Elvis Presley would come to symbolize the rebellious attitude of this new music, particularly in his hip-shaking performances. One of the first rock and roll songs to receive national attention was Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel,”



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In 1956, rock and roll was a brand new style of music just beginning to emerge from its precursors: rhythm and blues and country western. More than any other early rock and roll artist, Elvis Presley would come to symbolize the rebellious attitude of this new music, particularly in his hip-shaking performances. One of the first rock and roll songs to receive national attention was Elvis Presley’s “Heartbreak Hotel,” released in January 1956. “Heartbreak Hotel” was the first single Elvis recorded for RCA, after the label purchased Elvis’s contract from Memphis-based Sun records. Elvis’s records for Sun, such as “That’s All Right” were only local hits. By contrast, “Heartbreak Hotel” was a number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100, and it announced Elvis’s ascendance to national stardom.1




In contrast to Elvis’s other, later RCA hits, the mood of “Heartbreak Hotel,” is dark and even depressed. In fact the song, which was co-written by Elvis’s publicist Mae Boren Axton, was inspired by a suicide note. A sullen bass keeps the slow tempo of the song as Elvis sings his story of loneliness and despair. On later records like “Hound Dog,” Elvis would return to a more upbeat, up-tempo style, the style that would in large part define rock and roll in the 1950s. In this sense, “Heartbreak Hotel” represents a stylistic departure for Elvis.2

The song also represents a step away from county and toward rock and roll. Musically, “Heartbreak Hotel” differs markedly from “That’s All Right,” and has more in common with Elvis’s previous rhythm and blues-oriented records such as “Blue Moon of Kentucky.” “That’s All Right” is dominated by an alternating bass pattern suggestive of country music, which only occasionally gives way to a “boogie woogie” pattern. Bassist Bill Black employs a walking bass line throughout “Heartbreak Hotel” however, establishing distinctly rhythm-and-blues characteristics. Also, in contrast to the strummed acoustic guitar on “That’s All Right,” again an element of country and western, the accompaniment on “Heartbreak Hotel” consists mostly in the chords that Floyd Cramer and Scotty Moore, on piano and electric guitar respectively, stab out in between vocal phrases. The prominence of the piano and the electric guitar, particularly in Scotty Moore’s ringing guitar solo, foreshadowed the important place these instruments would hold in early rock and roll.3

In 1956, much of the United States was still racially segregated. Yet rock and roll was contributing to the breaking of race barriers. Chuck Berry was one notable black musician who sounded “white” enough to be acceptable for white teenage audiences, and hence he enjoyed consistent crossover success on the pop charts.

Berry’s “Roll Over Beethoven,” released a few months after “Heartbreak Hotel” in May 1956, exemplifies rock and roll in a more fully developed form. The song begins with Berry’s signature guitar intro. Then pianist Johnny Johnson and drummer Fred Below beat out an up-tempo rhythm while Berry shows off his lyrical wit and Chess records mainstay Willie Dixon provides a sturdy backing on bass.4

Rhythmic emphasis in “Roll Over Beethoven” falls strongly on the backbeat, a signature of rock music starting the 1950s. In particular, Johnson’s “boogie woogie” piano reinforces this emphasis, as does Below’s cracking snare drum. Berry’s double-stop guitar provides an additional rhythmic drive, as well as showcasing Berry’s considerable skill as a musician.

Although “Roll Over Beethoven” peaked at only number 29 on the Billboard Hot 100, reaching number seven on the R&B chart, Berry’s imaginative lyrics secured the song’s lasting significance. As Biographer Bruce Pegg notes, “Roll Over Beethoven” expressed rock music’s “explicit threat to high-brow culture.” Berry enunciated the preference of America’s youth for the emerging aesthetic of rock music, as opposed to classical fare such as Beethoven and Tchaikovsky.5

Many of the songs lyrics are directly concerned with dancing, reflecting the reality that danceability rather than musical complexity was becoming the principle measure of quality in pop music. While the events Berry is narrating are ostensibly taking place on a dance floor, his lyrics also contain implicit suggestions of sexual intercourse, as when he sings “go get your lover… then reel and rock with one another.” Although certainly not unique to Berry, this type of innuendo became a staple of his songwriting, reflecting his, and teenage America’s latent obsession with sex. “Roll Over Beethoven” then, is an explicit challenge to traditional musical styles and a subtle attack on traditional morals. Berry drives the point home by goading Beethoven to “dig these rhythm and blues.”

