Electronics and communication engineering


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WAVEGUIDE COMPONENTS AND APPLICATIONS - I :Coupling Mechanisms – Probe, Loop, Aperture types. Waveguide Discontinuities – Waveguide irises, Tuning Screws and Posts, Matched Loads. Waveguide Attenuators – Resistive Card, Rotary Vane types; Waveguide Phase Shifters – Dielectric, Rotary Vane types. Scattering Matrix– Significance, Formulation and Properties. S-Matrix Calculations for – 2 port Junction, E-plane and H-plane Tees, Magic Tee, Hybrid Ring; Directional Couplers – 2Hole, Bethe Hole types, Ferrite Components– Faraday Rotation, S-Matrix Calculations for Gyrator, Isolator, Circulator, Related Problems.


MICROWAVE SOLID STATE DEVICES: Introduction, Classification, Applications. TEDs – Introduction, Gunn Diode – Principle, RWH Theory, Characteristics, Basic Modes of Operation, Oscillation Modes. Avalanche Transit Time Devices – Introduction, IMPATT and TRAPATT Diodes – Principle of Operation and Characteristics. MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS: Description of Microwave Bench – Different Blocks and their Features, Precautions; Microwave Power Measurement – Bolometer Method. Measurement of Attenuation, Frequency, Q- factor, Phase shift, VSWR, Impedance Measurement.


  1. Microwave Devices and Circuits – Samuel Y. Liao, PHI, 3rd Edition,1994.

  2. Foundations for Microwave Engineering – R.E. Collin, IEEE Press, John Wiley, 2nd Edition, 2002.


  1. Microwave Principles – Herbert J. Reich, J.G. Skalnik, P.F. Ordung and H.L. Krauss, CBS Publishers and Distributors, New Delhi, 2004

  2. Microwave Engineering- Annapurna Das and Sisir K.Das, Mc Graw Hill Education, 3rd Edition.

  3. Microwave and Radar Engineering-M.Kulkarni, Umesh Publications, 3rd Edition.

  4. Microwave Engineering – G S N Raju , I K International

  5. Microwave and Radar Engineering – G Sasibhushana Rao Pearson

OUTCOMES : After going through this course the student will be able to

    • Design different modes in waveguide structures

    • Calculate S-matrix for various waveguide components and splitting the microwave energy in a desired direction

    • Distinguish between Microwave tubes and Solid State Devices, calculation of efficiency of devices.

    • Measure various microwave parameters using a Microwave test bench

III Year - II Semester




4 0 0 3

The main objectives of this course are:

  • Basic characteristics of MOS transistor and examines various possibilities for configuring inverter circuits and aspects of latch-up are considered.

  • Design processes are aided by simple concepts such as stick and symbolic diagrams but the key element is a set of design rules, which are explained clearly.

  • Basic circuit concepts are introduced for MOS processes we can set out approximate circuit parameters which greatly ease the design process.


At the end of this course the student can able to:

  • Understand the properties of MOS active devices and simple circuits configured when using them and the reason for such encumbrances as ratio rules by which circuits can be interconnected in silicon.

  • Know three sets of design rules with which nMOS and CMOS designs may be fabricated.

  • Understand the scaling factors determining the characteristics and performance of MOS circuits in silicon.

Syllabus: UNIT-I:

Introduction and Basic Electrical Properties of MOS Circuits: Introduction to IC technology, Fabrication process: nMOS, pMOS and CMOS. Ids versus Vds Relationships, Aspects of MOS transistor Threshold Voltage, MOS transistor Trans, Output Conductance and Figure of Merit. nMOS Inverter, Pull-up to Pull-down Ratio for nMOS inverter driven by another nMOS inverter, and through one or more pass transistors. Alternative forms of pull-up, The CMOS Inverter, Latch-up in CMOS circuits, Bi-CMOS Inverter, Comparison between CMOS and BiCMOS technology.

(Text Book-1)


MOS and Bi-CMOS Circuit Design Processes: MOS Layers, Stick Diagrams, Design Rules and Layout, General observations on the Design rules, 2µm Double Metal, Double Poly, CMOS/BiCMOS rules, 1.2µm Double Metal, Double Poly CMOS rules, Layout Diagrams of NAND and NOR gates and CMOS inverter, Symbolic Diagrams- Translation to Mask Form.

(Text Book-1)


Basic Circuit Concepts: Sheet Resistance, Sheet Resistance concept applied to MOS transistors and Inverters, Area Capacitance of Layers, Standard unit of capacitance, Some area Capacitance Calculations, The Delay Unit, Inverter Delays, Driving large capacitive loads, Propagation Delays, Wiring Capacitances, Choice of layers.
Scaling of MOS Circuits: Scaling models and scaling factors, Scaling factors for device parameters, Limitations of scaling, Limits due to sub threshold currents, Limits on logic levels and supply voltage due to noise and current density. Switch logic, Gate logic.

(Text Book-1)


Chip Input and Output circuits: ESD Protection, Input Circuits, Output Circuits and L(di/dt) Noise, On-Chip clock Generation and Distribution.
Design for Testability: Fault types and Models, Controllability and Observability, Ad Hoc Testable Design Techniques, Scan Based Techniques and Built-In Self Test techniques.

(Text Book-2)


FPGA Design: FPGA design flow, Basic FPGA architecture, FPGA Technologies, FPGA families- Altera Flex 8000FPGA, Altera Flex 10FPGA, Xilinx XC4000 series FPGA, Xilinx Spartan XL FPGA, Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs, Xilinx Vertex FPGA. Case studies: FPGA Implementation of Half adder and full adder.
Introduction to synthesis: Logic synthesis, RTL synthesis, High level Synthesis.

(Reference Text Book-1)


Introduction to Low Power VLSI Design: Introduction to Deep submicron digital IC design, Low Power CMOS Logic Circuits: Over view of power consumption, Low –power design through voltage scaling, Estimation and optimisation of switching activity, Reduction of switching capacitance. Interconnect Design, Power Grid and Clock Design.

(Text Book-2)

Text Books:

  1. Essentials of VLSI Circuits and Systems - Kamran Eshraghian, Douglas and A. Pucknell and Sholeh Eshraghian, Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, 2005 Edition.

