Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism

effected Empires throughout the World British, French, American, Dutch

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4 effected Empires throughout the World British, French, American, Dutch

  • Latin America (United Fruit Company)
    • Mexico (early 20th Century)
    • South America (1920s and 30s)
    • MesoAmerica (Nicaruaga, Guatamala, El Salvador 1980s)
    • Cuba 1950s
  • South Asia (*Afghanistan is considered Middle East and was never a colony of the British although occupied by them)
    • India, Pakistan and later Bangladesh
  • Southeast Asia
    • Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Burma was under the British Rag until 1948 and became Union of Mayamar
  • Africa
    • Madagascar
    • 1960 – Year of Africa
  • Middle East (mostly as mandates by 20th century and as a result of dissolution of Ottomans following WWI)
    • Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt
    • United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman as British withdrew in 1961

The Global Impact

  • Around 90 countries will emerge during this Great Liberation, some large (India) some small (Kuwait)
  • These new nations (as well as those in Latin America became known as the “developing world”. Although each differs from each other, they share common goals:
    • Determined to pursue MODERNIZATION (stable governments & economies)

Decolonization Map – 1960 Year of Africa


  • Decolonization in Asia after World War II

British in South Asia

  • India was a British colony from the late eighteenth century to the mid-twentieth century.
    • First controlled by the British East India Trade Company
    • Robert Clive and Battle of Plessey
  • Britain developed the infrastructure of India in the form of harbors, railroads, modern cities, and cotton and steel mills.
    • The Raj with Zamidars and Nabobs
  • British rule was provided by a viceroy and administered by the Indian Civil Service.
  • English rule provided many benefits.
    • English became the lingua franca for a land with many different languages. English rule also created Western-educated professionals and bureaucrats who were to become the leaders of the independence movement.
    • These individuals were scrupulously honest and imbued with a sense of duty toward the Indian people.
  • Movements
    • 1885 Indian National Congress included both Muslims and Hindu
    • Muslims, founded the All-India Muslim League in 1906, thus giving India not one, but two independence movements
    • 1909 Legislative councils were formed and Morley-Minto Act insured that Muslims would be included
    • Rowlett Act prompts Gandhi to propose strikes which cripple the British but result in some violence including the Amristar Massacre
      • The Amritsar Massacre of April 1919 where 300-400 protesters, unaware of public assembly ban included in the ROWLETT ACT of March 1919, were marching in protest of heavy taxation and conscription into British army (Sepoy Revolt of 1857)
    • Reinforces satyagraha or peaceful non-cooperation movement as British are horrified at the Massacre
    • Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms lay the foundation for Home Rule and Gandhi become the leader
  • Independence was granted gradually with full independence coming only after World War II on August 15, 1947 after many acts of civil disobedience including the Salt March and salt protests of the early 1930s.
  • They did, however, try to control the influx of technology and industry and were prejudiced against dark-skinned people.

Conflict begins

What happens after Independence

  • Jawarlal Nehru
    • Ally of Gandhi.
    • 1st Prime Minister of India, 1947-1964
    • Advocated Industrialization.
    • Promoted “Green Revolution”.
      • India's "Green Revolution" allowed farmers to triple their crop by using modern science and technology.
    • Mixed Economy
    • Nonaligned Movement

Green Revolution

  • Overpopulation
    • 1 billion & climbing
  • Economic development.
  • Hindu-Muslim tensions
  • Gender issues
    • dowry killings
  • Caste bias
    • discrimination against untouchables continues
  • The Kashmir dispute and nuclear weapons
  • Political assassinations
  • Growing gap between haves and have nots
  • Major problems & Issues in India today

Cold War influences in area Non-aligned

  • 1971 India – Pakistan War

India vs. Egypt

  • Similarities
    • both nations typified by overwhelming population growth that ate up much of gains
    • both engaged in state stimulation of economy state financed education, land redistribution (although largely unsuccessful)
  • Differences
    • no military intervention in India, retention of civilian rule
    • India had a larger industrial and scientific sector, also better transport and communication infrastructure
    • India had larger middle class than Egypt
    • India state intervention in economy less direct than in Egypt
    • India had greater access to international capitalization.

Negotiated Independence in India and Africa

  • In India and much of colonial Africa, independence came with little bloodshed.
    • The British withdrew after WWII.
  • Pakistan and India gained independence in August, 1947.
    • Problems in India between Hindu majority and Muslim minority.
      • Gandhi shot dead by a Hindu zealot in 1948.
      • India’s first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru was committed to the goal of state-directed modernization.
  • Within a decade and a half of Indian independence, most of the African states also gained their sovereignty.
    • In 1957, the Gold Coast (renamed Ghana) became tropical Africa’s first independent state.
    • By 1963 all of British-ruled Africa except for Southern Rhodesia was independent.
  • In each of these colonial possessions, charismatic nationalist leaders took charge of populist political parties and became the leaders to whom the British turned over power.
  • Decolonization in much of French-ruled Africa followed a similarly smooth path, though the French were initially more resistant than the British.
    • At first, treated decolonization as assimilation.
  • France dissolved its political ties with French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa in 1960, having already given the protectorates in Morocco and Tunisia their independence in 1956.

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