Although not as successful commercially as hits like “Sweet Little Sixteen” and “Johnny B. Goode,” “Roll Over Beethoven” distilled the spirit of early rock and roll unlike any other Chuck Berry song. It has been often covered since, most famously by the Beatles in 1964, and notably by Electric Light Orchestra in 1973.

While Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley both incorporated elements of country and western into their music, neither sounded as “’country” as Buddy Holly, another early rock and roller whose career took off with the hit “That’ll Be the Day.” Holly’s music is driven by the electric guitar, and particularly by his complex lead-guitar figures. Like Chuck Berry, Holly was one of the great innovators of early rock, and specifically the subgenre of “rockabilly.” Like Berry, Holly also wrote his own material. He and his backing band, the Crickets, perhaps displayed their talents best on his 1957 number three hit, “Peggy Sue.”

“Peggy Sue” was Holly’s first “solo” single released, because of contractual restrictions, under his name only on Coral records, rather than under the name of “Buddy Holly and the Crickets” on their regular label Brunswick. The song was named after Holly’s drummer Jerry Allison’s girlfriend, and it is Allison who provides the song’s signature rolling drum pattern. According to Rolling Stone magazine, Allison’s drumming was so loud that he and his kit had to be moved to the reception area of the studio in order to avoid drowning out the other instruments. The result is an intense, pounding 4/4 rhythm, accentuated by Joe Maudlin’s steady bass and Nicki Sullivan’s strummed guitar.6

The song is characterized by an atypical chord progression under Holly’s twangy, hiccupping vocals. Finally, after just under a minute and a half of verses, the tension of Allison’s relentless rhythm gives way to Holly’s rushing guitar solo. Holly plays with speed and precision, building to another climax before concluding the song with a final verse.

Although he died at the age of 22, after a short run of hit singles, Buddy Holly was one of the most influential of the early rock and rollers. His influence on the Beatles in particular was profound, as evidenced by George Harrison’s note-for-note duplication of Holly’s guitar part on the Beatles’s cover of “Words of Love.” Although the Beatles did not cover “Peggy Sue” as a group, in 1975 John Lennon recorded a version of the song for his Rock ‘N’ Roll album. Intended as a tribute to the music that Lennon listened to as a young rocker, the album takes considerable liberties with most of its source material, yet offers a “Peggy Sue” which is remarkably faithful to Holly’s original –even down to the hiccups.

Alongside “Peggy Sue,” Lennon also covered a less-well-remembered rock and roll number from the late 1950s, Bobby Freeman’s “Do You Want to Dance.” Still in high school in San Francisco when he wrote and recorded this number five hit in 1958, Freeman became the Bay Area’s first rock star. Freeman had been performing as a singer since he was 14, and when Mortimer Palitz, an executive from Jubilee records heard Bobby sing, he offered him a contract. Freeman followed “Do You Want to Dance” with a string of minor hits, but could not repeat his initial success. His career enjoyed a brief resurgence in 1964 with the hit single “C’mon and Swim” on Autumn records before Freeman’s popularity once again faded.7

While Freeman probably played piano on “Do You Want to Dance” himself, it is unclear what other musicians may have been involved in the recording. Most likely, studio musicians overdubbed guitar, bass, and percussion later. However, there is a tradition that Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead played the guitar solo on Freeman’s record. Both his first wife and his early band mate, David Nelson, claim that Garcia played on “Do You Want to Dance” while like Freeman he was still in high school.8

In any case, the song has since enjoyed a life of its own, through a diverse group of covers. The Beach Boys released a popular version in 1965, characterized by reverberating guitars and the lush vocal harmonies one would expect from the Beach Boys. Another notable version is the Mamas and the Papas’s trippy 1966 cover, which features prominent acoustic guitar and tambourine alongside orchestral strings. The Ramones covered the song in 1977. Their version is simplified and amplified, as one would expect from the Ramones. The conga-like percussion which features prominently in Freeman’s original and in other versions is dropped, and loud, distorted electric guitars are substituted for softer accompaniment. For his part, John Lennon performed his version at a distinctly slower tempo than the original, and although the other instruments sound muddled, Lennon’s voice shines, introducing a pleading quality to Freeman’s lyrics and profoundly altering the mood of the song.

