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BROWN’S DICTIONARY
OF BIBLE WORDS AND PLACES

A PREACHER’S DICTIONARY OF BIBLE WORDS
AND PLACES


BY DR. JOHN BROWN OF HADDINGTON

EDITED BY GEOFFREY STONIER




Engraved by Andrew Wilson

JOHN BROWN


LATE MINISTER OF THE GOSPEL, HADDINGTON, AND
PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY UNDER THE ASSOCIATE SYNOD

FROM AN ORIGINAL PAINTING



INTRODUCTION
It is always a daunting task for any editor to work over the labours of a godly and scholarly man more than 200 years after his work first appeared. Yet John Brown’s Bible Dictionary was edited and added to extensively by several famous editors in the 19th Century. It is a great sadness that the Dictionary did not live into the 20th Century, considering its lasting value for preachers and Pastors, and all those who wish to study the Bible word-by-word. Today, the Dictionary is little known and used. It is my enormous privilege to provide it as a fine resource once again.
In this edition, I have brought the English as up-to-date and as simplified as possible, particularly for readers in the Developing Countries whose second or third language is English. I have also looked carefully to add to the history, geography, social development, and up-to-date archaeology, of all countries, with numerous additions. There are a few references to website addresses on the Internet. Some of John Brown’s scientific statements are open to question, inaccurate, or plain wrong. These I have corrected and brought up-to-date. In these days of alternative medicine, it is most interesting to find Brown commending various natural substances and herbs, and specifying their uses.
How edifying once again to find John Brown, as did all the Puritan commentators, taking the Song of Solomon seriously, and interpreting it and pointing out its spiritual principles for believers concerning Christ the Saviour and Husband, and the true Church! Quotations from the Song abound throughout the Dictionary, although his grandson, who was one of the earlier editors of the Dictionary, and who wrote a loving biography of John Brown, felt that some of his interpretations were rather far-fetched and lacking in proof. However, there is plenty left over for the edification of gospel preachers and serious Bible students of our day.
I love John Brown’s definition of the gospel. Here is the backbone to his warmly evangelical theology:
Most correctly and strictly, preaching the gospel is a declaration of the covenant of grace to men, and an absolutely gracious declaration of the goodwill of God towards sinful men. Preaching the gospel means to set before them, and freely offer them, Jesus Christ and all his righteousness, and salvation in him, to be received by them, even the worst of them, without money and without price. From this point of view, the gospel differs wide­ly from the Law, and is the very reverse of it.
Concerning preaching the gospel, he says: To preach is to proclaim loudly the will of God as his appointed heralds. (Eph. 3:8)
Two further points must be made. First, that John Brown was a Scot; therefore his Dictionary is very much a Scottish one. I have included in brackets the meaning of all Scottish words. Second, as in the previous volume, John Brown makes it perfectly clear what the gospel is, the gospel of the Old Testament prophets, the Apostles, the Reformers, and the Puritans. Everywhere, you will find a clear and Biblical picture of the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, which is a foundation for all gospel preaching.
To read and study the previous volume of biography, and this volume, of John Brown’s Dictionary of the Bible, is to study every word in the Bible – a formidable but fruitful task, giving preachers a wonderful background to any verse in the Bible, or many verses on any particular topic. That is why for a hundred years Brown’s Dictionary was welcomed into so many homes, and used as an authoritative reference. May these two volumes prove to be as welcome and beloved as in former years!

Geoffrey Stonier (Preachers’ Help)



A PREACHER’S DICTIONARY

OF BIBLE WORDS AND PLACES

A
ABANA and PHARPAR

Abana, and the streams that water the gardens outside the city with the Pharpar. Perhaps the Pharpar is the same as the Orontes, the most famous river of Syria, which, rising a little to the north or northeast of Damascus, flows through a delightful plain, till, after passing by Antioch, and running about 200 miles to the south. The modern name for the Abana (or Amanah) is the Barada, which the Greeks used to call Chrysorrhoas (the golden stream), and is now called today the A`waj. One of the branches of the Pharpar is now called Taura, or the Wadi Barbar (probably a corruption of Pharpar). These two rivers of Syria were where Naaman the leper thought it more proper to be cured of his unclean disease than all the rivers of Israel. (These two names are only found in 2 Kings 5:12) Actually, the River Abana was long noted for its crystal, pure water. The Abana, which, rises in Mount Lebanon, runs pleasantly toward the south; then, after running some leagues (1 league = 3 miles), it divides into three streams: the middle, which is the largest, runs directly through the city of Damascus, and the other two run besire the city, greatly fertilising the gardens. The streams on the south of the city, after a course of about 15 miles, become lost in a dry desert. Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela identifies the River Barrady that runs through Damascus with the northwest, then runs into the Mediterranean Sea.


TO ABASE

Means to treat with contempt, to reduce to lowliness and poverty. (Job 40:11; Dan. 4:37) One is abased when deprived of honour and wealth, and brought down to poverty, affliction, and contempt. (Phil. 4:12) One abases himself when he behaves in a humble and lowly way, as Paul did when he, though a preacher, laboured with his hands for his daily bread. (2 Cor. 11:7)


TO ABATE

To grow less, or become less (Gen. 8:3; Deut. 34:7; Jn. 3:30), or to make less. (See Lev. 28:18)


ABEL

(1) Otherwise called the field of Josh., a place near Bethshemesh, so called to commemorate the mourning of the Heb. for their friends who were struck dead for looking into the ark. It seems a great stone was erected in memory of that event. (1 Sam. 6:18-19)


(2) Abelmizraim (mourning of Egypt). A place also called the threshing floor of Atad. It was so called from the great mourning of the Egyptians over Jacob’s corpse as they carried it to Machpelah. It is thought to have been located between Jordan and Jericho, where the city Bethhoglah was afterwards built; but we find it hard to believe that it was so far east. (Gen. 1:11) The site till now remains unknown. See Joseph.
(3) Abelshittim (meadow of the acacias), frequently just called “Shittim” (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Mic. 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan in the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of the Israelites, the last resting place before they crossed the Jordan (Num. 22:1, 26:3, 31:12, 33:49; compare 25:1, 31:16). Here, the Heb. encamped a little before the death of Moses, and fell into idolatry and uncleanness through the enticement of the Moabitish, and chiefly the Midianitish, women, and were punished with the death of 24,000 in one day. (Num. 25:1-18)
(4) Abelmeholah (meadow of dancing). A city or place on the west of the Jordan, belonging to the half-tribe of Manasseh. (1 Kings 4:12) Eusebius Jerome located it 10 miles (but others think it was about 16 miles) south of Bethshean. Not far from this city, Gibeon miraculously defeated the Midianites (Judg. 7:22); but its chief honour was to be the birthplace of Elisha the prophet. (1 Kings 19:16)
(5) Abel, Abel-bethmaacha, Abel-maim. A fortified city somewhere on the southern frontiers of Mount Lebanon, probably belonging to the tribe of Naphtali. Sheba the son of Bichri fled to it when pursued by David’s troops. To free themselves from Joab’s furious siege, the inhabitants, advised by a wise woman, beheaded the rebel, and threw his head over the wall. (2 Sam. 20:14-18) About 80 years later, Benhadad, King of Syria, took it and ravaged it. (1 Kings 15:20) About 200 years later, Tiglath-pileser took it, and carried its inhabitants captive to Assyria. (2 Kings 15:29) It was afterwards rebuilt, and it became capital of the district of Abilene.
TO ABHOR

(1) To loathe, detest. (Deut. 32:19; Job 42:6) It is the celebrated Edward Leigh in his Critica Sacra who gives this explanation of the word.


