Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism


Incomplete Decolonization: Algeria & South Africa



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Incomplete Decolonization: Algeria & South Africa

  • The presence of sizeable European settler populations complicated the path from colony to nation.
    • Algeria: 1 million Europeans
      • French leaders claimed that Algeria was an integral part of metropolitan France.
      • The colons constituted a minority to the 9 million indigenous Arabs and Berber peoples.
    • South Africa: 4 million Europeans
      • Minority white rule (Afrikaners) persisted.
  • After winning the elections of 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party in South Africa enacted an extreme form of racial segregation known as apartheid.
      • Apartheid laws stripped Africans, Indians, and colored persons (mixed descent) of their few political rights.
      • Schools segregated; country divided into racial “homelands”
    • The African National Congress opposed this legislation.
      • After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, peaceful protest turned into violent protest.
      • Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison in 1962.
      • The West (U.S.) supported South Africa as a bulwark against the spread of communism in Africa.
  • The Algerian War of Independence
    • The war dragged on for eight years (1954-1962), at a cost of as many as 300,000 lives.
    • At home, French society was torn apart.
  • The negotiations to end the war began only after an insurrection led by colons and army officers had caused the French Fourth Republic to fall in 1958 and brought Charles de Gaulle to power.
    • By 1962, more than 9/10ths of the European population had departed.

Decolonization of Africa

  • Forcing the French out of north Africa
    • France in Africa
      • 1950s and 1960s, French granted independence to all its African colonies except Algeria
      • Two million French settlers in Algeria
      • Revolt of May 1954 was repressed by French; eight thousand Algerian Muslims died
    • War in Algeria, 1954-1962
      • Algerian nationalists pursued guerrilla warfare against French rule
      • By 1958, a half-million French soldiers were committed to the conflict
      • Atrocities on both sides; heavy civilian casualties; Algerian independence, 1962
    • Revolutionary writer Franz Fanon urged violence as weapon against colonial racism
  • Black African nationalism and independence
    • Growth of African nationalism
      • Began as grassroots protest against European imperialism
      • African nationalism celebrated Negritude (blackness), African roots
    • Obstacles to African independence
      • Imperial powers assumed Africans were not ready for self-government
      • White settlers opposed black independence
      • Anticommunist fears justified interference in African politics
      • Economic and political instability often hampered postindependent Africa
  • Freedom and conflict in sub-Sahara Africa
    • Ghana (Gold Coast) first to gain independence, 1957
      • Kwame Nkrumah, nationalist leader, jailed and censored for political actions
      • Eventually released, Nkrumah became Ghana's first president, 1957
      • Side-by-side posters presented Queen Elizabeth and Nkrumah as equals, 1961
    • Anticolonial rebellion in Kenya
      • Violent clashes between native Kikuyu (Mau Mau) and European settlers after 1947
      • 1930s and 1940s, Kikuyu pushed off farm lands, reduced to wage slaves
      • Labeling Mau Mau as communist subversives, Britain gained U.S. support
      • Kikuyu uprising crushed by superior arms in 1955; twelve thousand Africans killed
      • Political parties legalized, 1959; Kenya gained independence, 1963

Africa after 1945

  • Aftermath of decolonization
    • Organization of African Unity created 1963 to maintain peace, promote pan-African unity
    • Artificial boundaries imposed by colonialism were ruled inviolable
    • Ghana and many other states became one-party military dictatorships
  • South Africa
    • Transformation of South Africa
      • Gained independence in 1901, but denied civil rights to black population
      • South African economy strong, both mining and industry; prospered during WWII
      • Black workers demanded political change
    • Apartheid: harsh legal system imposed in 1948, designed to keep races separate
      • 87 % of South African land was for white residents, others classified by race
      • African National Congress, led by Nelson Mandela, launched campaign to protest apartheid
      • Severe government repression provoked international opposition after 1960
    • Black agitation and international sanctions brought end to apartheid in 1989
    • 1994, under new constitution, Mandela won free election as first black president
  • Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)
    • First prime minister, a Marxist, killed in a CIA-backed coup, 1961
    • Dictator Mobutu ruled from 1965 to 1997; plundered Zaire's economy
    • Mobutu ruled Zaire in dictatorial fashion and amassed huge personal fortune
    • Lawrence Kabila ousted Mobutu in 1997, changed country's name back to the Congo
    • Kabila killed, 2001; replaced by his son Joseph; no elections yet
  • Developing economies of Africa
    • Africa has 10 percent of world's population but less than 1 percent of industrial output
    • Rich in minerals, raw materials, agricultural resources
    • Lacking in capital, technology, foreign markets, and managerial class
    • Rapid population growth compounds problems