Bobby Freeman’s success came at the tail end of an era, as the first generation of rock and rollers, each for one reason or another, left the public eye. Elvis Presley was drafted into the army in 1958. Chuck Berry was imprisoned for transporting a prostitute across state lines in 1959. Little Richard abandoned rock and roll for the ministry. Jerry Lee Lewis was embroiled in controversy after marrying his 13 year-old cousin. Buddy Holly was killed in a plane crash. It was not until 1963, with the British Invasion, that rock music would see a period of excitement and innovation comparable to what had occurred in the mid-1950s. Until then, popular music was increasingly characterized by formulaic corporate control, by girl groups, and by teen idols like Frankie Avalon and Paul Anka.

Then the Beatles broke into the American market with “I Want to Hold Your Hand.” Already successful in Great Britain, the Beatles were poised to become an international sensation in the fall of 1963. Their only problem was that Capitol records had “declined” to release their first four singles in the United States. Capitol had scheduled “I Want to Hold Your Hand” for American release in January 1964, but when the song began to receive airplay on a Washington D.C. radio station in mid-December, demand was such that Capitol elected to rush distribution. Therefore, “I Want to Hold Your Hand” was the first Beatles record to be widely heard in the United States. Its release was followed shortly by the Beatles’s first visit to America, and by April 1964, the U.S. was engulfed in full fledged “Beatlemania,” as the top five spots on the Billboard Hot 100 were occupied by Beatles songs.9

“I Want to Hold Your Hand” itself went to number one, propelled by John Lennon and Paul McCartney’s harmonized lead vocals, and by Ringo Starr’s insistent drumming. McCartney’s pulsing bass, and Lennon and George Harrison’s electric guitars provide accompaniment, while handclaps, a rhythmic feature borrowed directly from American girl groups, accentuate the backbeat. Lennon and McCartney’s talents as songwriters are evident from their vocal arrangement; their voices are in unison for the first bridge, while for the second, they sing a full two-part harmony to create sonic variety and an even stronger climax.10

While the Beatles would never match the sheer exuberance of “I Want to Hold Your Hand,” as their recording career went on, they would apply the craftsmanship and studio polish evident on this track to a series of increasingly more complex and serious works. At the same time that “I Want to Hold Your Hand” marks the high point of “Beatlemania” and the Beatles’s breakthrough in America, it also hints at the Beatles’s potential as serious songwriters. This potential would become more evident in the future, as the Beatles, and their producer George Martin, turned their attention away from crafting the perfect pop single and toward creating more challenging and introspective recordings.

In the mean time however, the Beatles were not long without a challenge to their dominance of the pop charts. One of the most consistent hit-making groups of the 1960s, the Supremes, were about to make their first mark on the charts. At the height of “Beatlemania,” in the same year that the Beatles placed six number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100, the heretofore-hitless Supremes scored three number ones for Detroit-based Motown records. Beginning with “Where Did Our Love Go,” released in June 1964, the Supremes produced five consecutive number one hits, a record surpassed only by the Beatles.11

“Where Did Our Love Go” was originally written, by Motown’s in-house songwriting team of Brian Holland, Lamont Dozier, and Eddie Holland, for the Marvelettes, another girl group which had produced Motown’s first number one hit, “Please Mr. Postman” in December 1961. When the Marvelettes declined, Holland, Dozier, and Holland took the song to the Supremes, who were reluctant to record it and allegedly displeased with the outcome.12

Nevertheless, the song turned out to contain the formula for the Supremes’s success. Backed by the unequaled Motown rhythm section, the Funk Brothers, lead singer Diana Ross pleads “don’t you want me no more,” “don’t leave me”, etc… while backup singers Mary Wilson and Florence Ballard answer “baby, baby, where did our love go?” Although the Funk Brothers were uncredited on this record, as on all Motown recordings, bassist James Jamerson, drummer Benny Benjamin, and bandleader and pianist Earl Van Dyke were certainly present for this session, lending to the track the precise, rock-solid beat that characterizes the unmistakable “Motown sound.”13

Like the Supremes’ subsequent hit “Baby Love,” “Where Did Our Love Go” is built on a repetitive, simple verse structure. Rather than becoming dull with repetition, these tracks simply build rhythmic tension through the relentlessness pounding of drums and handclaps. A saxophone solo provides a brief reprieve, and then the verses reprise (in the case of “Baby Love, with a key change), even more and urgent beseeching.