(2) To despise, neglect. (Amos 6:80)
(3) To reject, cast off. (Ps. 89:38) God’s abhorring his anointed, if referring to Christ, indicates his hiding his face from him, and executing on him the punishment due for our sins. God’s not abhorring the affliction of the afflicted means his not overlooking their condition, but sympathising with them, and helping and comforting them in their troubles. (Ps. 22:24) Job’s clothes abhorred him, indicating the loathsome disease that his sins had brought upon him. (Job 9:31)
The corpses of the rejected Jews, of the ruined heathen under Constantine, etc., and of the antichristians and Mahometans about the beginning of the millennium, are an abhorring to all flesh, when vast numbers of the slain polluted, or will pollute, the very air. The Jews that remain since the destruction of their city and Temple are much hated and despised by all nations. Under and after Constantine, the heathen and their idols were detested by the people, and such will be the case with Papists and Mahometans. (Is. 66:24) The word in this passage translated abhorring is found nowhere else except in Dan. 12:7, where it is translated contempt. It comes from a word meaning worm.
TO ABIDE

(1) To stay, tarry. (Gen. 22:5)

(2) To dwell, or live in a place. (Gen. 29:19)

(3) To endure, to suffer. (Jer. 10:10)

(4) To continue. (Eccl. 8:15)

(5) To wait for. (Acts 20:23)

(6) To stand firm. (Ps. 119:90)
Christ and his Father make their abode with one when they bestow frequent and familiar influences of power, kindness, and inward comfort, to his soul. (Jn. 14:23) Men abide in Christ and his love when, being united to him by faith, they continue to cleave to his person, believe in his love, and walk in his way. (Jn. 15:6,10) Christ’s word or doctrine, abides in men, and they in it, when the knowledge and faith of its truth and excellence, the experience of its power, and an open profession and careful observance of it, are continued in a faithful and determined way.
ABJECTS

Most despicable people. (Only found in Ps. 35:15) The word gets its meaning from the verb to smite. Ainsworth reads smiters, following the Septuagint; that is, those who smite him with their tongues. The word is used in the same sense. (Jer. 18:18)


ABLE

Of great or sufficient power, wisdom, or wealth. (Ex. 18:21; Lev. 14:22; Num. 13:30; Heb. 7:25;)


ABILITY

(1) Measure of wealth. (Ezra 2:69)

(2) Sufficiency of wisdom and prudence. (Dan. 1:11)
ABOARD

On the ship. (Only found in Acts 21:2)


TO ABOLISH

(1) To do away, to make void, to annul the obligation of. (2 Cor. 3:13; Eph. 2:13)

(2) To destroy, to cause to cease. (Is. 2:18; 2 Tim. 1:10)
TO ABOUND

(1) To grow great or numerous. (Mt. 24:12; 2 Pet. 1:8)

(2) To increase, and have plenty of temporal or spiritual benefits. (Prov. 28:20; 2 Cor. 9:8)
God abounds in grace towards us in all wisdom and care in graciously choosing a fit Person to be our Mediator; by appointing him to his proper work, in its whole scope and time; in ordering the circumstances of his incarnation, humiliation, and glory, and of all the mercies, afflictions, and deliverances of his people to their best advantage; in forming and publishing the gospel of our salvation, thus rendering men naturally foolish and rebellious. In wisdom, circumspection, and carefulness, he eminently displays and exerts his infinite mercy, grace, and wisdom. (Eph. 1:7-8) Men abound in the work of the Lord, when, with notable and increasing pleasure and activity, they perform a host of good works. (1 Cor. 15:58) Men abound in transgression when, with increasing activity, they go from one evil thing to another, or even worse. (Prov. 29:22) Sin abounds inwardly when it renders our rational powers more vigorous, active in, and delighted to, sin. It abounds outwardly when the number of sinners, or of sinful acts, and the number and degrees of their provocation increase. It abounds relatively, when its facts, criminal nature, power, and pollution, are more fully and convincingly displayed. (Mt. 24:12; Rom. 5:20) Grace in God much more abounds in saving the chief of sinners, and forgiving, conquering, and destroying the greatest sins in those that believe. Grace in us much more abounds in resisting and mortifying our strongest corruption, taking full possession of these inward powers where sin had been superlatively strong and active. (Rom. 5:20) The truth of God abounds when his revelations become clearly and widely displayed, when his promises are eminently fulfilled, and his Word rendered effective for the conversion of a vast number, and is boldly professed by them. (Rom. 3:7)
ABOVE

(1) High, overhead. (Gen. 6:16)

(2) Upwards. (Ex. 30:14; Lev. 27:7)

(3) Beyond. (2 Cor. 1:8)

(4) More than. (Gen. 3:14)

(5) Higher than. (Neh. 8:5)


Above is used metaphorically to indicate the dignity or excellence of people or things (Ps. 113:4; Mt. 10:24), or rank, authority, and rule. (Num. 16:3; Deut. 28:13) It also points to what is spiritual and heavenly (Gal. 4:26; Col. 3:1), and indeed, heaven, or God himself, who is above all in dignity and authority. (Jas. 1:17)
ABROAD

Outside, as with the city of Sodom (Gen. 19:17), out of the house (Ex. 12: 46), out of the tent. (Lev. 19:8) Wherever the word occurs, its meaning can be gathered from the context, such as scatter, bring forth, spread, etc.


ABSENT

Out of one’s sight or presence. (Gen. 31:49; Col. 2:5) The saints on earth are absent from the Lord. (2 Cor. 5:6) They do not enjoy the immediate vision and fellowship of Jesus Christ, and of God in him, as those in heaven do.


TO ABSTAIN

To forbear using. Abstinence is strictly a forbearing from the use of food. (Acts 27:22) During their sacred ministrations, the Jewish priests were commanded to abstain from wine and grapes, or anything produced by the vine (Lev. 10:9); so were the Nazarites during the period of their vow. (Num. 6:3) The whole Hebrew nation was to abstain from the flesh of animals declared unclean by the Law, and from the fat of those that were sacrificed to the Lord; and also from the blood of all meat. (Lev. 11, 3:17, 7:23) To commemorate the shrinking of the sinew of Jacob’s thigh, when it was touched by the wrestling angel, the Jews voluntarily abstained from eating the corresponding sinew in animals. (Gen. 32:25) To avoid giving offence to Jewish or weak Christians, the Apostles commanded the gentile converts to refrain from eating any meat with blood in it, and anything sacrificed to idols. (Acts 15:28; 1 Cor. 8:7-10) But Paul declared it among the doctrines of devils to abstain from any wholesome food under the pretence of intrinsic holiness and devotion. (1 Tim. 4:1-5)


ABUNDANT

Very large, like an overflowing stream. (1 Pet. 1:3) See also Ex. 34:6; Is. 56:12; 1 Cor. 12:23, 12:24; 2 Cor. 4:15, 7:15, 9:12, 11:23; Phil. 1:26; 1 Tim. 1:14.