  2. CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis and Design- Sung-Mo Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, Tata McGraw- Hill Education, 2003.


  1. Advanced Digital Design with the Verilog HDL, Michael D.Ciletti, Xilinx Design Series, Pearson Education

  2. Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits in Deep submicron Technology, 3’rd edition, David Hodges.

III Year - II Semester



4 0 0 3


The student will be able to

  • Analyze the Discrete Time Signals and Systems

  • Know the importance of FFT algorithm for computation of Discrete Fourier Transform

  • Understand the various implementations of digital filter structures

  • Learn the FIR and IIR Filter design procedures

  • Know the need of Multirate Processing

  • Learn the concepts of DSP Processors

UNIT I INTRODUCTION: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing: Discrete time signals & sequences, Classification of Discrete time systems , stability of LTI systems, Invertability, Response of LTI systems to arbitrary inputs. Solution of Linear constant coefficient difference equations. Frequency domain representation of discrete time signals and systems. Review of Z-transforms, solution of difference equations using Z-transforms, System function.
UNIT II DISCRETE FOURIER SERIES & FOURIER TRANSFORMS: Properties of discrete Fourier series, DFS representation of periodic sequences, Discrete Fourier transforms: Properties of DFT, linear filtering methods based on DFT, Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) - Radix-2 decimation in time and decimation in frequency FFT Algorithms, Inverse FFT.
UNIT III. DESIGN OF IIR DIGITAL FILTERS& REALIZATIONS: Analog filter approximations – Butter worth and Chebyshev, Design of IIR Digital filters from analog filters, Design Examples, Analog and Digital frequency transformations. Basic structures of IIR systems, Transposed forms.


Characteristics of FIR Digital Filters, frequency response. Design of FIR Digital Filters using Window Techniques and Frequency Sampling technique, Comparison of IIR & FIR filters.

Basic structures of FIR systems, Lattice structures, Lattice-ladder structures

UNIT V MULTIRATE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING: Introduction, Decimation , Interpolation Sampling rate conversion ,Implementation of sampling rate converters, Applications – Sub-band Coding of Speech Signals ,Implementation of Digital Filter Banks, Trans-multiplexers.
UNIT VI INTRODUCTION TO DSP PROCESSORS: Introduction to programmable DSPs: Multiplier and Multiplier Accumulator, Modified bus structures and memory access schemes in P-DSPs ,Multiple Access Memory, Multiported memory, VLIW architecture, Pipelining, Special addressing modes, On-Chip Peripherals.

Architecture of TMS320C5X: Introduction, Bus Structure, Central Arithmetic Logic Unit, Auxiliary Register ALU, Index Register, Block Move Address Register, Parallel Logic Unit, Memory mapped registers, program controller, some flags in the status registers, On- chip memory, On-chip peripherals.


  1. Digital Signal Processing, Principles, Algorithms, and Applications: John G. Proakis, Dimitris G.Manolakis,Pearson Education / PHI, 2007.

  2. Discrete Time Signal Processing – A.V.Oppenheim and R.W. Schaffer, PHI

  3. Digital Signal Processors – Architecture, Programming and Applications,, B.Venkataramani, M.Bhaskar, TATA McGraw Hill, 2002

  4. Digital Signal Processing – K Raja Rajeswari, I.K. International Publishing House

Reference Books:

  1. Digital Signal Processing: Andreas Antoniou, TATA McGraw Hill , 2006

  2. Digital Signal Processing: MH Hayes, Schaum’s Outlines, TATA Mc-Graw Hill, 2007.

  3. DSP Primer - C. Britton Rorabaugh, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.

  4. Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing using Matlab – Robert J. Schilling, Sandra

L. Harris,Thomson, 2007.

  1. Digital Signal Processing – Alan V. Oppenheim, Ronald W. Schafer, PHI Ed., 2006

  2. Digital Signal Processing – Ramesh babu, Sci Tech publications


After going through this course the student will be able to

    • Apply the difference equations concept in the anayziation of Discrete time systems

    • Use the FFT algorithm for solving the DFT of a given signal

    • Design a Digital filter (FIR&IIR) from the given specifications

    • Realize the FIR and IIR structures from the designed digital filter.

    • Use the Multirate Processing concepts in various applications(eg: Design of phase shifters, Interfacing of digital systems…)

    • Apply the signal processing concepts on DSP Processor.

III Year - II Semester



4 0 0 3


    • Understanding the OOP’s concepts, classes and objects, threads, files, applets, swings and act.

    • This course introduces computer programming using the JAVA programming language with object- oriented programming principles.

    • Emphasis is placed on event-driven programming methods, including creating and manipulating objects, classes, and using Java for network level programming and middleware development


Introduction to OOP, procedural programming language and object oriented language, principles of OOP, applications of OOP, history of java, java features, JVM, program structure.

Variables, primitive data types, identifiers, literals, operators, expressions, precedence rules and associativity, primitive type conversion and casting, flow of control.


Classes and objects, class declaration, creating objects, methods, constructors and constructor overloading, garbage collector, importance of static keyword and examples, this keyword, arrays, command line arguments, nested classes.


Inheritance, types of inheritance, super keyword, final keyword, overriding and abstract class.

Interfaces, creating the packages, using packages, importance of CLASSPATH and java.lang package. Exception handling, importance of try, catch, throw, throws and finally block, user-defined exceptions, Assertions.


Multithreading: introduction, thread life cycle, creation of threads, thread priorities, thread synchronization, communication between threads. Reading data from files and writing data to files, random access file,


Applet class, Applet structure, Applet life cycle, sample Applet programs. Event handling: event delegation model, sources of event, Event Listeners, adapter classes, inner classes.


AWT: introduction, components and containers, Button, Label, Checkbox, Radio Buttons, List Boxes, Choice Boxes, Container class, Layouts, Menu and Scrollbar.


    • Understand Java programming concepts and utilize Java Graphical User Interface in Program writing.

    • Write, compile, execute and troubleshoot Java programming for networking concepts.

    • Build Java Application for distributed environment.

    • Design and Develop multi-tier applications.

    • Identify and Analyze Enterprise applications.