As the Supremes enjoyed their string of number one hits into the summer of 1965 with “Back in My Arms Again,” another British group, the Rolling Stones, were poised to release their first American number one single. Of all the British Invasion bands which flooded the United States in the wake of the Beatles’s tremendous success, the Rolling Stones would go on to enjoy the most longevity and commercial success. Their popularity in the United States began with the release of “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction,” which topped the Billboard Hot 100 in July 1965.14

“Satisfaction” is indicative of the way rock music was changing in the mid-1960s. Keith Richards iconic guitar riff, played through a heavily distorted amplifier, underpins Mick Jagger’s voice as Jagger shouts about his many frustrations. The sexually suggestive nature of Jagger’s lyrics solidified the Rolling Stones’s image as the bad boys of British rock, in contrast to the Beatles, who deliberately cultivated an image of innocence. While Jagger rants, Brian Jones provides rhythm guitar, bassist Bill Wyman plays a bass line that neatly compliments Richards’s guitar riff, and drummer Charlie Watts lays down a nice, steady 4/4 beat.

Like the previous years Kinks hit, “You Really Got Me,” the rough sound of “Satisfaction” foreshadowed the arrival of a heavier rock sound, later exemplified by bands like the Who and the Jimmy Hendrix Experience. The central role of the electric guitar riff in “Satisfaction” is at once a nod to the Rolling Stones’s heroes, the electric blues guitarists of Chess records, as well an indication of the more prominent role that guitar riffs would come to play in rock music. Ironically, considering how much “Satisfaction” was on the cutting edge of rock and roll, the track was recorded at the Chess studio in Chicago, where heroes of the British blues-rockers, like Howlin’ Wolf and Muddy Waters, had recorded a decade earlier.15

While the Rolling Stones continued to exemplify the naughty side of rock, the Beatles embarked on a progressively experimental series of studio albums, culminating in the 1967 release of Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. Inspired by their friendly but serious rivalry with Brian Wilson, the musical mastermind of the Beach Boys, the Beatles were driven to experiment with tape loops, exotic instruments, and a variety of studio effects. At the same time, John Lennon and George Harrison were influenced deeply by the songwriting of Bob Dylan. Dylan eschewed the formulaic pop songwriting of artists like Lennon and McCartney, with its focus on teenage romance. Instead, his songs focused on social issues, and on the more cynical side of romantic entanglements.

The John Lennon-penned “Strawberry Fields Forever,” which the Beatles released in February 1967 as a double A-side with Paul McCartney’s “Penny Lane,” exemplified the Beatles’s, and particularly Lennon’s interest in more personal, introspective, lyrics, as well as in psychadelia, eastern musical styles, and studio experimentation. Inspired by the Beach Boys’s extensive use of session musicians on their 1966 album, Pet Sounds, the Beatles employed over 100 musicians on Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. Although “Strawberry Fields Forever” was not included on the album but instead released as a single, the song was recorded during the same sessions as Sgt Pepper’s, and reflects the same interest in musical experimentation.

On “Strawberry Fields Forever” horn and string sections, arranged by George Martin, augment the various instruments that the Beatles played themselves. A Mellotron, set up to mimic a flute and played by McCartney, opens the track. Then Lennon’s dreamy voice begins, “Let me take you down…” George Harrison plays slide guitar and an Indian Svarmandal (a harp-like instrument, with many strings strung over a large sounding box). Backwards-recorded cymbals create an otherworldly swishing effect throughout the track, while Ringo Starr plays a variety of drum patterns. At Lennon’s insistence, the final version of the track was famously edited together by the Beatles’s studio engineer Geoff Emerick from two separate takes. In total, the Beatles spent over 45 hours recording “Strawberry Fields Forever” which, although it is unusually long for a single, still runs only just over four minutes. Nevertheless, their efforts yielded the most ambitious record to date and a number two hit in the United Kingdom.16

Sgt Peppers permanently altered the way popular music was approached. Particularly in rock music, many musical groups began to place greater emphasis on albums as artistic works rather than mere collections of songs. Musical experimentation became the norm rather than the exception. As the 1970s dawned, Album Oriented Rock became more and more popular, aided by the rise of FM radio. “Progressive” rock groups of the 1970s, like Yes, and King Crimson, incorporated elements of classical music into rock. Gradually, the attitude that Chuck Berry had enunciated with “Roll Over Beethoven,” that rock and roll was in fact better than classical music and didn’t need the approval of the music establishment, gave way to a new attitude that rock was “serious” music. Along with this new aesthetic came a growing concern for musical and lyrical complexity and instrumental virtuosity. Also, by the late 1970s, mainstream rock had become increasingly corporate-controlled.