ABUNDANCE. See ABOUND

A great deal of anything (2 Chron. 9:9; Rom. 8; 2 Cor. 12:7), plenty of wealth (Deut. 28:47). The abundance of the seas means plenty of fish, and profit from sea-trade. (Deut. 33:19)


ABUNDANTLY

With great abundance. See, for example, Rom. 5:17; 2 Cor. 8:2,14, 20, 12:7.


TO ABUSE

To use persons or things for wrong ends or motives, or in a sinful and dishonourable way. (Judg. 19:25) Men abuse themselves with mankind when they commit the horrible sin of Sodom that brought ruin on that city, and cities nearby. (1 Cor. 6:9) Men abuse the world when they use good things to dishonour God, and gratify their own lusts. (1 Cor. 7:31)


TO ACCEPT

(1) To receive favourably. (Mal. 1:10-13)

(2) To take pleasure in. (Jer. 14:10)

(3) To esteem highly. (Lk. 4:24)


To be accepted by God is to be received into his grace and favour. (Acts 10:35) The saints are accepted in the beloved through union with the Person, and imputation of the righteousness, of Jesus Christ, are received into the divine favour, and are entitled to all the blessings of eternal life. (Eph. 1:6) The sinful accepting of persons is to reveal that men are partial in judgement or otherwise on account of some worldly circumstance and motive. (Prov. 18:5; Job 32:31; Gal. 2:6)
ACCESS

Free admission, with unhindered entrance. Our access to a gracious state, and to God, is through Christ as our ransom and way; by the Spirit, as applying to us the Person and fullness of Christ; and by faith as the means of receiving Christ as the Lord our righteousness and strength. (Is. 45:24; Rom. 5:2; Eph. 2:18, 3:12)


TO ACCOMPLISH

(1) To perform, to fulfil, to fully execute. (Jer. 44:25)

(2) To bring to pass what is desired, purposed, or promised. (Prov. 13:9)

(3) To finish, as days are accomplished. (Acts 21:5; Lk. 2:6)


ACCORD

Means of its, or his, own accord freely, without hindrance or constraint. (Lev. 25:5; 2 Cor. 8:17) With one accord means with universal harmony and agreement. (Acts 1:14, 2:1,46, 4:24, 5:12, 8:6, 15:25)


ACCORDING

(1) Agreeably with. We are saved not according to our works, but according to his purpose and grace in Christ. (2 Tim. 1:9)


(2) Even as, or in proportion to. (Acts 4:35) At the Judgement, God rewards all men according to their works; that is, agreeably with the nature of their works (2 Cor. 5:10; Rev. 22:12); but he does not deal with his elect according to the merit of their works, whether good or bad. (2 Tim. 1:9; Titus 3:5)
ACCORDINGLY

A sentence connector, because of the reason given, consequently. (Found only in Is. 59:18)


TO ACCOUNT

To reckon, to judge, to value. (Deut. 2:11) The Heb. made an account of the paschal lamb so that every eater paid his share of the cost. (Ex. 12:4) To put something to someone’s account is to charge for it, count it as his debt, or reckon it to him as his good deed. (Phil. 4:17; Philem.. verse 8) To take account is to search into a matter, and make a judgement. (Mt. 18:23) To give account is to have our conduct tested, whether it is reasonable and lawful or not. (Rom. 14:12; Heb. 13:17; 1 Pet. 4:5) God giveth not account of his matters; he does not usually inform his creatures of the reasons and circumstances of his conduct, nor is he under obligation to do so. (Job 33:13)


TO ACCUSE

To charge with a crime. (Dan. 3:8) ACCUSATION is the act of charging someone with a misdemeanour, or the charge itself. (Lk. 19:8; 1 Tim. 5:19) Men’s thoughts accuse them when their conscience charges their sins to them, and fills them with pain, shame, and fear, on account of them. (Rom. 2:15) Moses accused the Jews in Christ’s time; his law pointed out and condemned them for the defects and irregularities of their practice. (Jn. 5:45) Satan is the accuser of the brethren before God day and night; without ceasing. By his agents, he accused the early Christians before the civil magistrates, and towards God, to the world, and to their own conscience; and, in every age, he charges the saints with many crimes, whether real or imaginary. (Rev. 12:10)


TO ACKNOWLEDGE

(1) To own, or to confess. (Gen. 38:26)

(2) To observe, to take notice of. (Is. 33:13)

(3) To esteem and respect. (Is. 61:9; 1 Cor. 16:18)

(4) To approve of. (2 Cor. 1:13; Philem.. verse 6)

(5) To worship, profess, and own as God. (Dan. 11:39.


We acknowledge the Lord in all our ways when, in every matter, we request and wait for his direction and assistance, observing what direction or encouragement his Word and providence afford us in our affairs, whether they are temporal or spiritual. (Prov. 3:6)
TO ACQUAINT

To obtain a familiar knowledge and intimacy. (Ps. 139:3 = art acquainted) To acquaint oneself with, or accustom ourselves with God, is to get spiritual knowledge of, and intimacy with, him by repeated endeavours. (Job 22:21 = acquaint)


ACQUAINTANCE

Those to whom one is familiarly known and is intimate. (Job 19:13) See also 2 Kings 12:5,7; Job 42:11; Ps. 31:11, 55:13, 88:8,18; Lk. 2:44, 23:49; Acts 24:23.


TO ACQUIT

To clear from all charge of guilt. (Only found in Job 10:14 and Nahum 1:3)


ACTS, ACTIONS

Deed, particularly more notable ones. (Deut. 11:3; Ps. 145:12, 150:2; Is. 28:21, 59:6; Jn. 8:4) Actions is found only in 1 Sam. 2:3.


ACTIVITY

An alert briskness, attended with wisdom and care, in doing business. (Found only in Gen. 47:6)


ACTS OF THE APOSTLES, THE

An inspired history of their actions and sufferings, at, or after, the Ascension of their adored Master. This book mainly relates the actions of Peter, John, Paul and Barnabas. It gives us a unique account of Christ’s Ascension, of the choice of Matthias in the place of Judas Iscariot, of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit at the feast of Pentecost, of the marvellous preaching of the gospel by the Apostles, and its consequent success, and their persecution on that account (1-5). We read of the choice of deacons, and the trial and murder of Stephen, who was one of them (6-7); of a more general persecution and dispersion of Christian preachers into Samaria and other nearby places; of baptisms, and the wickedness of Simon the sorcerer; and the conversion and baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch ( 8). We read of Peter’s raising of Dorcas to life; of his preaching to, and baptising, the Gentiles in Cornelius’ family, and his vindication of his conduct there. (9:32-43, 10, and 11:1-18).


