Electronics and communication engineering

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ANGLE MODULATION : Basic concepts, Frequency Modulation: Single tone frequency modulation, Spectrum Analysis of Sinusoidal FM Wave, Narrow band FM, Wide band FM, Constant Average Power, Transmission bandwidth of FM Wave - Generation of FM Waves, Direct FM, Detection of FM Waves: Balanced Frequency discriminator, Zero crossing detector, Phase locked loop, Comparison of FM & AM.


TRANSMITTERS & RECEIVERS: Radio Transmitter - Classification of Transmitter, AM Transmitter, Effect of feedback on performance of AM Transmitter, FM Transmitter – Variable reactance type and phase modulated FM Transmitter, frequency stability in FM Transmitter. Radio Receiver - Receiver Types - Tuned radio frequency receiver, Superhetrodyne receiver, RF section and Characteristics - Frequency changing and tracking, Intermediate frequency, AGC, FM Receiver, Comparison with AM Receiver, Amplitude limiting. Communication Receivers, extensions of superheterodyne principle and additional circuits.


NOISE : Review of noise and noise sources, noise figure, Noise in Analog communication Systems, Noise in DSB& SSB System, Noise in AM System, Noise in Angle Modulation Systems, Threshold effect in Angle Modulation System, Pre-emphasis & de-emphasis


PULSE MODULATION : Time Division Multiplexing,, Types of Pulse modulation, PAM (Single polarity, double polarity) PWM: Generation & demodulation of PWM, PPM, Generation and demodulation of PPM, TDM Vs FDM


  1. Principles of Communication Systems – H Taub & D. Schilling, Gautam Sahe, TMH, 2007 3rd Edition.

  2. Communication Systems – B.P. Lathi, BS Publication, 2006.


  1. Principles of Communication Systems - Simon Haykin, John Wiley, 2nd Ed.,.

  2. Electronics & Communication System – George Kennedy and Bernard Davis, TMH 2004.

  3. Communication Systems– R.P. Singh, SP Sapre, Second Edition TMH, 2007.

  4. Fundamentals of Communication Systems - John G. Proakis, Masond, Salehi PEA, 2006.

  5. Electronic Communication systems – Tomasi, Pearson.

Course Objectives:

Students undergoing this course, are expected to

  1. Familiarize with the fundamentals of analog communication systems

  2. Familiarize with various techniques for analog modulation and demodulation of signals

  3. Distinguish the figure of merits of various analog modulation methods

  4. Develop the ability to classify and understand various fuctional blocks of radiao transmitters and receivers

  5. Familiarize with basic techniques for generating and demodulating various pulse modulated signals

Course Outcomes:

After undergoing the course, students will be able to

  1. Differentiate various Analog modulation and demodulation schemes and their spectral characteristics

  2. Analyze noise characteristics of various analog modulation methods

  3. Analyze various functional blocks of radiao transmitters and receivers

  4. Design simple analog systems for various modulation techniques.

II Year - II Semester



4 0 0 3

The student will be made

    • To understand the concept of wave shaping circuits, Switching Characteristics of diode and transistor.

    • To study the design and analysis of various Multivibrators.

    • To understand the functioning of different types of time-base Generators.

    • To learn the working of logic families & Sampling Gates.


LINEAR WAVESHAPING: High pass, low pass RC circuits, their response for sinusoidal, step, pulse, square, ramp and exponential inputs. RC network as differentiator and integrator; Attenuators , its applications in CRO probe, RL and RLC circuits and their response for step input, Ringing circuit.


NON-LINEAR WAVE SHAPING : Diode clippers, Transistor clippers, clipping at two independent levels, Transfer characteristics of clippers, Emitter coupled clipper; Clamping operation, clamping circuits using diode with different inputs, Clamping circuit theorem, practical clamping circuits, effect of diode characteristics on clamping voltage, Transfer characteristics of clampers.


SWITCHING CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVICES : Diode as a switch, piecewise linear diode characteristics, Design and analysis of Transistor as a switch, Break down voltage consideration of transistor, saturation parameters of Transistor and their variation with temperature, Design of transistor switch, transistor-switching times.

Bistable Multivibrator: Analysis And Design of Fixed Bias, Self Bias Bistable Multi Vibrator, Collector Catching Diodes, Commutating Capacitors, Triggering of Binary Circuits, Emitter Coupled Bistable Multivibrator (Schmitt Trigger).


Monostable Multivibrator: Analysis and Design of Collector Coupled Monostable Multi vibrator, Triggering of Monostable Multivibrator, Applications of Monostable Multivibrator.

Astable Multivibrator: Analysis and Design of Collector Coupled Astable Multivibrator, Application of Astable Multivibrator as a Voltage to Frequency Converter.

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