Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism

Role of the United States

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Role of the United States

  • Middle East
    • Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil company
    • 1953
      • CIA aided coup d'état in Iran and installed Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi which ruled until 1979 Islamic Revolution
    • 1956
      • Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal
    • 1956
      • Israel, France, and Britain invade Egypt; Eisenhower forces them to abandon the invasion; US replaces Britain as a major power in the region
    • 1957
      • Eisenhower doctrine: US will defend the Middle Eastern governments from communism and Arab nationalism
    • 1958
      • Eisenhower sends 5,000 troops to Lebanon to protest pro-Western Christian government against Nasser
  • Example of Latin American and Caribbean Involvement
    • Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán announces plans to nationalize United Fruit Company
    • 1954
      • CIA coup d’etat in Guatemala overthrows Guzman and installs a military dictatorship
    • 200,000 die in repressions in the following years
    • 1993
      • CIA helps restore democratic government in Guatemala

Military junta entering Guatemala City in a jeep driven by CIA agent Carlos Castillo Armas

Populist politics

  • Populism in Latin America was typified by mobilization of support from labor, poor;
  • strong nationalism particularly directed against foreign ownership of resources
    • often led by military figures who wished to retain structure of government.
  • Following general failure of liberal governments in Latin America with Great Depression, number of populist movements resulted in conservative, military responses;
    • Peron in Argentina,
    • APRA in Peru,
    • Vargas in Brazil
  • populism continued to play a role in all revolutionary movements since the 1930s.

LA and African Neocolonialism = Dependency

  • Political instability with Marxist and capitalist influence
  • Continuing friction from racial inequalities
  • Economy drained of natural resources with no opportunity to diversify from its colonial export of cash crops
  • Because of competing loans from US and USSR areas left with large debts in which the lenders tried to exploit
    • Salvadore Allende in Chili
    • Fidel Castro in Cuba
  • Corruption and misconduct of dictators and caudios allowed social issues like health care, education were ignored and the infrastructures weak, including both the political and economic institutions

Latin American Dependence starts in IR

  • Colonial legacy
    • Prevented industrialization
    • Spain, Portugal never encouraged industries
  • Limited success at industrialization
    • 1820 – 1850: Economic Stagnation
      • Wars of independence had disrupted economy
      • Most wealth tied to land, agriculture
      • Export of primary, unfinished goods especially guano, coffee, hides
    • Too many unsolved social problems retarded industrialization
  • Economic growth part of 2nd Industrial Revolution
    • Change grew out of liberalizing effects, reforms in late century
      • Entrepreneurs, intellectuals, landowners brought in foreign investments
      • Facilitated by new technologies (railroads, steamships)
    • Great Boom driven by exports
      • Demand for rubber, copper, tin, silver, beef, bananas, oil, coffee, cocoa
      • Capital intensive development of primary product exports
      • Trade increased by almost 50% from 1870 – 1880
      • British initially preeminent; Germany and US increasingly rivals for area
    • Mexico, Brazil, Argentina
      • Society, infrastructure transformed by this Great Boom
      • But wealth often in hands of foreigners, upper elite
      • Growth was often at the expense of local interests, poor, minorities
      • Liberal idealism often sold out to wealth of elite, profit

Comparative Revolutions

  • Mexican Revolution of 1910 has some similarities with the Cuban revolution of the 1950s.
    • both were launched against long-standing personal rules (Diaz, Batista); both were nationalistic responses to foreign control of internal resources and economy;
    • both involved demands for redistribution of land;
    • both involved what was essentially guerilla warfare against national military forces.
  • the outcomes of the revolutions were different;
    • Cuban revolution resulted in establishment of Marxist-Leninist socialist government; Mexican government enacted constitution of 1917 which appeared to establish liberal democracy;
    • actual government controlled by single party.
  • Also Cuba and Guatemala in the 50’s
    • both based on populist appeal of laboring groups, nationalist expropriation of foreign capital, land redistribution.
    • Guatemalan reform movement under Arevalo and Arbenz halted by intervention of U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in support of business interests while Cuban revolt under Castro resulted in creation of Marxist-Leninist state with economy dependent on Soviet Union; succeeded where Guatemalan thwarted by U.S. intervention.

Mexican Revolution class struggle

  • Caudillos – rich, land owners
  • Conservative
  • Middle class – desired democracy (bourgeoisie)
  • Often liberal
  • Peasants – desired land and basic reforms
  • Diaz Diaz- tries to modernize & industrialize but allows foreign interests & allows peasants to squalor
  • goes into exile -
  • Madero
  • demands elections
  • Both sides feel too little has been granted to them
  • Killed by conservative general
  • Villa
  • S. Mexico
  • Bandit
  • Loots from land owners (Robin Hood analogy
  • Zapata
  • N. Mexico
  • Leads peasants
  • Desire for land reform
  • Passionate & charismatic leader
  • Carranza
  • More Conservative
  • Tries to end peasant revolts
  • Has Zapata killed
  • Buys off Villa
  • Reluctantly allows new Constitution
  • Killed by Zap followers
  • PRI
  • Middle ground
  • Brings stability to country
  • Social & political reform
  • i.e. land, education

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