We read of the spread of the gospel among the Gentiles by the dispersed preachers, and the contribution for the saints at Jerusalem during a time of famine. (11:19-29) We read of Herod’s murder of Jas., and the imprisonment of Peter and the threat to his life. (12) We read of the first Christian Council held at Jerusalem that condemned the imposition of Jewish ceremonies on gentile converts, and advised Christians to avoid offending the weak by not eating meat offered to idols, or of things strangled, and meat with blood in it. ( 15) The rest of the book tells of the conversion, labours, and sufferings of Paul. (Acts 9:1-31, 13-14, 16). It contains the history of the planting and regulation of the Christian Church for about 50 years. Nor have we any other history for 250 years after that that deserves our belief. This large gap between inspired history and human history deserves pondering. Providence, which, no doubt, ordered our faith and practice relative to the concerns of the Church, and which is laid down in the Acts of the Apostle, does not depend upon the wisdom of men, but the authority of God.
Luke the Evangelist was the author of this history, writing it as a continuation of his history of Christ. (See Acts 1:1-3)The Marcionite and Manichean hereretics of the early ages of Christianity utterly rejected it. The Ebionites translated it into Hebrew, greatly corrupting it. Other heretics attempted to introduce into the Church a variety of forged imitations such as The Epistle of Paul to Seneca, and The Acts of Paul and Thecla. We also have today forged copies of the Acts of Peter, Paul, John, Andrew, Thomas, Philip, Matthias, etc.
ADAMANT (diamond)

The same precious stone we also call a diamond is the hardest and the most valuable of gems. It is of a fine transparent substance made of carbon. It is never spoilt by contaminants, but often receives an elegant tinge from metal particles. When it is rubbed with a soft substance, it shines in the dark, but its light disappears if, in the open air, anything prevents it receiving light. It gives fire with steel, but does not react with any acids.


Some diamonds are found in Brazil, other in the East Indies, and particularly in South Africa. The African Cullinan diamond is the world’s largest gem, weighing about 3,106 carats (1 carat = 200 milligrams, or 142 carats = 1 ounce) in rough form when discovered in 1905 at the Premier mine, near Pretoria. Named after Sir Thomas Cullinan, who discovered the mine, the colourless stone was purchased by the South African government, and was presented in 1907 to the reigning British monarch, King Edward VII. It was cut in Amsterdam into 9 large stones and about 100 smaller ones. These stones were all found to be flawless, and now form part of the British regalia. The largest of these is the Great Star of Africa, which is set in the English sceptre, with the most valuable stone set in the state crown. Other famous diamonds are: the Eugenie Blue (1909-10), the Centenary (1948), the Tiffany Yellow (1877-78), the Portuguese (probably early 20th century), the Light of Peace (1969), the Florentine (1615), the Maxmillian (1860).
The adamant (or diamond) was the third jewel in the second row of the High Priest’s breastplate. (Ex. 28:18) Ezekiel’s forehead was made like an adamant, and he was endued with undaunted boldness in declaring God’s message to the Jews. (Ezek. 3:9) Wicked men’s hearts are as an adamant; neither the threatenings nor judgements of God can break them, nor his mercies, invitations, or promises, melt them, till they are sprinkled with Jesus’ blood, and have his love shed abroad in them by the Holy Spirit. (Zech. 7:12) The sin of Judah was written with a pen of iron, and point of a diamond; their corrupt inclinations were deep-rooted and fixed in their heart; and all their crimes were indelibly marked by God. (Jer. 18:1)
ADAR

The 12th month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the 6th of their civil year. It had 29 days, and corresponds to our February and part of March. On the 3rd day, the second Temple was finished and dedicated. (Ezra 6:15) On the 7th, the Jews fasted for the death of Moses; on the 13th, they commemorated the fast of Esth. and Mordecai: on the 14th, they observed the feast of Purim (Esth. 4, and 11:17) On the 25th, they commemorated the release of Jehoiachin. (Jer. 52:31) Every third year, a second Adar was added, consisting of 30 days.


TO ADD

(1) To join or put with. (Deut. 4:2)

(2) To increase. (Prov. 16:23)

(3) To bestow. (Gen. 30:24)

(4) To proceed to utter. (Deut. 5:22)

They added nothing to me; they gave me no new information or authority that I had not known before. (Gal. 2:6) To add sin to sin is to continue and become more open and active in the practice of it. (Is. 30:1) To add to faith virtue, and to virtue knowledge; there is more and more to exercise and abound in all the graces of the divine Spirit and the virtues of a holy life. (2 Pet. 1:5-7) To be added to the Lord and to the Church is to be powerfully converted and united with the Lord Jesus and his Church as new members of his mystical body. (Acts 7:14, 11:24, 2:41,47)
ADDER. Vipera berus. See VIPER

A venomous creature, brought forth alive, and not by eggs, usually 8 at a time measuring 15 - 20 cm. It is considerably smaller and shorter than other snakes, and has black spots on its back. Its belly is quite blackish. It is often called a viper. We find the word Adder four times in the Bible (Gen. 49:17; Ps. 58:4, 91:13; Prov. 23:32), but I suppose always without warrant from the original Hebrew. Within an hour of its bite, dizziness, vomiting and painful swelling and loss of mobility of the affected limb are not uncommon. Shepiphan (Gen. 49:17) is probably the blood-snake, a serpent of the colour of sand its natural habitat, and, especially, if trampled on, gives a sudden and dangerous bite. Pethon (Ps. 58:4, 91:13, 140:3) is an an Asp. Tziphoni (Prov. 23:32) probably refers to the yellow snake.


To ADJURE

(1) To bind someone by an oath, as under the penalty of a fearful curse. (Josh. 6:26; Mk. 5:7)


(2) To charge solemnly, as by authority, and under pain of the displeasure of God. (Acts 19:13; Mt. 26:63)
ADMINISTERED

Manage and served as stewards. (Only found in 2 Cor. 8:19-20)


ADMINISTRATION

A public office, and its execution. (Only found in 1 Cor. 12:5 = administrations; 2 Cor. 9:12)


ADMIRED

Wondered at anything for its greatness, excellence, and rarity. (2 Thess. 1:10)


TO ADMONISH

To instruct, to warn, to reprove. (Rom. 15:14; 1 Thess. 5:12; 2 Thess. 3:15) The admonition of the Lord is instruction, warning, and reproof, given in the Lord’s name from his Word, in a way that reveals his perfections, and is intended for his honour. (Eph. 6:4) Heretics are to be rejected, or cast out of the Church, after a first and second admonition; that is, with a solemn warning and reproof. (Titus 3:10)


ADOPTION

Means either:

(1) Natural, when a stranger is taken into a family, and treated as a natural child. Thus the daughter of Pharaoh adopted Moses, and Mordecai, Esth.. In this sense, the word is never used in Scripture.
(2) National, when God takes a whole people as his special and visible Church, exercising his special care and government over them, and bestowing many ordinances and other privileges on them. This adoption, for 1500 years, pertained to the Jews, they being the only visible Church of God on earth. (Rom. 9:4)
(3) Spiritual, in which sinful men, by nature children of Satan, disobedience, and wrath, are, upon their union with Christ, graciously taken by God into the invisible Church to have spiritual communion and intimacy with the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and with angels and fellow-saints. They are loved, taught, governed, corrected, protected, helped, and provided for, and are entitled to his promises, salvation, glory, and fullness, as their everlasting inheritance. This adoption, all the saints receive, and, of it, the Holy Spirit dwelling in them as a spirit of grace and supplication, and their holy life, are undoubted evidence. (Jer. 3:19; John 1:12; Rom. 8:15-17; Gal. 4:6)