  1. The complete Reference Java, 8th edition, Herbert Schildt, TMH.

  2. Programming in JAVA, Sachin Malhotra, Saurabh Choudary, Oxford.

  3. Introduction to java programming, 7th edition by Y Daniel Liang, Pearson.


  1. Swing: Introduction, JFrame, JApplet, JPanel, Componets in Swings, Layout Managers in

  2. Swings, JList and JScrollPane, Split Pane, JTabbedPane, JTree, JTable, Dialog Box.



    • Students will be enabled to understand and implement classical models and algorithms in data warehousing and data mining.

    • They will learn how to analyze the data, identify the problems, and choose the relevant models and algorithms to apply.

    • They will further be able to assess the strengths and weaknesses of various methods and algorithms and to analyze their behavior.


Introduction: Why Data Mining? What Is Data Mining?1.3 What Kinds of Data Can Be Mined?1.4 What Kinds of Patterns Can Be Mined? Which Technologies Are Used? Which Kinds of Applications Are Targeted? Major Issues in Data Mining. Data Objects and Attribute Types, Basic Statistical Descriptions of Data, Data Visualization, Measuring Data Similarity and Dissimilarity


Data Pre-processing: Data Preprocessing: An Overview, Data Cleaning, Data Integration, Data Reduction, Data Transformation and Data Discretization


Classification: Basic Concepts, General Approach to solving a classification problem, Decision Tree Induction: Working of Decision Tree, building a decision tree, methods for expressing an attribute test conditions, measures for selecting the best split, Algorithm for decision tree induction.


Classification: Alterative Techniques, Bayes’ Theorem, Naïve Bayesian Classification, Bayesian Belief Networks


Association Analysis: Basic Concepts and Algorithms: Problem Defecation, Frequent Item Set generation, Rule generation, compact representation of frequent item sets, FP-Growth Algorithm. (Tan & Vipin)


Cluster Analysis: Basic Concepts and Algorithms: Overview: What Is Cluster Analysis? Different Types of Clustering, Different Types of Clusters; K-means: The Basic K-means Algorithm, K-means Additional Issues, Bisecting K-means, Strengths and Weaknesses; Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering: Basic Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm DBSCAN: Traditional Density Center-Based Approach, DBSCAN Algorithm, Strengths and Weaknesses. (Tan & Vipin)


    • Understand stages in building a Data Warehouse

    • Understand the need and importance of preprocessing techniques

    • Understand the need and importance of Similarity and dissimilarity techniques

    • Analyze and evaluate performance of algorithms for Association Rules.

    • Analyze Classification and Clustering algorithms


  1. Introduction to Data Mining: Pang-Ning Tan & Michael Steinbach, Vipin Kumar, Pearson.

  2. Data Mining concepts and Techniques, 3/e, Jiawei Han, Michel Kamber, Elsevier.


  1. Data Mining Techniques and Applications: An Introduction, Hongbo Du, Cengage Learning.

  2. Data Mining : Vikram Pudi and P. Radha Krishna, Oxford.

  3. Data Mining and Analysis - Fundamental Concepts and Algorithms; Mohammed J. Zaki, Wagner Meira, Jr, Oxford

  4. Data Warehousing Data Mining & OLAP, Alex Berson, Stephen Smith, TMH.

Course Objectives:


    1. To give students practice in applying their knowledge of mathematics, science, and Engineering and to expand this knowledge into the vast area of robotics.

    2. The students will be exposed to the concepts of robot kinematics, Dynamics, Trajectory planning.

    3. Mathematical approach to explain how the robotic arm motion can be described.

    4. The students will understand the functioning of sensors and actuators.


INTRODUCTION: Automation and Robotics, CAD/CAM and Robotics – An over view of Robotics – present and future applications – classification by coordinate system and control system.


COMPONENTS OF THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS: Function line diagram representation of robot arms, common types of arms. Components, Architecture, number of degrees of freedom Requirements and challenges of end effectors, determination of the end effectors, comparison of Electric, Hydraulic and Pneumatic types of locomotion devices.


MOTION ANALYSIS: Homogeneous transformations as applicable to rotation and translation problems. MANIPULATOR KINEMATICS: Specifications of matrices, D-H notation joint coordinates and world coordinates Forward and inverse kinematics problems.


Differential transformation and manipulators, Jacobians problems Dynamics: Lagrange Euler and Newton – Euler formulations Problems.


General considerations in path description and generation. Trajectory planning and avoidance of obstacles, path planning, Skew motion, joint integrated motion –straight line motion Robot programming, languages and software packages-description of paths with a robot programming language..



Actuators: Pneumatic, Hydraulic actuators, electric & stepper motors.

Feedback components: position sensors – potentiometers, resolvers, encoders – Velocity sensors.

ROBOT APPLICATIONS IN MANUFACTURING: Material Transfer - Material handling, loading and unloading- Processing - spot and continuous arc welding & spray painting - Assembly and Inspection.


  1. Industrial Robotics / Groover M P /Pearson Edu.

  2. Robotics and Control / Mittal R K & Nagrath I J / TMH.


  1. Robotics / Fu K S/ McGraw Hill.

  2. Robotic Engineering / Richard D. Klafter, Prentice Hall

  3. Robot Analysis and Control / H. Asada and J.J.E. Slotine / BSP Books Pvt.Ltd.

  4. Introduction to Robotics / John J Craig / Pearson Edu.

Course outcomes:

Upon successful completion of this course you should be able to:

  1. Identify various robot configuration and components,

  2. Select appropriate actuators and sensors for a robot based on specific application

  3. Carry out kinematic and dynamic analysis for simple serial kinematic chains

  4. Perform trajectory planning for a manipulator by avoiding obstacles.


(Open Elective)


The usage of power electronics in day to day life has increased in recent years. It is important for student to understand the fundamental principles behind all these converters. This course covers characteristics of semiconductor devices, ac/dc, dc/dc, ac/ac and dc/ac converters. The importance of using pulse width modulated techniques to obtain high quality power supply (dc/ac converter) is also discussed in detail in this course.

Learning Objectives:

    • To study the characteristics of various power semiconductor devices and to design firing circuits for SCR.

