Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism

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Empires to Decolonization to Neocolonialism (Globalization and economic relationships vs. Modernization)

  • Ties to colonial power
  • & type of colonization
  • Economic role (sans Globalization)
  • Mercantilism to capitalism to interdependency
  • Nationalism and self determination
  • Nation
  • World
  • Today’s
  • World
  • Environmental issues
  • Human rights
  • E
  • C
  • O
  • N
  • O
  • M
  • I
  • C

Competing Economic Models

  • After World War II most of Europe was in ruins.
  • One quarter of Germany’s cities were rubble
  • Yugoslavia had lost approximately 10 percent of its population
  • 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union
  • In China, survivors faced famine, disease, civil war, and revolution
  • Britain and France were bankrupt.
  • Forty four nations met at the original session of United Nations in July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to ensure post war economies did not return to the Autarky and Protectionism that had led to the rise of dictators.
  • The Bretton Woods Conference created the International Monetary Fund, as well as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank)

Decolonization following wars

  • Causes instability in the region
  • After World War I
    • League of Nations mandates for Great Britain and France
    • Self-determination & Atlantic Charter
  • After World War II
    • Post World War II settlements helped provide stability especially for the defeated Axis powers creating “economic miracles” for Japan, Germany and as a secondary effect for France.
    • Marshall Plan, Bretton Woods & IMF, Common market (later EU)

Post WWII to present

  • End to European colonial Empires
    • Nationalism and independence
    • Different roads to freedom
    • Global impact
  • Cold War goes global
    • Superpowers
    • Nonaligned nations
    • Cold war ends (effects of dissolution of USSR 1990s)
    • Ethnic conflict
  • New nations seek stability
  • Regional and global organizations
    • UN
    • NGO
  • Global Issues
    • Culture clash
    • Human rights
    • Intervention
    • Population shifts and control
    • Environmental
    • Culture clash

Post-Surrender Terms for Japan Occupation of Japan (August 1945 - April 1952)

  • Condition of Japan following war and peace treaty of October 1951 carried out by the Us (McArthur)
    • Japan was devastated as the cities (except Kyoto), the industries, and transportation networks were severely damaged.
    • A severe shortage of food continued for several years with Inflation– the cost of living rose by 10 percent each month for about two years.
    • The chief objective of SCAP were demilitarization and democratization as there would be continued U.S. military presence to protect it from communism & Okinawa was to remain under U.S. occupation (1972); retaining rights to military bases.
  • Demilitarization
    • The remains of Japan’s war machine were destroyeddisarmed but eventually able to maintain “self-defense” forces
    • Japan basically lost all the territory seized after 1894,
  • Democratization
    • Economic reforms
      • Effort to eliminate big business conglomerates; independent companies such as Honda, Toyota, and Sony emerged.
      • Land reform program to achieve a more equitable distribution of wealth.
      • nuclear power instead of petrolm based dependency
      • Keiretzu or Horizontal and vertical integration
    • Educational reforms
      • Efforts to remove militaristic and ultranationalistic influences from schools so suspended the teaching of Japanese history and geography until new textbooks could be written & encouraged students to think (no rote learning).
    • Political reforms
      • Eliminate the power of the emperor (figurehead); announce that he was not divine; peerage eliminated included war crimes trials
      • Make the executive power of the government responsible to the people or the representatives.
      • Establish a legislative body that would be directly responsible to all adult citizens (universal suffrage).
      • Develop democratically controlled political parties.
      • Eliminate ties between the government and Shinto shrines.
      • Adoption of a new constitution and bill of rights.

Post War Western Europe

  • Marshall Plan aid helped western Europe begin recovery in 1947
  • Korean War in 1950 stimulated economic activity.
  • Economic growth became a basic objective of all western European governments.
  • Governments accepted Keynesian economics to stimulate their economies.
    • Addresses the issue of relationship between the public and private sectors of business and the need for International economic institutions
  • Germany and France were especially successful and influential.
  • In most countries many people willing to work hard for low wages; expanding industries benefited.
  • Increased demand for consumer goods.
  • Many economic barriers eliminated and a large unified market emerged: Common Market created in 1957
    • Created out of a coal and steel agreement
    • Eventually created the Economic Union and the more current Maastricht Treaty which includes 27 countries
  • Combined free-market economy & extensive social welfare network inherited from Nazi era.
  • By late 1950s, West Germany had robust economy, full employment, a strong currency and stable prices while France used Marshall Plan aid money and the nationalized banks to funnel money into key industries, several of which were state owned.
  • Combined flexible planning and a “mixed” state and private economy to achieve most rapid economic development in its history.

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