(4) Glorious, in which the saints, being raised up from the dead, are, at the last day, solemnly declared to be the children of God, and receive the blissful inheritance publicly adjudged to them. They enter, soul and body, into full possession of it. This, the saints are now waiting for. (Rom. 8:22)


TO ADORE

This word, taken in its literal and etymological sense, means to carry to one’s mouth, to kiss one’s hand, or to kiss something, but with a sense of veneration and worship. It comes from the Latin adorare, to pray to. “If I beheld the sun when it shined, or the moon walking in brightness, and my mouth hath kissed my hand, this also were iniquity”; that is to say, “If I have adored them by kissing my hand at the sight of them...” And in 1 Kings 19:18 - “Yet I have left me seven thousand in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed unto Baal, and every mouth which hath not kissed him.” Ps. 2:12 - “Kiss the Son, lest he be angry and ye perish from the way”; that is to say, adore the Son, and submit to his kingdom.


The word adore in Scripture is taken not only for that worship and adoration due to God only, but likewise for those marks of outward respect that are paid to kings, great men, and superiors. In adoration of both, men bowed their bodies very low, and often threw themselves prostrate on the ground to demonstrate their respect. Abraham, prostrate on the ground, adored the three angels that appeared to him under human form at Mamre. (Gen. 18:1-3) Lot adored two of them in the same way when they arrived at Sodom. (Gen. 19:1-2) It is very probable that neither of them at first sight took them for any other than men. Abraham adored the people of Hebron, falling prostrate before them, and entreating them to sell him a burial place for Sarah. (Gen. 13:7-8) It is needless to multiply further examples of this way of acting; you can find them in a great number of places in Scripture.
TO ADORN

To deck, to make beautiful. (1 Tim. 2:9) Holiness of life and practice are an adorning. (See 1Peter 3:1-5) Much care, pains, and attention to the mirror of God’s Word, are necessary to attain holiness, rendering our nature and character truly pleasant and glorious. (1 Tim. 4:9-10; 1 Pet. 3:4-5) By living a holy life, we adorn the doctrine of God, and practically demonstrate to the world the purity, power, glory, and usefulness of his truths, laws, promises, and threats. (Titus 2:10) The Church is adorned when her ordinances are pure and effective, her officers faithful and zealous, and her members clothed with the imputed righteousness of Christ and his sanctifying grace. (Is. 61:10; Rev. 21:2)


ADRIA

The Adria, or Adriatic Sea, a sea on the east of Italy, is otherwise called the Gulf of Venice. The name of the Adriatic Sea came from the Etruscans (the Adriatic from the Etruscan city of Adria) which appears to have taken its name from Adria, an ancient city that stood somewhere in the territory of Venice, on the northeast of Italy. But from Ptolemy and Strabo, it appears that the whole sea adjacent to the island of Sicily, and even the Ionian or Tuscan Sea on the southwest of Italy, was called in ancient days Adria. The Etruscan city of Atria (or Adria) lies under the modern city, three to four meters below. The first exploration of Atria was carried out by Carlo Bocchi, who published several books in the early part of the 19th Century, the most notable being Importanza di Adria la Veneta.


Somewhere in this sea, the ship that was transporting Paul to Rome was terribly tossed in a storm. (Found only in Acts 27:27)
ADRAMYTTIUM

A city on the west coast of Mysia in Asia Minor, north of Smyrna, and close to the island of Lesbos. In earlier times, it was called Aeolis. It was in a ship that was built in this town that Paul sailed from Caesarea to Myra. (Acts 27:2) It is now called Adramyti, or the modern Edremit in northwest Turkey.


ADULTERY

Generally taken, it includes all manner of unchastity in the heart, speech, and behaviour, whether fornication, incest, or all unnatural lusts, etc. (Ex. 20:14) But strictly taken, it includes sexual relations between a man and woman, one or both of whom are already married to someone else. Thus we understand why death was made the penalty, and when the people concerned were not man and wife. (Lev. 20:10) In case one of the partners was betrothed, the crime and punishment was the same as if married. (Deut. 22:22-27) Reuben’s incest with Bilhah is the first act of adultery we read of in the Bible. Among the heathen it was long held to be a horrible crime. (Gen. 20:9) For about 500 years, we read of few or no instances of it in the Roman state. Nor does it appear to have been common till the poets presented their gods as monsters of lust.


God gave the Jews a method of exposing it, however secret. When a man suspected his wife’s fidelity, he warned her to avoid intercourse in private with her suspected paramour. If she refused to obey, she was brought before the local judges, and a presumption of her guilt was declared. If she continued to assert her innocence, she was tried by the water of jealousy. She was brought to a place in the Tabernacle or Temple and examined before the great council, or Sanhedrin. If she persisted in her denial, she was brought to the east gate of the outer court, and, before vast numbers of her own sex, was dressed in black. The priest solemnly adjured her to tell the truth, and warned her of her danger if she drank the water of jealousy, if she was found guilty. She then said “Amen”, implying a solemn desire that vengeance might come on her if guilty. The priest wrote the adjuration and curse on a piece of parchment or bark. He then filled a new earthen vessel with holy water from one of the sacred basins, or perhaps with the water of purification, mingling it with some dust taken from the pavement of the Tabernacle or Temple. Having read the testimony of the woman, and hearing the return of her second AMEN, he washed out the ink with which the adjuration and curse were written into the mixture of dust and water. Meanwhile, another priest tore the upper part of her clothes, uncovered her head, dishevelled her hair, pulled her half-torn garments below her breast, and presented her with about a pound and a half of barley-meal in a frying-pan, without either oil or incense, to mark how disagreeable to God was the occasion of this offering. The priest who prepared the bitter water then caused her to drink it, put the pan with the meal into her hand, stirred it a little, and burnt part of it on the altar of burnt-offering. (Num. 5:12-31)
If the woman was innocent, this draught confirmed her health, and made her fruitful; but if guilty, she immediately grew pale. Her eyes started out of her head, her stomach swelled, her thighs rotted, and she was hurried out of the court that it might not be polluted with her ignominious death. It is said that her paramour, however distant, was, at the same time, affected in a similar way. But in the case that the erring husband was not guilty of prostitution, the bitter water had no effect.
Once, a woman was taken in the very act of adultery, and was brought by the Jews to Jesus Christ to see if he would ensnare himself into acting the part of a civil judge, and passing sentence against her, or contradict the Law of Moses by dismissing her from punishment. He bid her accusers who were innocent of such a crime to cast the first stone at her. Their consciences, awakened by his divine power, made them feel guilty, and they went away ashamed. Jesus, finding that none of them had condemned her, to testify that the purpose of his coming was not to condemn but to save sinners, and to instruct his ministers not to meddle in civil judgements, he did not condemn her, but warned her to avoid such a sin in the future. (Jn. 8:1-13)
The divine authority of this history of the adulteress has been questioned many times. It is lacking in many of the ancient translations, and in not a few of the Greek copies. Some copies put it at the end of Lk. 21, others at the end of John. Others had it as a marginal note of John 8. Not a few of the Greek fathers appeared ignorant of its authority. But the evidence in its favour is very strong. Tatian, who lived AD 160, and Ammonius, who flourished in 220, included it in their harmony of the gospels. Athanasius and all the Latin fathers acknowledged it. It is found in all the 16 manuscripts consulted by Robert Stephen, in all but one of the 17 consulted by Theodore Beza, and in more than 100 consulted by Mill.
Adultery in the prophetic Scriptures is often used metaphorically, and pointed to idolatry and apostasy from God, by which men wickedly defiled themselves, and violated their ecclesiastical and covenant relation with God. (Ezek. 13 and 23; Hos. 2:2)
ADUMMIM