    • To understand the operation of single phase half wave and full–wave converters

    • To understand the operation of different types of DC-DC converters.

    • To understand the operation of inverters and application of PWM techniques for voltage control and harmonic mitigation.

    • To understand the operation of AC-AC converters and switch mode power supplies operation.


Power Semi-Conductor Devices

Thyristors–Silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR’s) – Characteristics of power MOSFET and power IGBT – Basic theory of operation of SCR–Static characteristics – Turn on and turn off methods–Dynamic characteristics of SCR – Snubber circuit design – Firing circuits for SCR


AC-DC Single-Phase Converters

Single phase half wave controlled rectifiers – R load and RL load with and without freewheeling diode – Single Phase full wave controlled rectifiers – center tapped configuration and bridge configuration – R load and RL load with and without freewheeling diode – Effect of source inductance in 1-phase fully controlled bridge rectifier.


DC–DC Converters

Buck Converter operation – Time ratio control and current limit control strategies–Voltage and current waveforms– Derivation of output voltage –Boost converter operation –Voltage and current waveforms–Derivation of output voltage – Buck-Boost converter operation –Voltage and current waveforms – Principle operation of forward and fly back converters


DC–AC Converters

Single phase inverters–Unipolar and bipolar switching – Single phase half bridge and full bridge inverters with R and RL loads – PWM techniques– Sine triangular PWM technique– amplitude and frequency modulation Indices – Harmonic analysis.


AC – AC Single-Phase Converters

Static V-I characteristics of TRIAC and modes of operation – Single phase AC-AC regulator phase angle control and integrated cycle control with R and RL load – For continuous and discontinuous conduction – Principle of operation of Cyclo-Converters


Switch Mode Power Supplies

Overview of Switching Power Supplies – Linear Power Supplies – DC to DC converters with electrical isolation – Control of Switch Mode DC Supplies – PWM duty ratio control – Current mode control – Power Supply Protection

Learning Outcomes:

Student should be able to

    • Explain the characteristics of various power semiconductor devices and analyse the static and dynamic characteristics of SCR’s.

    • Design firing circuits for SCR.

    • Able to explain the operation of single phase half wave and full–wave converters

    • Analyse the operation of different types of DC-DC converters.

    • Explain the operation of inverters and application of PWM techniques for voltage control and harmonic mitigation.

    • Analyse the operation of AC-AC converters.

    • Able to explain switch mode power supplies operation and control

Text Books:

  1. Power Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Applications – by M. H. Rashid, Prentice Hall of India, 2nd edition, 1998

  2. Power Electronics: Essentials & Applications by L.Umanand, Wiley, Pvt. Limited, India, 2009

Reference Books:

  1. Power Electronics: converters, applications & design -by Nedmohan, Tore M. Undeland, Robbins by Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.

  2. Elements of Power Electronics–Philip T.Krein.oxford.

  3. Power Electronics – by P.S.Bhimbra, Khanna Publishers.

  4. Power Electronics handbook by Muhammad H.Rashid, Elsevier.

  5. Power Converter Circuits -by William Shepherd, Li zhang, CRC Taylor & Francis Group.



INTRODUCTION TO BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION: Age of Biomedical Engineering, Development of Biomedical Instrumentation, Man Instrumentation System, Components of the Man-Instrument System, Physiological System of the Body, Problems Encountered in Measuring a Living System, Sources of Bioelectric Potentials, Muscle, Bioelectric Potentials, Sources of Bioelectric Potentials, Resting and Action Potentials, Propagation of Action Potential, Bioelectric Potentials-ECG, EEG and EMG, Envoked Responses.


ELECTRODES AND TRANSDUCERS: Introduction, Electrode Theory, Biopotential Electrodes, Examples of Electrodes, Basic Transducer Principles, Biochemical Transducers, The Transducer and Transduction Principles, Active Transducers, Passive Transducers, Transducers for Biomedical Applications, Pulse Sensors, Respiration Sensor, Transducers with Digital Output.


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENTS: The Heart and Cardiovascular System, Electro Cardiography, Blood Pressure Measurement, Measurement of Blood Flow and Cardiac Output, Measurement of Heart Sound, Plethysmography.


Respiratory System, Tests and Instrumentation for The Mechanics of Breathing, Respiratory Therapy Equipment.


PATIENT CARE AND MONITORING: Elements of Intensive-Care Monitoring, Patient Monitoring Displays, Diagnosis, Calibration and Repair ability of Patient-Monitoring Equipment, Other Instrumentation for Monitoring Patients, Organization of the Hospital for Patient-Care Monitoring, Pacemakers, Defibrillators, Radio Frequency Applications of Therapeutic use.


Myoelectric Arm, Laparoscope, Ophthalmology Instruments, Anatomy of Vision, Electrophysiological Tests, Ophthalmoscope, Tonometer for Eye Pressure Measurement, Diathermy, Clinical Laboratory Instruments, Biomaterials, Stimulators.


DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES AND BIO-TELEMETRY: Principles of Ultrasonic Measurement, Ultrasonic Imaging, Ultrasonic Applications of Therapeutic Uses, Ultrasonic Diagnosis, X-Ray and Radio-Isotope Instrumentations, CAT Scan, Emission Computerized Tomography, MRI, Introduction to Biotelemetry, Physiological Parameters Adaptable to Biotelemetry, The Components of Biotelemetry System, Implantable Units, Telemetry for ECG Measurements during Exercise, Telemetry for Emergency Patient Monitoring


MONITORS, RECORDERS AND SHOCK HAZARDS: Biopotential Amplifiers, Monitors, Recorders, Shock Hazards and Prevention, Physiological Effects and Electrical Current, Shock Hazards from Electrical Equipment, Methods of Accident Prevention, Isolated Power Distribution System.

Text Books:

    1. “Bio-Medical Electronics and Instrumentation”, Onkar N. Pandey, Rakesh Kumar, Katson Books.

    2. “Bio-Medical Instrumentation”, Cromewell , Wiebell, Pfeiffer


  1. “Introduction to Bio-Medical Equipment Technology”, 4th Edition, Joseph J. Carr, John M. Brown, Pearson Publications.

