996), pp.148-50 [& see T.G. Barnes, 'County Politics and a Puritan Cause Celebre: Somerset Churchales, 1633', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 5th ser. 9 (1959), 103-22].
TSM: Theory, Skill, Method This is a compulsory course, designed to help postgraduate students of history acquire the variety of research skills needed to identify, initiate and complete a substantial piece of research in social, economic or cultural history.
MPhil/PhD students who have not already completed an approved training course
MPhil/PhD students who may have an MA, but whose previous training has not been in history.
Aims and Objectives
The first two aims of this course are:
to support the work you do (in terms of reading, learning, research and writing) for your own MA or PhD programme
to help you acquire the skills needed to undertake an extended piece of historical research and writing.
Graduate students of history undertaking their first independent research need knowledge of a wide range of sources and the means to access and survey them. They need to understand the theoretical frameworks, many of them drawn from the social and human sciences, and from literary studies, that inform existing work on their chosen topic, and to recognise the gaps and spaces that their own work may attempt to fill. They need to know how to frame historical questions with which to interrogate primary and secondary sources - and they need to know how to set about answering those questions. They also face the challenge of presenting their work in written and in spoken form, in essays and dissertation, and in seminar papers. Believing that history is at once a highly practical and highly theoretical activity, we have planned TSM with these needs in mind. It will introduce you to library, archival, database and microform resources here at Warwick, and in the wider world. It will help you use information technology resources for the purposes of research and for the presentation of your own work. It pays a good deal of attention to your own writing of history, particularly the writing of your dissertation, from the very early stages of research design when you map out an area for investigation, right through to its formal presentation (in perfectly word-processed, immaculately proof-read, beautifully written prose). We believe that an understanding of the ideas and theories that underlie historical work is just one among all the skills the historian must possess, and so a major objective of the course is to help you understand the conceptual frameworks used by the historians whose work you study. In this way TSM should keep you up-to-date with the constantly developing field that you have chosen to work in.
Students interested in recent thinking in historiography are warmly invited to follow the History Department's third year lecture course on 'Historiography'. The lectures take on Tuesdays at 10.00 in F107. A copy of the booklet and lecture schedule for 'Historiography' will be posted on the Departmental website.
Following TSM should enable you to:
outline a topic for research and make a survey of existing work in the field
draw on key concepts from one or more of the social, human and literary sciences
appreciate the advanced literature in one or more of the following: economic, social, cultural, religious, political or literary history
discuss the theoretical underpinnings of this work, and suggest how your own research may contribute to it
locate and survey all sources relevant to the work you are undertaking for essays and dissertation (archival, library, database, microform, picture, film, literary, etc)
present your work in the form of a seminar talk to fellow students and staff in the History Department
understand the appropriate statistical, computing, or other techniques relevant to any data collection and analysis you undertake
present your research findings in tabulated and spreadsheet form, where appropriate
write lively, articulate, fully referenced and annotated and perfectly proof-read prose, in MA essays and in your dissertation
have a wide and informed knowledge of recent developments in historical thinking
contribute to historical knowledge by means of your dissertation
Those MA students with interests in the early modern period, whether or not they are registered for the MA in Religious and Social History, are encouraged to participate in the palaeography training provided in the course ‘From Manuscript to Print’ by Dr Teresa Grant for the MA students in the Centre for the Study of the Renaissance. If you choose to participate, you will be obliged to attend all the classes in each section (i.e. all the ‘Palaeography Classes’ in term 1; or all the sessions on ‘Printed Books’ in term 2). The set book is Hilary Marshall, Palaeography for Family and Local Historians (Phillimore, 2004), copies of which are available at a discounted price from the Centre at the start of term.
Parishes, Priests and People
a) How active a role did the laity play in the affairs of the pre-Reformation parish?
b) What evidence is there of widespread lay resentment of the clergy in the decades before the break with Rome?
C Harper-Bill, The Pre-Reformation Church in England, ch. 7 - a good general intro.
--------------, 'John Colet's Convocation Sermon and the Pre-Reformation Church in England', History (1988) and in P Marshall (ed) The Impact of the English Reformation (b)
P Marshall, Reformation England 1480-1642 (2003), ch. 1 - broad overview
C Haigh, English Reformations, chs. 1-2 (a,b)
--------, 'Anticlericalism and the English Reformation', in Haigh (ed) The English Reformation Revised, and in History (1983) (b)
AG Dickens, 'The Shape of Anticlericalism and the English Reformation' in Dickens, Late Monasticism and the Reformation, and in EI Kouri and T Scott (eds) Politics and Society in Reformation Europe (b). Summarized version in Dickens, The English Reformation (2nd ed), ch 13
JJ Scarisbrick, The Reformation and the English People, chs 1-2 (a)
E Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars, ch 4 (a)
---------, The Voices of Morebath: Reformation & Rebellion in an English Village (2001), chs. 1-4
JAF Thomson, The Early Tudor Church and Society, ch 9 (a)
P Marshall, The Catholic Priesthood and the English Reformation, esp. ch 8 (b)
R Whiting, The Blind Devotion of the People: Popular Religion and the English Reformation, ch 5 (a)
G Rosser, 'Communities of Parish and Guild in the late Middle Ages' in S Wright (ed) Parish, Church and People (a)
---------, 'Parochial Conformity and Voluntary Religion in late Medieval England', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (1991) (a)
CM Barron, 'The Parish Fraternities of Medieval London', in Barron and C Harper-Bill (eds) The Church in Pre-Reformation Society (a)
B Hanawalt, 'Keepers of the Light: Late Medieval English Parish Guilds', Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies (1984) (a)
S. Brigden, London and the Reformation, pp. 43-81 (b)
B Kümin, The Shaping of a Community: the Rise and Reformation of the English Parish, esp chs 2-4 (a)
A Brown, Popular Piety in Late Medieval England, esp. chs 3-6
V Bainbridge, Gilds in the Medieval Countryside, esp. ch 3 (a)
M James, 'Ritual, drama and the Social Body in the Late Medieval English town', Past and Present, 98 (1983) (a)
Beliefs and Priorities in Pre-Reformation Religion a) Can any meaningful distinction be drawn between 'elite' and 'popular' religion in this period?