Liberation Theology of Latin America vs. Black Theology of South Africa

  • Liberation Theology
    • Commitment to end historical social inequality
    • Against injustice to poor
    • Committed to change social structure
    • Rooted in Catholic teachings and based on the bible
    • Non-violent principles
  • Black Theology
    • Committed to ending apartheid (seperatness)
    • Against injustice based on race
    • Trying to change social structure
    • Rooted in teachings from the Bible
    • Based on non-violent principles
  • Although similar in their attempts to change social inequality, Liberation Theology differed from Black Theology as the Liberation fight against inequalities was based on economic inequalities while Black Theology’s fight against injustices was based more on racial distinctions.

End of Empires- New non-aligned

  • Burma
    • Aung San (1915-1947)
  • India & Pakistan
    • Jawaharlal Nehru (1947-1964)
    • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)
  • Palestine
  • Israel, 1948
  • Ghana
    • Kwame Nkrumah (1957-1966)
  • Kenya
    • Jomo Kenyatta (1963-1978)
  • Indochina
    • Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969)
    • French defeated, 1954
  • Algeria
    • Franco-Algerian War, 1954-1962
  • South Africa
    • Afrikaner Nationalist Party from1948
    • Apartheid
    • "No Trial" Act, 1963
  • Indonesia
    • Ahmed Sukarno (1949-1966)
    • Suharto ousts Sukarno
  • Bandung Conference 1955 of non-aligned countries

Industrialization fueled Imperialism which caused over expenditures

  • Industrialization fueled imperialism
    • Industry needed raw materials, specialized crops
      • Rubber, tea from SE Asia
      • Gold, diamonds, copper, coffee from Africa
      • Cocoa, hemp from Latin America
    • Industry needed cheap laborers
    • Entrepreneurs needed markets
    • Colonies seemed one easy answer
  • Technology applied to colonial problems
    • Infrastructure built up to exploit colonies
      • Railroads and ports were first to be created
      • Bridges, roads also built
    • Technology used to extract minerals from mines
    • Science applied to farming to increase yields
  • Demand for raw minerals, markets produced horrible violence
    • British destroy Indian textiles to sell British goods to Indians
    • British, Americans, French fight Opium Wars to sell opium to Chinese
    • Belgian atrocities in creating the Belgian Congo
    • British Boer War to obtain gold, diamonds of Afrikaaners
  • Important Fact: Colonies never paid for public expenditures
    • Expense by Western governments exceeded what was earned from colonies
    • Wealth, profits went to Western businessmen, companies
    • Only France and UK benefited from colonies but it was not economic
      • In World War I: French African troops saved France at Battle of Marne
      • In World War I and II: British Indian Army provided England with an edge to survive

Notice Indonesia

Pacific Rim

  • The Pacific Ocean is the center of world today
    • Mediterranean Sea was the ocean of the past
    • Atlantic Ocean was the ocean of the present: 1450 – 1945
    • Pacific Ocean is the ocean of the future
      • 1970 – 1982: US trade with Europe was up 400%
      • Same time period US trade with Asia Pacific was up 800%
  • Key Players
    • China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong
    • United States, Canada, Australia, Mexico, Chile
      • 1st Economy of the World: US
      • 2nd Economy of the World: China
      • 3rd Economy of the World: Japan
    • High technology, consumer electronics, computers, and automobiles
    • Major financial investment of US, China, Japan in each other, region
  • Impact on Region
    • Technology has hurt small producers, traditional markets
    • Shift of industry, agricultural production around Pacific
    • Massive immigration of Asians to the United States, Canada, Australia, Latin America
  • Threats to Prosperity
    • Warfare and conflicts: Korean War, Vietnamese War
    • Potential for conflict between China and Taiwan