Not until the late 1970s, with the rise of punk rock, did the focus of rock and roll shift away from musical virtuosity and the pursuit of more sophisticated recordings, and back onto the spirit of rebellion. Punk rock arose as a challenge to the aesthetics of mainstream rock, as well as to the over-commercialization of rock. In England, punk rock was also a response to the social issues of the day which, while Great Britain was experiencing an economic recession, included the severe plight of working class youth.

The Clash represented perhaps the best of the British punk bands, and one of the most commercially successful (despite their distinctly anti-commercial stance). Influenced heavily by the Sex Pistols, the Clash adopted the punk aesthetic of simple music without embellishment. Nevertheless, they were talented musicians and songwriters. Although they achieved rapid success in Great Britain with their first two albums, the Clash did not register widely in the United States until their 1980 double album London Calling was released.17

The title track of the album showcases the harder edge of the Clash. Paul Simonon’s driving bass comes to the fore, as lyricist and lead singer Joe Strummer rants that among other things, “the ice age is coming,” and “London is drowning.” Mick Jones’s lead guitar is recorded backwards on parts of the track, revealing that despite their punk aesthetics the band was not totally disinterested in studio effects.

Taken as a whole, London Calling demonstrates a mix of musical influences ranging from reggae and early rock and roll, as well a diversity of lyrical themes including cars, relationships, suburban alienation, and the Spanish Civil War. In particular, Topper Headon’s drumming shows a dimension outside the usual envelope of punk rock drummers. He plays especially complex fills for instance on “Revolution Rock.”

Nonetheless, “London Calling” opens the album for a reason. It is both an exceptional track, and a typical Clash song insofar as there is such a thing. Aggressive vocals and lyrics, coupled with abrupt, biting guitar chords and driving drums and bass, create a masterwork of musical simplicity, and a worthy introduction to the Clash for American listeners.

Meanwhile, black popular music ran an alternate course from rock in the 1970s, developing into funk and later disco. Just as punk rock grew out of the rejection of the “hippie aesthetic” that treated rock as music for serious listening, disco stood in opposition to the grandiosity of mainstream rock. Disco was about dancing and having fun, not about listening to “art” and analyzing it.18

Even as disco faded, black music in the 1980s retained a heavy emphasis on danceability. Many pop stars of the 1980s, particularly Michael Jackson, based their songs around dance beats. Funk also remained influential on black music, particularly in the hands of Jackson’s principal pop rival, Prince. The Minneapolis-based singer, songwriter and producer looked to funk and rock to create danceable grooves while at the same time reaching beyond the narrow thematic confines of disco. His style embodied what Rolling Stone Magazine calls “a hybrid of rock, pop, and funk, with blatantly sexual lyrics.” Prince’s 1982 breakout hit, “1999” is a good example of 1980s pop in general, as well as a indication that black music was taking on a social conscience again.19

Lyrics like “I’m gonna listen to my body tonight,” are sexually charged, as are many of Prince’s lyrics. However, as a closer listen reveals “1999” was conceived as a protest against nuclear weapons and a call for disarmament.

“1999” also features the sounds of heavily layered synthesizers, another Prince trademark. Although Prince is credited with playing all the instruments on “1999” himself, the vocals are shared between Prince, Dez Dickerson, Lisa Coleman, and Jill Jones, who trade verses throughout the song. Although Prince was successful in the early 1980s on the black music chart, it was not until he released the “1999” single and his 1999 double album that Prince enjoyed crossover success on the pop charts. “1999” reached number twelve on the Billboard pop chart, establishing Prince as a commercially successful, and widely influential artist.20

Notes


1 Rolling Stone, Elvis Presley: Biography, http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography.

2 Rolling Stone, Heartbreak Hotel: Elvis Presley, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6595890/heartbreak_hotel.

3 Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number One Hits (New York: Billboard Publications, 1988), 10.

4 John Collis, Chuck Berry: The Biography (London: Aurum Press, 2004), 65.

5 Bruce Pegg, Brown Eyed Handsome Man: The Life and Hard Times of Chuck Berry (New York: Routledge, 2002), 58.

6 Norm N. Nite, Rock On: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock n’ Roll (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, Publishers, 1974), 308; Rolling Stone, Peggy Sue: Buddy Holly, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596039/peggy_sue.