  2. “Hand Book of Bio-Medical Instrumentation”, Khandapur. McGrawHill


Course Objectives:

  1. To Introduce the concept of Artificial Neural Networks , Characteristics, Models of Neuron, Learning Rules, Learning Methods, Stability and Convergence

  2. To study the basics of Pattern Recognition and Feed forward Neural Networks

  1. To study the basics of Feedback neural networks and Boltzmann machine

  1. To introduce the Analysis of Feedback layer for different output functions, Pattern Clustering and Mapping networks

  2. To study the Stability, Plasticity, Neocognitron and Different applications of Neural Networks

UNIT-I : Basics of Artificial Neural Networks

Introduction: Biological Neural Networks, Characteristics of Neural Networks, Models of Neuron, Topology, Basic Learning Rules

Activation and Synaptic Dynamics: Activation Dynamic Models, Synaptic Dynamic Models, Learning Methods, Stability & Convergence, Recall in Neural Networks
UNIT-II: Functional Units of ANN for Pattern Recognition Tasks: Pattern Recognition problem Basic Fundamental Units, Pattern Recognition Tasks by the Functional Units

Feed forward Neural Networks: Analysis of Pattern Association Networks, Analysis of Pattern Classification Networks, Analysis of Pattern Mapping Networks


Feedback Neural Networks: Analysis of linear auto adaptive feed forward networks, Analysis of pattern storage Networks, Stochastic Networks & Stimulated Annealing, Boltzmann machine


Competitive Learning Neural Networks: Components of a Competitive Learning Network, Analysis of Feedback layer for Different Output Functions, Analysis of Pattern Clustering Networks and Analysis of Feature Mapping Network


Architectures for Complex Pattern Recognition Tasks: Associative memory, Pattern mapping Stability – Plasticity dilemma: ART, temporal patterns, Pattern visibility: Neocognitron


Applications of Neural Networks: Pattern classification, Associative memories, Optimization, Applications in Image Processing, Applications in decision making

Text Book

1. B.Yagnanarayana“Artificial Neural Networks”, PHI

Reference Book

  1. Laurene Fausett ,“Fundamentals of Neural Networks”, Pearson Education

  2. Simon Haykin , “Neural Networks”, Second Edition

Course Outcomes

  1. This Course introduces Artificial Neural Networks and Learning Rules and Learning methods

  2. Feed forward and Feedback Neural Networks are introduced

  3. Applications of Neural Networks in different areas are introduced

III Year - II Semester










PART- A: (Minimum of 5 Experiments has to be performed)

8086 Assembly Language Programming using Assembler Directives

    1. Sorting.

    2. Multibyte addition/subtraction

    3. Sum of squares/cubes of a given n-numbers

    4. Addition of n-BCD numbers

    5. Factorial of given n-numbers

    6. Multiplication and Division operations

    7. Stack operations

    8. BCD to Seven segment display codes

PART- B: (Minimum of 3 Experiments has to be performed) 8086 Interfacing

  1. Hardware/Software Interrupt Application

  2. A/D Interface through Intel 8255

  3. D/A Interface through Intel 8255

  4. Keyboard and Display Interface through Intel 8279

  5. Generation of waveforms using Intel 8253/8254

PART- C: (Minimum of 3 Experiments has to be performed) 8051 Assembly Language Programs

  1. Finding number of 1’s and number of 0’s in a given 8-bit number

  2. Addition of even numbers from a given array

  3. Ascending / Descending order

  4. Average of n-numbers

PART-D: (Minimum of 3 Experiments has to be performed) 8051 Interfacing

  1. Switches and LEDs

  2. 7-Segment display (multiplexed)

  3. Stepper Motor Interface

  4. Traffic Light Controller

Equipment Required:

  1. Regulated Power supplies

  2. Analog/Digital Storage Oscilloscopes

  3. 8086 Microprocessor kits

  4. 8051 microcontroller kits

  5. ADC module

  6. DAC module

  7. Stepper motor module

  8. Keyboard module

  9. LED, 7-Segemt Units

  10. Digital Multimeters

  11. ROM/RAM Interface module

  12. Bread Board etc.

III Year - II Semester



0 0 3 2

Note: The students are required to design the schematic diagrams using CMOS logic and to draw the layout diagrams to perform the following experiments using 130nm technology with the Industry standard EDA Tools.

List of Experiments:

    1. Design and Implementation of an Universal Gates

    2. Design and Implementation of an Inverter

    3. Design and Implementation of Full Adder

    4. Design and Implementation of Full Subtractor

    5. Design and Implementation of Decoder

    6. Design and Implementation of RS-Latch

    7. Design and Implementation of D-Latch

    8. Design and Implementation asynchronous counter

    9. Design and Implementation of static RAM cell

    10. Design and Implementation of 8 bit DAC using R-2R latter network

Software Required:

  1. Mentor Graphics Software / Equivalent Industry Standard Software.

  2. Personal computer system with necessary software to run the programs and to implement.

III Year - II Semester



0 0 3 2

  1. Time division multiplexing.

  2. Pulse code modulation.

  3. Differential pulse code modulation.

  4. Delta modulation.

  5. Frequency shift keying.

  6. Phase shift keying .

  7. Differential phase shift keying.

  8. Companding

  9. Source Encoder and Decoder

  10. Linear Block Code-Encoder and Decoder

  11. Binary Cyclic Code – Encoder and Decoder

  12. Convolution Code – Encoder and Decoder

Equipment required for Laboratories:

1. RPS – 0 – 30 V

  1. CRO – 0 – 20 M Hz.

  2. Function Generators – 0 – 1 M Hz

  3. RF Generators – 0 – 1000 M Hz./0 – 100 M Hz.

  4. Multimeters

  5. Lab Experimental kits for Digital Communication

  6. Components

  1. Year - II Semester










UNIT I: Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)

Concept of Property - Introduction to IPR – International Instruments and IPR - WIPO - TRIPS – WTO -Laws Relating to IPR - IPR Tool Kit - Protection and Regulation - Copyrights and Neighboring Rights – Industrial Property – Patents - Agencies for IPR Registration – Traditional Knowledge –Emerging Areas of IPR - Layout Designs and Integrated Circuits – Use and Misuse of Intellectual Property Rights.