A mountain and city near Jericho belonging to the tribe of Benjamin. It lay on the way from Jerusalem to Jericho, and was said to have been greatly infested with robbers. Hence, perhaps, it received its name, which means the red or bloody ones. (Josh. 15:7, 18:17) Here, Jesus set the scene of his parable of the man that fell among thieves. (Lk. 10:30-36)


The modern Ma’ale Adummim (unofficially spelt Maale Adumim) is an Israeli settlement in the West Bank area, east of Jerusalem. It is now considered a suburb of Jerusalem mainly because most of its population commutes to, and works in, Jerusalem. It was declared a city in 1991, and, according to the Central Bureau of Statistics, in 2004, contained a population of 28,700. It is one of the largest Jewish communities in the West Bank, containing the Adummim Mall, and some other shopping centres. It also contains the Monastery of Martyrius, where archaeological explorations have been described in Christian Archaeology in the Holy Land: New Discoveries: essays in honour of Virgilio C. Corbo, OFM / editorial board, G.C. Bottini, L. Di Segni, E. Alliata. (1990)
ADVANCED

Raised to a higher station or rank. (Found only in 1 Sam. 12:6; Esth. 3:1, 5:11, 10:2)


ADVANTAGE

(1) Profit or gain. (Job 35:3)


(2) A fair opportunity to prevail over someone, or an actual prevalence over him. (Rom. 3:1; 2 Cor. 2:11; Jude 1:16 )
ADVENTURE

To do something thing by exposing oneself to danger. (For example, Judg. 9:25) Only found in Deut. 28:56; Acts 19:31.




ADVERSARY

Someone who, whether justly or unjustly, sets himself in opposition to another. Thus Peninnah, the other wife, is called the adversary of Hannah. (1 Sam. 1:6) The adversary to be agreed with in the way is not only a human opposer with whom we ought quickly to be reconciled, but chiefly God, with whom we ought to make peace by receiving his Son while on the way to eternity, lest, by death and judgement, he suddenly casts us into hell. (Mt. 5:25; Lk. 12:58-59) Satan is emphatically called the adversary. With a most obstinate and pitiless malice, he sets himself out to defame and dishonour God, and to reproach, accuse and harass the saints, trying to ruin both the bodies and souls of men. (1 Pet. 5:8)


ADVERSITY

Distress and trouble, spiritual or temporal, that withstands and checks our attempts; and, like a furious wind, blows in our faces. (Ps. 10:6; Heb. 13:3) See also 2 Sam. 4:9; 2 Chron. 15:6 Ps. 35:15 94:13; Prov. 17:17, 24:10; Eccl. 7:14; Is. 30:20.


TO ADVERTISE

To inform beforehand. (Only found in Num. 24:14 and Ruth 4:4)


TO ADVISE

To give or take counsel and advice. (Only found 2 Sam. 24:13; 1 Kings 12:6; 1 Chron. 21:12)


ADVOCATE

A pleader of causes at the bar before a judge. Jesus Christ is called our Advocate with the Father by his constant appearance in the presence of God for us, who causes our prayers and service to be accepted. (1 John 2:1) He answers all the charges that the Law or justice of God, and Satan, and our own conscience, can be made against us. He wins our spiritual title to the benefits of the New Covenant, and secures our actual and eternal receiving of it. The Holy Spirit is also called an Advocate. (Jn. 14:26) In opposition to the suggestions of Satan, the world, and our lusts, he pleads the cause of Christ at the bar of our consciences, and insists on obtaining due honour and property in our hearts and lives. And, by taking note of our prayers, and directing and enabling us to bring them before God’s throne of grace, he maketh intercession for us with groanings that cannot be uttered. (Rom. 8:26)


AENON, a spring

A place where John was baptising because there were many springs or rivulets of water there. It lay between Salim and Jordan, about 8 miles south of Bethshan, and 53 northeast of Jeru­salem. (Only found in Jn. 3:23) It was possibly near the upper source of the Wadi Far’ah, an open valley extending from Mount Ebal to the River Jordan. In modern days, a place has been found called ‘Ainun, just four miles north of these springs.


AFAR

(1) At a great distance of time or place. (Jn. 8:56; Jer. 31:10)


(2) Apparently estranged in affection, indisposed, and unready to help. (Ps. 10:1, 38:11)
(3) Not members of the Church, not in a gracious state of friendship and fellowship with God, whether Jew or Gentile. (Eph. 2:17)
TO AFFECT, AFFECTIONS

To stir up, to influence. (Lam. 3:51) Men’s affections refer to their desires and inclinations, such as love, fear, care, joy, delight, etc. (Col. 3:1) Vile affections are inclinations to wallow in shameful, bestial, and unnatural lusts. (Rom. 1:26) Inordinate affections, or the affections of the flesh, are an irregular desire, care, joy, fear, etc., that springs from, and tends to gratify and supports indwelling sin. (Gal. 5:24; Col. 3:5;)



AFFINITY

A relationship between people and families constituted by marriage. Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh, by espousing his daughter. (1 Kings 3:1) Jehoshaphat joined in affinity with Ahab when he took his daughter Athaliah to be the wife of his son Jehoram. (2 Chron. 18:1)


TO AFFIRM

(1) To assert the truth of an opinion or report. (Acts 25:19)

(2) To teach. (1 Tim. 1:7)
TO AFFLICT, AFFLICTION

To distress, to vex, to pain. (Gen. 15:13) Affliction refers to all kinds of distress, oppression, and persecution. (Ex. 3:7; Job 5:6; Mk. 4:17) When it comes to reprobates, it is proper punishment, as it springs from God’s wrath, and tends to do them harm. (Nahum 1:9) When it comes to the saints, it is a fatherly chastisement, springing from God’s love for them, which is merited by the death of Christ, secured by the New Covenant, and works for their good. (Rom. 8:28; 2 Cor. 4:17) When it comes to the unconverted elect, it is wrathful in its nature, but is over-ruled to promote their union with Christ. (Job 33) The saints are presented as an afflicted people; they, in every age, endure many troubles from God, from Satan, from the world, and from their own lusts. (Ps. 18:27; Zeph. 3:12) They fill up what is behind of the afflictions of Christ, and partake of the afflictions of the gospel. (Col. 1:24) Though Christ completely endured the wrath of God for them, yet he has allotted various distresses to be borne by them, as proceeding from his hand. They arrive as a gospel channel of kindness and love, as the means of being conformed to his image, and come for adhering to his interests, and the truths of the gospel. (2 Tim. 1:8)


AFFRIGHTED, AFRAID

Filled with fear, terror, and dread. (Deut. 1:7; Lk. 24:37) See also Deut. 7:21; Job 18:20, 39:22; Is. 21:4; Jer. 51:32; Mk. 16:5-6; Lk. 24:37; Rev. 11:13.