7 Nite, 264.

8 Robert Greenfield, Dark Star: An Oral Biography of Jerry Garcia (New York: HarperCollins, 2009), 36, 63.

9 Bronson, 143; Bob Spitz, The Beatles: The Biography (New York: Back Bay Books, 2006), 450-451.

10 John Covach, What’s That Sound? An Introduction to Rock and Its History, 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009), 168.

11 Nelson George, Where Did Our Love Go? The Rise and Fall of the Motown Sound (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007), 76-77; Bronson, 155.

12 Bronson, 101; Bronson, 155.

13 George, 103-104.

14 Bronson, 179.

15 Ibid.

16 The Independent, “Strawberry Fields Forever”: The making of a masterpiece, http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/strawberry-fields-forever-the-making-of-a-masterp.html-426308.html; Spitz, 656.

17 Covach, 427; Rolling Stone, The Clash: Biography, http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/theclash/biography.

18 Covach, 400.

19 Rolling Stone, Prince: Biography, http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/prince/biography.

20 Rolling Stone, ‘1999’: Prince, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596057/1999.

Bibliography

Bronson, Fred. The Billboard Book of Number One Hits. New York: Billboard Publications,

1988.


Collis, John. Chuck Berry: The Biography. London: Aurum Press, 2004.

Covach, John. What’s That Sound? An Introduction to Rock and Its History, 2nd edition. New

York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009.

George, Nelson. Where Did Our Love Go? The Rise and Fall of the Motown Sound. Chicago:

University of Illinois Press, 2007.

Greenfield, Robert. Dark Star: An Oral Biography of Jerry Garcia. New York: HarperCollins,

2009.

The Independent. “Strawberry Fields Forever”: The making of a masterpiece.



http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/strawberry-fields-

forever-the-making-of-a-masterp.html-426308.html.



Nite, Norm N. Rock On: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock n’ Roll. New York: Thomas Y.

Crowell, Publishers, 1974.

Pegg, Bruce. Brown Eyed Handsome Man: The Life and Hard Times of Chuck Berry. New York:

Routledge, 2002.

Rolling Stone. ‘1999’: Prince. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596057/1999.

---. The Clash: Biography. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/theclash/biography.

---. Elvis Presley: Biography. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography.

---. Heartbreak Hotel: Elvis Presley.

http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6595890/heartbreak_hotel.

---. Peggy Sue: Buddy Holly. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596039/peggy_sue.

---. Prince: Biography. http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/prince/biography.

Spitz, Bob. The Beatles: The Biography. New York: Back Bay Books, 2006.




1Notes

 Rolling Stone, Elvis Presley: Biography, http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/elvispresley/biography.

2


Rolling Stone, Heartbreak Hotel: Elvis Presley, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6595890/heartbreak_hotel.

3 Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number One Hits (New York: Billboard Publications, 1988), 10.

4 John Collis, Chuck Berry: The Biography (London: Aurum Press, 2004), 65.

5 Bruce Pegg, Brown Eyed Handsome Man: The Life and Hard Times of Chuck Berry (New York: Routledge, 2002), 58.

6 Norm N. Nite, Rock On: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Rock n’ Roll (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, Publishers, 1974), 308; Rolling Stone, Peggy Sue: Buddy Holly, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596039/peggy_sue.

7 Nite, 264.

8 Robert Greenfield, Dark Star: An Oral Biography of Jerry Garcia (New York: HarperCollins, 2009), 36, 63.

9 Bronson, 143; Bob Spitz, The Beatles: The Biography (New York: Back Bay Books, 2006), 450-451.

10 John Covach, What’s That Sound? An Introduction to Rock and Its History, 2nd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2009), 168.

11 Nelson George, Where Did Our Love Go? The Rise and Fall of the Motown Sound (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2007), 76-77; Bronson, 155.

12 Bronson, 101; Bronson, 155.

13 George, 103-104.

14 Bronson, 179.

15 Ibid.

16 The Independent, “Strawberry Fields Forever”: The making of a masterpiece, http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/features/strawberry-fields-forever-the-making-of-a-masterp.html-426308.html; Spitz, 656.

17 Covach, 427; Rolling Stone, The Clash: Biography, http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/theclash/biography.

18 Covach, 400.

19 Rolling Stone, Prince: Biography, http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/prince/biography.

20 Rolling Stone, ‘1999’: Prince, http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/6596057/1999.


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