UNIT II: Copyrights and Neighboring Rights

Introduction to Copyrights – Principles of Copyright Protection – Law Relating to Copyrights - Subject Matters of Copyright – Copyright Ownership – Transfer and Duration – Right to Prepare Derivative Works –Rights of Distribution – Rights of Performers Copyright Registration – Limitations – Infringement of Copyright – Relief and Remedy – Case Law - Semiconductor Chip Protection Act.

UNIT III: Patents

Introduction to Patents - Laws Relating to Patents in India – Patent Requirements – Product Patent and Process Patent - Patent Search - Patent Registration and Granting of Patent - Exclusive Rights – Limitations - Ownership and Transfer –– Revocation of Patent – Patent Appellate Board - Infringement of Patent – Double Patenting –– Patent Cooperation Treaty – New developments in Patents – Software Protection and Computer related Innovations.

UNIT IV: Trademarks

Introduction to Trademarks – Laws Relating to Trademarks – Functions of Trademark – Distinction between Trademark and Property Mark – Marks Covered under Trademark Law - Trade Mark Registration – Trade Mark Maintenance – Transfer of rights - Deceptive Similarities - Likelihood of Confusion - Dilution of Ownership – Trademarks Claims and Infringement – Remedies – Passing Off Action.

UNIT V: Trade Secrets

Introduction to Trade Secrets – General Principles - Laws Relating to Trade Secrets - Maintaining Trade Secret – Physical Security – Employee Access Limitation – Employee Confidentiality Agreements – Breach of Contract – Law of Unfair Competition – Trade Secret Litigation – Applying State Law.

UNIT VI: Cyber Law and Cyber Crime

Introduction to Cyber Law – Information Technology Act 2000 - Protection of Online and Computer Transactions - E-commerce - Data Security – Authentication and Confidentiality - Privacy - Digital Signatures – Certifying Authorities - Cyber Crimes - Prevention and Punishment – Liability of Network Providers.

    • Relevant Cases Shall be dealt where ever necessary.


  1. Intellectual Property Rights (Patents & Cyber Law), Dr. A. Srinivas. Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

  2. Deborah E.Bouchoux: Intellectual Property, Cengage Learning, New Delhi.

  3. PrabhuddhaGanguli: Intellectual Property Rights, Tata Mc-Graw –Hill, New Delhi

  4. Richard Stim: Intellectual Property, Cengage Learning, New Delhi.

  5. Kompal Bansal &Parishit Bansal Fundamentals of IPR for Engineers, B. S. Publications (Press).

  6. Cyber Law - Texts & Cases, South-Western’s Special Topics Collections.

  7. R.Radha Krishnan, S.Balasubramanian: Intellectual Property Rights, Excel Books. New Delhi.

  8. M.Ashok Kumar and MohdIqbal Ali: Intellectual Property Rights, Serials Pub.

  1. Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3


The student will be introduced to:

  1. The Basic Principle of radar and radar range equation.

  2. Different types of radars; CW, FM-CW, MTI and pulse Doppler radars.

  3. Understand the different tracking techniques for radar.

  4. Understand the characteristics of a matched filter receiver and its performance.

  5. Understand the different types of displays, duplexers and antennas used in radar systems.


Basics of Radar : Introduction, Maximum Unambiguous Range, simple Radar range Equation, Radar Block Diagram and Operation, Radar Frequencies and Applications. Prediction of Range Performance, Minimum Detectable Signal, Receiver Noise, Illustrative Problems.

Radar Equation : Modified Radar Range Equation, SNR, probability of detection, probability of False Alarm, Integration of Radar Pulses, Radar Cross Section of Targets (simple targets - sphere, cone-sphere), Creeping Wave, Transmitter Power, PRF and Range Ambiguities, System Losses (qualitative treatment), Illustrative Problems.


CW and Frequency Modulated Radar : Doppler Effect, CW Radar – Block Diagram, Isolation between Transmitter and Receiver, Non-zero IF Receiver, Receiver Bandwidth Requirements, Applications of CW radar. Illustrative Problems

FM-CW Radar: Range and Doppler Measurement, Block Diagram and Characteristics, FM-CW altimeter, Multiple Frequency CW Radar.


MTI and Pulse Doppler Radar: Introduction, Principle, MTI Radar with - Power Amplifier Transmitter and Power Oscillator Transmitter, Delay Line Cancellers – Filter Characteristics, Blind Speeds, Double Cancellation, Nth Cancellation Staggered PRFs. Range Gated Doppler Filters. MTI Radar Parameters, Limitations to MTI Performance, MTI versus Pulse Doppler Radar.


Tracking Radar: Tracking with Radar, Sequential Lobing, Conical Scan, Mono pulse Tracking Radar – Amplitude Comparison Mono pulse (one- and two- coordinates), Phase Comparison Mono pulse, Tracking in Range, Acquisition and Scanning Patterns, Comparison of Trackers.


Detection of Radar Signals in Noise : Introduction, Matched Filter Receiver – Response Characteristics and Derivation, Correlation detection and Cross-correlation Receiver, Efficiency of Non-matched Filters, Matched Filter with Non-white Noise, Noise Figure and Noise Temperature.


Radar Receivers –Displays – types. Duplexers – Branch type and Balanced type, Circulators as Duplexers. Introduction to Phased Array Antennas – Basic Concepts, Radiation Pattern, Beam Steering and Beam Width changes, Series versus parallel feeds, Applications, Advantages and Limitations. Radomes.


1. Introduction to Radar Systems – Merrill I. Skolnik, TMH Special Indian Edition, 2nd Ed., 2007.


  1. Introduction to Radar Systems, 3rd edition – M.I. Skolnik, TMH Ed., 2005

  2. Radar: Principles, Technology, Applications – Byron Edde, Pearson Education, 2004.

  3. Radar Principles – Peebles, Jr., P.Z., Wiley, New York, 1998.

  4. Principles of Modern Radar: Basic Principles – Mark A. Richards, James A. Scheer, William A. Holm, Yesdee,

  5. Radar Engineering – GSN Raju, IK International.


After going through this course the student will be able to:

    1. Derive the radar range equation and to solve some analytical problems.

    2. Understand the different types of radars and its applications.

    3. Understand the concept of tracking and different tracking techniques.

    4. Understand the various components of radar receiver and its performanc.

IV Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3


Introduction: Introduction to Image Processing, Fundamental steps in digital image processing, components of an image processing system, image sensing and acquisition, image sampling and quantization, some basic relationships between pixels, an introduction to the mathematical tools used in digital image processing.