AFRESH

Anew, another time. (Only found in Heb. 6:6)


AFTER

(1) Behind. (Job 30:5)


(2) Later in time, or at the end of it. (Gen. 38:24)
(3) According to the direction and influence. (Is. 11:3; Rom. 8:1,4,13) To inquire after, go after, walk after, follow after, is to search, imitate, seek for, serve, and worship. (Gen. 18:12; Ex. 1:11; Job 10:6; Deut. 6:14; Hos. 11:10)
AGAIN

(1) A second time. (Gen. 8:21)

(2) Backwards. (Prov. 2:19)
AGAINST

(1) In opposition to. (Acts 28:22)

(2) Directly facing. (Num. 8:2)

(3) By the time when. (2 Kings 16:11)


AGAPĒ (agape)

Found only as a Greek word in the New Testament meaning friendship. The feasts of charity that were held by the Christians of the early Church were called by this name. They were held in memory of the Last Supper, which Jesus Christ celebrated with his Apostles when he instituted the holy Eucharist. (1 Cor. 11:23-34) These festivals were kept by the Church towards evening, after the common prayers were over, and the word of salvation had been heard. When this was done, the faithful ate together with great simplicity and fellowship what all had brought with them, so that the rich and the poor were in no way discriminated against.


After an inexpensive and moderate supper, they would partake of the bread and wine, and gave each other the kiss of peace. (1 Pet. 5:14) This custom, so good and laudable at the beginning, quickly degenerated, and was abused. Paul complains of this in his first Epistle to the Corinthians (11:20-22).
The Jews had certain devotional entertainments that bear some relation to the agapē we are describing. Upon their great festival days, they celebrated feasts for their famiies, their friends, and their relatives. To these, they invited the priests, the poor, and orphans, and sent portions to them from their sacrifices. These feasts were held in the Temple and before the Lord. And there were certain sacrifices and firstfruits appointed by the Law, which were set apart for this purpose. See FEASTS
AGATE

An almost transparent precious stone, variegated with veins and cloudiness, composed of crystal impregnated with small quantities of earth. No other gemstone is so striped. It is not formed by incrustation round a nucleus, nor made up of plates; but seemingly the effect of one impregnation, and variegated merely by the way the fluids around them were formed, produced the different colours. Agates are excellent for polishing gold and sealing wax. Some of them have a whitish ground, as the dendrachates or mochoa-stone, the phassachates, and another kind — the hemachates, sardachates, etc., — which have have a reddish colour. The cerachates and leontoseres have a yellowish tinge. The sardachates are most prized. The agate was the 2nd stone in the 3rd row of the High Priest’s breastplate. (Ex. 28:19) The Syrians traded with agates in the Tyrian fairs. (Ezek. 27:16) Today, cameo master-carvers and modern lapidary artists are famous, seeking to send their latest gems for export. An entire industry has sprung up from the taste for agate bowls and ornaments.


The windows of the gospel Church are of agates; her ministers and ordinances, which enlighten her, are pure, precious, and diversified in form and gifts. (Is. 54:12)
AGE

(1) The whole continuance of one’s life. (Gen. 28:28)


(2) Of age; the time when a woman is ready to conceive children. (Heb. 11:11)
(3) The time when men’s natural powers and faculties are at their peak, or near it. (John 9:21,23; Eph. 4:13)
(4) A long life. (Job 5:26; Zech. 8:4)
(5) A period of time, past, present, or future. (Eph. 3:5, 2:7)
(6) The people living in such periods. (Col. 1:26)
The history of the world can be divided into ages. The Patriarchal Age continued for 2513 years, from the creation of the world to the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt. The Ceremonial Age lasted 1491 years, from the call of Moses to the incarnation of Christ. Of the Christian age, from the birth of our Saviour, by common calculation, the time elapsed is over 2000 years. The whole period from the creation till now amounts to just over 6000 years; but the Indians reckon it as 15,115,266 years, as the chronology of the Chinese, and of the ancient Chaldeans and Egyptians, far exceeds our reckoning. By adding a hundred years to the age of a great many of the patriarchs before Abraham, prior to the birth of their succeeding children, the Greek version of the Old Testament extends the period before the Flood as 2242 years; and the period to Abraham’s entrance of Canaan, as 1106 years. It is likely the author (or authors) of the Greek version ascribed to the Seventy (LXX), used much freedom with the sacred oracles, that, under pretence of taking the ancient years for months, they hoped to reconcile the longevity of the Patriarchs with the common standard of life in their time. Gerhard Johann Vossius (Voss), and Paul Yves Pezron, have, with great zeal, attempted to establish this chronology understanding that it tallies better with secular history, and accounts for the great number of men in the earlier ages of the world. This view is entirely groundless; for, at a moderate calculation, there might have been 80,000,000,000 people in the world in the year of the Flood, which was BC 2348. The sixteen grandsons of Noah might produce many thousands for the building of Babel, even supposing that we should place it at the birth of Peleg, in the 101st year after the Flood. And if, with the authors of the Universal History, we place it 252 years later, there might still be many thousands more. We have no authority for the vast number of men in the early ages after the Flood, except that of Ctesias of Cnidus, a Greek physician who stayed at the court of the Persian king Artaxerxes II 404-398/397, one of the most romantic writers that ever breathed. Edward Stillingfleet, in his Origines Sacra, Arthur Bedford in his Chronology, and Samuel Shuckford in his Connections, etc., have all shown how well the chronology of our Bible agrees with such secular history that deserves credit. Sir Isaac Newton, in his Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended, has made it sufficiently probable that the states mentioned in the history of the Greeks were not founded as early as was generally thought.
The duration of the Old Testament can be divided into:
(1) The Antediluvian age, that ended with the Flood, BC 2348. (Gen. 5)
(2) The age of the dispersion consisted of 427 years, and ended with the call of Abraham, in BC 1921. (Gen. 11)
(3) The age of sojourning, from the call of Abraham to the deliverance of the Heb. from Egypt, which consisted of 430 years (Ex. 12:40) and ended in BC 1491.
(4) The age of the Tabernacle consisted of 480 years, and ended with the foundation of Solomon’s Temple, BC 1011. (1 Kings 6:1)
(5) The age of Solomon’s Temple consisted of 424 years, and ended with it being burnt by Nebuchadnezzar in BC 587.
(6) The age of Zerubbabel’s Temple consisted of 588 years, and ended with the commencement of the Christian era, which is supposed to begin at the birth of Christ in BC 4.
The duration of the New Testament period may be divided into:

(1) The age of seals, with the opening of the seventh in AD 323.