b) 'A cult of the living in the service of the dead.' How adequate is this as a description of late medieval Catholicism?
c) How important were the saints in late medieval religion?
C Harper-Bill, The Pre-Reformation Church, ch. 7 - again useful brief remarks for a) & b)
AG Dickens, The English Reformation (2nd ed), ch 2 (a, b)
E Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars, intro, chs 6, 8 (a); ch 10 (b)
---------, 'holy maydens, holy wyfes: The cult of women saints in fifteenth and sixteenth-century England', in WJ Sheils & D Wood (eds), Women in the church, Studies in church History 27 (1990)
C Richmond, 'Religion and the Fifteenth-Century English Gentleman' in RB Dobson (ed), The Church, Politics & Patronage in the Fifteenth Century (a) p/c in SRC
C Carpenter, 'The Religion of the Gentry in Fifteenth-Century England' in D Williams (ed), England in the Fifteenth Century (a)
K Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic, ch 2 (a)
RN Swanson, Church and Society in Late Medieval England, ch 6 (a, b)
-------------, Catholic England, intro (a, b)
GW Bernard, ‘Vitality and Vulnerability in the Late Medieval Church: Pilgrimage on the Eve of the Break with Rome’, in John Watts, ed., The End of the Middle Ages? England in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (1998) (a)
S Brigden, 'Religion and Social Obligation in early Sixteenth-Century London', Past and Present (1984) (a, b)
P Marshall, Beliefs and the Dead in Reformation England (2002), ch. 1 (b)
C Burgess, 'Purgatory and Pious Motive in Later Medieval England' in S Wright (ed), Parish, Church and People (b)
------------, ''For the Increase of Divine Service': Chantries in the Parish in Late Medieval Bristol', Journal of Ecclesiastical History (1985) (b)
-----------, 'Wills and Pious Provision in Late Medieval Bristol', English Historical Review (1987) (b)
-----------, ‘"Longing to be Prayed for": Death and Commemoration in an English Parish in the Later Middle Ages’, in B Gordon and P Marshall (eds), The Place of the Dead: Death andRemembrance in Late medieval and Early Modern Europe (2000)
V Bainbridge, 'The Medieval Way of Death: Commemoration and the Afterlife in Pre-Reformation Cambridgeshire' in M Wilks (ed) Prophecy and Eschatology, Studies in Church History Subsidia 10 (1994) (b) - appears also as ch 4 of Bainbridge's Gilds in the Medieval Countryside.
B Kümin, The Shaping of a Community, ch 4 (fraternities and chantries -b)
RW Scribner, 'Ritual and Popular Belief in Catholic Germany' in Scribner, Popular Culture and Popular Movements, and in Jounal of Ecclesiastical History (1984) - not about England, but useful definitions and discussion for a)
Lollards a) Can Lollardy be considered a vigorous and coherent movement in the later fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries?
b) What dificulties confront the historian attempting a study of Lollardy in this period?C Cross, Church and People 1450-1660 - straightforward textbook introduction
RN Swanson, Church and Society in Late Medieval England, ch 7.3, 7.4 - brief intro.
R Rex, The Lollards (2002) – most recent survey
JAF Thomson, The Later Lollards 1414-1520, esp. intro, chs 11, 12 (a, b)
---------------, 'John Foxe and some Sources for Lollard History', Studies in Church History 2 (1965) (b) [NB SCH not a periodical, but conference proceedings in main church history section]
A Hudson, The Premature Reformation, esp. ch 10 - now the standard work
A Hope, 'Lollardy: the Stone the Builders Rejected?' in P Lake and M Dowling (eds), Protestantism and the National Church - one of the best recent surveys
J Fines, 'Heresy Trials in Coventry and Lichfield', Journal of Eccl History (1963)D Plumb,
'The Social and Economic Spread of Rural Lollardy' Studies in Church History 23 (1986) - good for a) [see note on SCH above].
------------, 'The Social and Economic Status of the Later Lollards' and 'A Gathered Church? Lollards and their Society' in M. Spufford (ed), The World of Rural Dissenters (a)
RG Davies, 'Lollardy and Locality', Transactions of the Royal Historical Society (1991) - important (a)
JF Davis, 'Lollard Survial and the Textile Industry in the South-East of England', Studies in Church History 3 (1966) (a)I Luxton, 'The Lichfield Court Book: A Postscript', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research (1971)
M Aston, 'Lollardy and Literacy' in Aston, Lollards and Reformers, and in History (1977)
M Aston and C Richmond (eds), Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages – chs by Lutton and Hope.