Image Transforms: Need for image transforms, Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of one variable, Extension to functions of two variables, some properties of the 2-D Discrete Fourier transform, Importance of Phase, Walsh Transform. Hadamard transform, Haar Transform, Slant transform, Discrete Cosine transform, KL Transform, SVD and Radon Transform, Comparison of different image transforms


Intensity Transformations and Spatial Filtering: Background, Some basic intensity transformation functions, histogram processing, fundamentals of spatial filtering, smoothing spatial filters , sharpening spatial filters, Combining spatial enhancement methods

Filtering in the Frequency Domain: Preliminary concepts, The Basics of filtering in the frequency domain, image smoothing using frequency domain filters, Image Sharpening using frequency domain filters, Selective filtering.


Image Restoration and Reconstruction: A model of the image degradation / Restoration process, Noise models, restoration in the presence of noise only-Spatial Filtering, Periodic Noise Reduction by frequency domain filtering, Linear, Position –Invariant Degradations, Estimating the degradation function, Inverse filtering, Minimum mean square error (Wiener) filtering, constrained least squares filtering ,geometric mean filter ,image reconstruction from projections.


Image compression: Fundamentals, Basic compression methods: Huffman coding, Golomb coding, Arithmetic coding, LZW coding, Run-Length coding, Symbol-Based coding, Bit-Plane coding, Block Transform coding, Predictive coding

Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing: Image pyramids, subband coding, Multiresolution expansions, wavelet transforms in one dimensions & two dimensions, Wavelet coding.


Image segmentation: Fundamentals, point, line, edge detection, thresholding, region –based segmentation. Morphological Image Processing: Preliminaries, Erosion and dilation, opening and closing, basic morphological algorithms for boundary extraction, thinning, gray-scale morphology, Segmentation using morphological watersheds.


Color image processing: color fundamentals, color models, pseudo color image processing, basics of full color image processing, color transformations, smoothing and sharpening. Image segmentation based on color, noise in color images, color image compression.

Text Books

  1. R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd edition, Prentice Hall, 2008.

  2. Jayaraman, S. Esakkirajan, and T. Veerakumar,” Digital Image Processing”, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2011.

Reference Books

  1. Anil K.Jain, “Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing”, Prentice Hall of India, 9th Edition, Indian Reprint, 2002.

  2. B.Chanda, D.Dutta Majumder, “Digital Image Processing and Analysis”, PHI, 2009.

Course Objectives:

Students undergoing this course are expected to:

  1. Familiarize with basic concepts of digital image processing and different image transforms

  2. Learn various image processing techniques like image enhancement, restoration, segmentation and compression

  3. Understand color fundamentals and different color models

  4. Understand wavelets and morphological image processing

Course Outcomes:

After undergoing the course students will be able to

  1. Perform image manipulations and different digital image processing techniques

  2. Perform basic operations like – Enhancement, segmentation, compression,Image transforms and restoration techniques on image.

  3. Analyze pseudo and fullcolor image processing techniques.

  4. Apply various morphological operators on images

IV Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3


    • Understand state-of-the-art in network protocols, architectures, and applications.

    • Process of networking research

    • Constraints and thought processes for networking research

    • Problem Formulation—Approach—Analysis—


Introduction: Network Topologies WAN, LAN, MAN. Reference models- The OSI Reference Model- the TCP/IP Reference Model - A Comparison of the OSI and TCP/IP Reference Models


Physical Layer – Fourier Analysis – Bandwidth Limited Signals – The Maximum Data Rate of a Channel - Guided Transmission Media, Digital Modulation and Multiplexing: Frequency Division Multiplexing, Time Division Multiplexing, Code Division Multiplexing

Data Link Layer Design Issues, Error Detection and Correction, Elementary Data Link Protocols, Sliding Window Protocols


The Data Link Layer - Services Provided to the Network Layer – Framing – Error Control – Flow Control, Error Detection and Correction – Error-Correcting Codes – Error Detecting Codes, Elementary Data Link Protocols- A Utopian Simplex Protocol-A Simplex Stop and Wait Protocol for an Error free channel-A Simplex Stop and Wait Protocol for a Noisy Channel, Sliding Window Protocols-A One Bit Sliding Window Protocol-A Protocol Using Go-Back-N- A Protocol Using Selective Repeat


The Medium Access Control Sublayer-The Channel Allocation Problem-Static Channel Allocation-Assumptions for Dynamic Channel Allocation, Multiple Access Protocols-Aloha-Carrier Sense Multiple Multiple Access Protocols- Collision-Free Protocols-Limited Contention Protocols-Wireless LAN Protocols, Ethernet-Classic Ethernet Physical Layer-Classic Ethernet MAC Sublayer Protocol-Ethernet Performance-Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet-10-Gigabit Ethernet-Retrospective on Ethernet, Wireless Lans-The 802.11 Architecture and Protocol Stack-The 802.11 Physical Layer-The802.11 MAC Sublayer Protocol-The 805.11 Frame Structure-Services


Design Issues-The Network Layer Design Issues – Store and Forward Packet Switching-Services Provided to the Transport layer- Implementation of Connectionless Service-Implementation of Connection Oriented Service- Comparison of Virtual Circuit and Datagram Networks, Routing Algorithms-The Optimality principle-Shortest path Algorithm, Congestion Control Algorithms-Approaches to Congestion Control-Traffic Aware Routing- Admission Control-Traffic Throttling-Load Shedding.


