Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism

Henry David Thoreau Resistance to civil government

Download 72.64 Kb.
Size72.64 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

Henry David Thoreau Resistance to civil government

  • 1846 Thoreau chooses to go to jail.
  • Protesting Poll Tax (opposing Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
  • Passive resistance (later adopted by Gandhi and Dr. King)
  • “The individual, Thoreau claimed, is "a higher and independent power," from which the state obtains its power.

Civil Disobedience vs. Terrorism

  • The individual, Thoreau claimed, is "a higher and independent power," from which the state obtains its power.
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Refusal to obey civil laws
  • People practicing civil disobedience break a law because they
    • 1. consider the law unjust
    • 2. want to call attention to its injustice
    • 3. hope to bring about its repeal or amendment.
  • They are also willing to accept any penalty, such as imprisonment, for breaking the law.
    • This is what separates them from other protesters/lawbreakers or terrorists.

Go Against the Flow…

  • “If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away.”- Thoreau

Characterized by level of violence

  • Gandhi-Passive Resistance.
    • This is more effective in India because of the numbers of people.
    • Any massive action would totally disrupt governmental activities.
  • King-Non-Violent Resistance.
    • Action against the law other than just marches.
  • Mandela-Militaristic Resistance.
    • The more violent the reaction against the disobedience the more violent the resistance becomes.


  • "Nonviolence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man."
  • Mohandas K. Gandhi on nonviolence
  • "Generations to come will scarce believe that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth."
  • Albert Einstein
  • "Gandhi was inevitable.
  • If humanity is to progress,
  • Gandhi is inescapable.
  • He lived, thought and acted,
  • inspired by the vision of humanity evolving toward
  • a world of peace and harmony.
  • We may ignore Gandhi at our own risk."
  • Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

Phases of modern national expansion

  • Period of exploration and ‘discovery’
  • Period of early contact, conquest, settlement and colonization
  • Establishment of permanent European settlement, colonization or exploitation
  • Climax of the scramble for colonies, markets, and raw materials
  • Ex-colonies are formally decolonized and independent, yet still economic dependent on the West
  • Cold War proxies and social transformations to welfare states are the end game in the late 20th century
    • Former colonies discarded by superpowers
    • Lesser countries such as France and Great Britain discard former colonies as they attempt to protect their citizens from risk in the new welfare states of the Post World War II era


  • Young educated (mostly western educated) such as Young Turks of Ottoman Empire and May 4th movement of China or Aung San of Burma
  • Three patterns:
    • Civil war (China) Three People’s Principles (Nationalism-Democracy-Welfare of the People through food, clothing, housing, and transportation) Both Kuomintang and CCP as May 4th Movement
    • Negotiated independence (India and much of Africa)
    • Incomplete de-colonization (Palestine, Algeria and Southern Africa, Vietnam)
  • Empires and issues
    • British – 1931 Statute of Westminster
    • converted the British Empire into the British Commonwealth also allowed varying degrees of autonomy (Australia, New Zealand, Dominions of Canada
    • 1941 – Atlantic Charter written by Roosevelt and Churchill – affirming all nations the right self determination
    • French colonies were given representation in French parliament in the Fourth French Republic in 1947
    • 1960 the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1514 that supported the end of colonization
  • Pan African Congress & African National Congress
  • Indian National Congress & Muslim League
  • Pan American Union evolves into Organization of American States in 1947
  • Chinese May 4th movement or (Kuomintang & CCP) after Japanese occupation and the CCP’s Long March of 1937 drumming up peasant support while the Kuomintang lost to the Japanese many people thought the CCP had inherited the right to the tenets of the May 4th movement after Mao Zedong’s May 1939 speech and formation of New Cultural movement

Causes and Impact

  • Three main issues lead to decolonization:
    • desire for independence and issue of self-determination
    • European distraction with internal affairs and their security (social welfare states)
    • resentment against discrimination
  • Further issues were promises of independence during WWII, increased education and a wave of nationalism separated Africa from Latin America
  • The results of decolonization include political instability, economic weaknesses and debt lead to dependency of the former colonies

Changing patterns of Life due to Decolonization and Globalization

  • New roles for women
    • Feminist movement
    • Nationalist struggles
  • Science and Technology
    • Green revolution
    • Space race
    • Computer revolution (age of Information to Age of access)
    • Medical breakthroughs
  • Urbanization
    • New definitions of community and older rural beliefs challenged
    • Shantytowns
  • New Global Culture
    • Westernization
    • Preservation of old and blending of artistic traditions

Download 72.64 Kb.

Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8

The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page