1989: A YEAR OF CHANGE

  • Influences
    • Gandhi, Martin Luther King were world symbols
    • End of Cold War and Victory of the West
    • Gorbachev’s Perestroika, Glasnost
    • Influence of Pope John Paul II
  • Revolutions
    • Popular revolutions usually peaceful
    • Brought down, ended dictatorship
    • Parties in power rarely fought back
    • Romania and China used violence but only China succeeded
  • Around the world
    • Eastern Europe overthrows Communist regimes
      • Poland, E. Germany, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania
      • Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia
    • Russians withdraw troops from Afghanistan
    • South Africa: Apartheid Ends
    • People Power of Corazon Aquino overthrows Marcos in Philippines
    • Tiananamen Square Demonstrations in China

Global Terrorism

  • The weapon of the stateless, powerless
    • Those out of power
    • Of anticolonial and revolutionary movements
    • Cheapest way to oppose someone
  • Not New in History
    • Assassins of Post-Classical SW Asia struck fear in Muslim world
    • Thuggees devoted to Kali ritually murdered people in India
    • Boxer Rebellion and others attacked foreigners
  • Terrorism (opposite of civil disobedience)
    • Difficult to define terrorism, separate from guerrilla movements, independence movements
      • Terrorism is defined by the U.S. Department of Defense as "the unlawful use of -- or threatened use of -- force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives."
      • The systematic use of terror, the deliberate creation and exploitation of fear for bringing about political change
    • Deliberate violence, terror against civilians to advance political or ideological cause
    • Rarely successful; often discredits potentially worthy causes
  • Examples
    • Irish Republican Army violence in 20th Century Ireland, North Ireland against British
    • Chinese Communist Rebellion in Malaya defeated by British
    • Mai Mai Rebellion in Kenya targets Europeans in 1960s
    • Algerian campaign against French colonial targets
    • PLO attacks on Israeli settlements
    • Basque ETA group in Spain
    • Baader Meinhof, Red Army (Communist) Terror in Germany, Italy in 1980s
  • 11 September 2001 focused international attention on terrorism
    • Coordinated attack on World Trade Tower and Pentagon
    • Source identified as Islamic militant Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda network
    • Angered by U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia; proclaimed jihad, holy war
  • Islamic State of Afghanistan was established 1996 by Taliban
    • Imposed strict Islamic law: regulated dress, entertainment, media
    • Women barred from education, work, health services
    • November 2001, U.S. forces invaded Afghanistan, drove out Taliban, al-Qaeda

Globalization

  • World War II, the Cold War globalized the western economy
    • Western allies coordinated their resources to defeat Axis and communists
    • US took the lead especially in aid to develop economies
    • Us built whole industries abroad to supply its troops, allies: became world corporations
    • American, European, Japanese companies began to operate outside of home country
  • Council for Economic Cooperation and Development
    • American led economic effort to cooperate in capitalism, free trade, development of industry
    • Pumped billions through Marshall Plan into allies to prevent communist takeover
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
    • Formed in 1947 as vehicle to promote free trade
    • In 1994, 123 GATT members created Word Trade Organization (WTO)
    • Dramatic growth in world trade, 1966-1990
  • Global economy evident after collapse of communism
    • Expanding trade, foreign investments, privatization of industry
    • Free trade: free of state-imposed restrictions
  • Perils of the new economy: vulnerable to global forces
    • Investors withdrew support from Thailand in 1997
    • Ripple effect: contraction of other Asian economies
  • Critics of globalization
    • To supporters
      • Global economy efficient
      • Best path to global prosperity
    • To critics
      • Widens gap between rich and poor
      • Destroys environment
      • Threatens local and traditional crafts and economies