Transport Layer – The Internet Transport Protocols: Udp, the Internet Transport Protocols: Tcp

Application Layer –The Domain Name System: The DNS Name Space, Resource Records, Name Servers, Electronic Mail: Architecture and Services, The User Agent, Message Formats, Message Transfer, Final Delivery


    • Understand OSI and TCP/IP models

    • Analyze MAC layer protocols and LAN technologies

    • 3 .Design applications using internet protocols

    • 4 .Understand routing and congestion control algorithms

    • 5 .Understand how internet works


  1. Computer Networks, Tanenbaum and David J Wetherall, 5th Edition, Pearson Edu, 2010

  2. Computer Networks: A Top Down Approach, Behrouz A. Forouzan, FirouzMosharraf, McGraw Hill Education


1. Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, “Computer Networks - A Systems Approach” (5th ed), Morgan Kaufmann/ Elsevier, 2011

IV Year - I Semester



4 0 0 3


The student will be introduced to the functionality of each of the components that comprise a fiber-optic communication system

    • the properties of optical fiber that affect the performance of a communication link and types of fiber materials with their properties and the losses occur in fibers.

    • the principles of single and multi-mode optical fibers and their characteristics

    • working of semiconductor lasers, and differentiate between direct modulation and external electro-optic modulation.

    • Analyze the operation of LEDs, laser diodes, and PIN photo detectors (spectral properties, bandwidth, and circuits) and apply in optical systems.

    • Analyze and design optical communication and fiber optic sensor systems.

    • the models of analog and digital receivers.


Overview of optical fiber communication - Historical development, The general system, advantages of optical fiber communications. Optical fiber wave guides- Introduction, Ray theory transmission, Total Internal Reflection, Acceptance angle, Numerical Aperture, Skew rays, Cylindrical fibers- Modes, V-number, Mode coupling, Step Index fibers, Graded Index fibers, Single mode fibers- Cut off wavelength, Mode Field Diameter, Effective Refractive Index, Related problems.


Fiber materials:- Glass, Halide, Active glass, Chalgenide glass, Plastic optical fibers. Signal distortion in optical fibers-Attenuation, Absorption, Scattering and Bending losses, Core and Cladding losses, Information capacity determination, Group delay, Types of Dispersion:- Material dispersion, Wave-guide dispersion, Polarization-Mode dispersion, Intermodal dispersion, Pulse broadening in Graded index fiber, Related problems.


. Optical fiber Connectors-Connector types, Single mode fiber connectors, Connector return loss, Fiber Splicing- Splicing techniques, Splicing single mode fibers, Fiber alignment and joint loss- Multimode fiber joints, single mode fiber joints.


Optical sources- LEDs, Structures, Materials, Quantum efficiency, Power, Modulation, Power bandwidth product. Injection Laser Diodes- Modes, Threshold conditions, External quantum efficiency, Laser diode rate equations, Resonant frequencies, Reliability of LED&ILD, Optical detectors- Physical principles of PIN and APD, Detector response time, Temperature effect on Avalanche gain, Comparison of Photo detectors, Related problems.


Source to fiber power launching - Output patterns, Power coupling, Power launching, Equilibrium Numerical Aperture, Laser diode to fiber coupling, Optical receiver operation- Fundamental receiver operation, Digital signal transmission, error sources, Receiver configuration, Digital receiver performance, Probability of Error, Quantum limit, Analog receivers.


Optical system design - Point-to- point links- Component choice and considerations, Link power budget, Rise time budget with examples, Line coding in Optical links, WDM, Necessity, Principles, Measurement of Attenuation and Dispersion, Eye pattern.


  1. Optical Fiber Communications – Gerd Keiser, Mc Graw-Hill International edition, 3rd Edition, 2000.

  2. Optical Fiber Communications – John M. Senior, PHI, 2nd Edition, 2002.


  1. Fiber Optic Communications – D.K. Mynbaev , S.C. Gupta and Lowell L. Scheiner, Pearson Education,2005.

  2. Text Book on Optical Fiber Communication and its Applications – S.C.Gupta, PHI, 2005.

  3. Fiber Optic Communication Systems – Govind P. Agarwal , John Wiley, 3rd Ediition, 2004.

  4. Fiber Optic Communications – Joseph C. Palais, 4th Edition, Pearson Education, 2004.


After going through this course the student will be able to

    • Choose necessary components required in modern optical communications systems .

    • Design and build optical fiber experiments in the laboratory, and learn how to calculate electromagnetic modes in waveguides, the amount of light lost going through an optical system, dispersion of optical fibers.

    • Use different types of photo detectors and optical test equipment to analyze optical fiber and light wave systems.

    • Choose the optical cables for better communication with minimum losses Design, build, and demonstrate optical fiber experiments in the laboratory.

IV Year - I Semester


4 0 0 3


(Elective- I)

INTRODUCTION: TV transmitter and receivers, synchronization. Television Pictures: Geometric form and aspect ratio, image continuity, interlaced scanning, picture resolution, Composite video signal: Horizontal and vertical sync, scanning sequence, Colour signal generation and Encoding: Perception of brightness and colours, additive colour mixing, video signals for colours, luminance signal, colour difference signals, encoding of colour difference signals, formation of chrominance signals, PAL encoder.


TV SIGNAL TRANSMISSION AND PROPAGATION: Picture signal transmission, positive and negative modulation, VSB transmission, sound signal transmission, standard channel BW, TV transmitter, TV signal propagation, interference, TV broadcast channels.

MONOCHROME TV RECEIVER: RF tuner, IF subsystem, video amplifier, sound section, sync separation and processing, deflection circuits, scanning circuits.

PAL–D colour receiver: Electron tuners, IF subsystem, Y-signal channel, chroma decoder, separation of U & V Colour phasors, synchronous demodulators, subcarrier generation, raster circuits.


VISION IF SUBSYSTEM: AGC, noise cancellation, video and intercarrier sound signal detection, Colour receiver IF subsystem, Receiver sound system: FM detection, FM Sound detectors, typical applications.TV Receiver Tuners: Tuner operation, VHF and UHF tuners.

COLOUR SIGNAL DECODING:PAL-D decoder, chroma signal amplifiers, separation of U and V signals, Color burst separation, Burst phase discriminator, Reference oscillator, Indent and color killer circuits, RO phase shift and 180 degrees PAL-SWITCH circuitry, U & V demodulators, Colour signal mixing.

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