Multi-National Corporations

  • Global corporations symbols of the new economy
    • As defined: Exxon, Ford, Boeing, Phillips, General Motors, Nissan Bank, Shell, Alcatel
      • Branches in many different countries
      • 25% of business is in a country other than home country
    • Multinational businesses
      • Operate apart from laws and restrictions of any one nation
      • Move capital to maximize profit (lower business costs)
      • Able to get around expensive labor, labor restrictions
      • Seek cheapest labor and resources
      • Prefer lax environmental laws
      • Pay less in taxes in developed world than formerly
  • Economies of Scale
    • An industry which only becomes cost efficient in large production
    • Able to minimize costs, take advantage of mass production
    • Exploit expensive technologies
    • Transfer technologies, capital easily across borders
  • Forces change from GNP to GDP
    • GNP: Gross National Product
    • GDP: Gross Domestic Product
      • Value of all goods and services produced in your home country
      • And foreign countries IF the corporation is majority owned by a citizen, national corporation
    • Switch shows influence of Trade, Multinational Corporations
  • Problems
    • MNC tend to diminish national sovereignty and ignore smaller nations’ laws
    • MNC have no political or social agenda short of maximization of profit
    • MNC ignore labor laws, environmental restrictions
    • MNC will often sell products to countries totally at odds with mother country

Developing Nations

  • LDC vs. DC
    • Emerging economies
  • Developing nations or Emerging Nations
    • Dependence on agriculture, commodities, & labor-intensive, low value-added manufacturing
    • Weak institutions
    • Strong historical commitment to protectionism
    • Small middle class
    • Often former colonies
    • Often struggling with ethnic or religious tensions
  • Identify of classes in development
  • Affluent middle class:
    • North America, Northern Europe, Japan
  • Rising middle class :
    • Singapore, Latin Europe, Mexico, Argentina
  • Emerging middle class:
    • China, India, South America, Southeast Asia
  • Non-developing:
    • Sub-Saharan Africa & the Middle East

Economic Worlds

  • Simplified way of looking at world c. 1980 - Present
  • 1st World: US, Western Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia
    • Capitalist, high industrialized economies
    • Stable democracies with high standard of living, social index
    • Private property, economic decisions left up largely to free market
    • Heavy trade and high technology sectors; large service sectors, capital markets
  • 2nd World: PRC, former states of the USSR, Eastern Europe, N. Korea, Cuba, Vietnam
    • Communist and ex-Communist command economies
    • Tendency to outdated technology: heavy industry, mining; few consumer industries
    • Means of production owned largely by state, private property limited
    • Great environmental damage
  • 3rd World: South Africa, Iran, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Peru, Colombia, Nigeria
    • Nations with resources, educated population, capital to develop
    • Hampered by wars, dictatorships, internal ethnic strife, including economic problems
  • 4th World and 5th World: Most of West Africa, East Africa
    • Nations with few if any natural resources short of populace, which is poor, uneducated
    • If any resources, tend to be cash crop or one crop, resource export dependent
    • Often exist as subsistence economies: labor intensive, little capital, little trade
    • 5th World is poorest: often seen as nations which exist merely on paper with simplest economy
  • Newly Industrializing Nations: 4 Tigers, India, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile
    • Often called Newly Industrialized Economies
    • Former 3rd world nations which have significantly modernized industries, trade, resources
    • Population has education, abilities to advance, innovate, progress
    • Private property generally respected; active participants in trade
    • Rule of law and government stability relatively new, or stability subject to strife

Trading Blocs

  • Western Europe
    • European Coal and Steel Union
      • Begun as a coal and steel tariff union of Italy, France, West Germany, Benelux
      • Became Economic Communities (EEC) in 1970s
        • Added UK, Ireland, Greece, Denmark in 1970s; Spain, Portugal join in the 1980s
        • A common market, free trade, free travel within the Union
      • Expectations of eventual European political union leads to European Union
      • Eleven members adopted a common currency, the Euro, in 1999
    • EFTA: European Free Trade Association
      • •       &, nbsp; Sweden, Finland, Norway, Denmark, UK, Austria, Switzerland
      • Many nations have today joined the EU
  • COMECON: Communist version of the Warsaw Pact Treaty nations
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    • Cartel established in 1960 to raise global oil prices
    • After Arab-Israeli war of 1973, OPEC placed embargo on oil to United States
    • Price of oil quadrupled from 1973 to 1975, triggered global recession
    • Overproduction, dissension among members diminished influence
  • Regional trade associations
    • Formed to establish free-trade zones for member states
    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
      • Grew from Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines in 1967
      • Today includes Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma)
    • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
      • Signed in 1993: US, Canada, Mexico
    • MERCORSOR
      • 1993: Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Chile form, trend is to link it and NAFTA

Population Issues



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