(2) The age of preparation for antichrist, with the first four trumpets (Rev. 8), ending about AD 606.
(3) The age of antichrist, lasting 1260 years, besides 75 years of rooting him out. (Dan. 12:11-12; Rev. 11:2)

(4) The millennium, or the thousand years’ reign of the saints. (Rev. 20)


AGONY

Painful conflict, a racking and tormenting trouble in soul or body. (Only found in Lk. 22:44)


TO AGREE

(1) To bargain with. (Mt. 20:2,13)


(2) To approve, to consent to. (Acts 5:40)
(3) To be like. (Mk. 14:56,70)
(4) To conspire, to resolve together. (Jn. 9:22)
(5) To be reconciled. (Mt. 5:25)
AGUE

A fever (such as from malaria), with symptoms of fits of chills, fever, and with sweating occurring at regular intervals. The word ague has long since fallen into decline, and is now medically obsolete. The word comes from the Latin acutus (acute), meaning something sharp or pointed. In the old days, an emetic of ipecacuanha, and then repeated doses of the Jesuits’ bark (cinchona, producing quinine) was used. Today, fevers over 101°F (38.3° C) are treated with several medications that can reduce body temperature by blocking the mechanisms that cause them. These so-called antipyretic agents include acetaminophen, ibuprofen and aspirin. Malaria is now treated with antimalarial drugs such as quinine sulphate, pyrimethamine, and sulfadiazine.


A burning ague was one of the most terrible kind that often led to a speedy death. (Only found in Lev. 26:16) For some examples of miraculous healing, see Mk. 1:30-31; Jn. 4:52; Acts 28:8.
AH! ALAS!

Generally expresses great distress and sorrow (Jer. 22:18); but in Ps. 30:21 and Is. 1:24, it means the same as AHA, which indicates contempt, derision, and insult. (Ps. 35:21)


AHAVA

A small river in Chaldea. Here, Ezra with his attendant Jews observed a solemn fast for direction and success on their return to Judea. (Only found in Ezra 8:15,21,31) Today, this spot is associated with Hit, on the Euphrates, where, in 2003-2006, Iraqi and American and British Coalition forces were active in combating “insurgents”.


AIDED

Helped, assisted. (Found only in Judg. 9:24)


TO AIL

To distress, to displease, to be indisposed. (See Gen. 21:17; Judg. 18:23-24; 1 Sam. 11:5; 2 Sam. 14:5; 2 Kings 6:28; Is. 22:1=aileth; Ps. 114:5=ailed)


AIR

(1) Thin, transparent, compressible, and dilatable, air surrounds our earth to a considerable height, perhaps up to 50 miles. Air can refract light . Hearing and smelling are strong or weak depending on altitude, for on the top of high mountains, these senses are considerably reduced. Air has a considerable weight, reckoned the thousandth part of the weight of water, about 2160 pounds to every square foot; and, allowing that the surface of a human body is 15 square feet, the pressure of air on it can amount to 32,400 pounds. God wraps up our world as with a swaddling band. The elasticity, or power of air when it contracts, when compressed, when expanding, and when free, is quite astonishing. Air is susceptible to contamination by gasses, smoke, and other pollutants, that arise from the earth. Today, scientists and many others have issed a global-warming warning The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature on the the Earth because certain gases in the atmosphere (such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap energy from the sun. This means that the polar ice caps are melting, causing the sea level to rise. Yet these gases have a purpose, for without them, heat would escape into space, and Earth’s average temperature would plunge to about 60ºF.


(2) The region where birds fly, and the means by which animals breathe. (2 Sam. 21:10; Job 41:16)
To beat the air, or speak to the air, means to act in a vain and unprofitable way. (1 Cor. 9:26, 14:9) The air darkened at the sounding of the 5th trumpet may point to the Church and Scripture, which are the means of conveying spiritual light and grace to men. The Scripture is the breath of God by which he reveals his mind to us. By the abounding of error and delusion, and by the concealment and misinterpretation of Scripture under antichrist and Mahometism, God’s Word is darkened. Nor is it unworthy of notice that our natural sun was so darkened from June to October in AD 626, that only a small part of its light appeared. (See Rev. 9:2) The air of the kingdom of antichrist, into which the seventh angel pours his vial of wrath, may speak of the last remains of antichrist’s power, after which his form and life can no longer continue. (Rev. 16:17)
An extra note

Satan, that distinguished fallen seraph, is called, the prince of the power of the air. Some think that he is called this from his presiding over that whole family, or combination of degenerate spirits, that were permitted to divide the whole world among them about the time of the call of Abraham, when the greater part of the descendants of Noah apostatised from the worship of the one true and living God. The spirit of idolatry suggested to them the propriety of assigning the government of the various departments of the material world to various real or imaginary spirits. To some, they assigned the atmosphere, and over this they imagined one mighty agent presided, to whom different nations gave different names. This agent seems to be that to whom the sacred writers allude, who, prior to the spread of the gospel, kept the inhabitants of Asia, Europe, and Africa, in the chains of gross ignorance, strong prejudices, and the most absurd superstitions.


ALABASTER

A beautiful bright stone akin to marble but more brittle. It reacts with acids, calcines with fire, but gives no flame with steel. When finely powdered and placed on a fire it will appear in rolling waves, like a fluid. There are three kinds of alabaster: the whitish, called by the ancients, Lygdin marble; the yellow-whitish, called Phengites; and the yellow-reddish, called simply alabaster, and sometimes onyx. The ancients called boxes that contained precious ointment alabaster boxes, though not made of that stone; and, in relation to this, a measure containing ten ounces of wine, and nine ounces of oil, was called an alabaster. In which of these three senses the box of ointment with which Mary anointed Jesus is called alabaster we dare not quickly determine, though we are inclined to think that the box was made of an alabaster stone. (Mt. 26:6-7; Mk. 14:3; Lk. 7:37)


ALAMOTH, virgins

The title of the 46th Psalm, and also found in 1 Chron. 15:20. The LXX (Septuagint) translates it: “The song of hidden things” because, says Ainsworth, this Psalm declares the secret purposes of God to his Church. According to Dr. Easton, in his Bible Dictionary of 1887, this musical term “denotes that the psalm which bears this inscription was to be sung by soprano or female voices.”



ALARM

(1) A broken quivering sound from the Hebrews silver trumpets, warning them to take their journey into the wilderness, and to attack their enemies in battle. (Num. 10:5-9)


See also 2 Chron. 13:12; Jer. 4:19, 49:2; Zeph. 1:16.
(2) A noise or bustle, warning of the near approach of danger and war. (Joel 2:1)
ALAS! WOE IS ME!

Expressions of terror, perplexity, and grief. Alas: Num. 12:11, 24:23; Josh. 7:7; Judg. 6:22, 11:35; 1 Kings 13:30; 2 Kings 3:10, 6:5,15; Jer. 30:7; Ezek. 6:11; Joel 1:15; Amos 5:16; Rev. 18:10,16,19; Woe is me: Ps. 120:5; Is. 6:5; Jer. 4:31, 10:19, 15:10, 45:3; Mic. 7:1.


ALBEIT

Even though, even if, although, notwithstanding. (Only found in Ezek. 13:7 and Philem. verse 9) In English usage, albeit seems to be just another form of but. In view of his theoretical work on particle physics, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) said, “Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one.”


ALEXANDRIA

A famous city in Lower Egypt. It was situated between the Lake Mareotis and the canopic, or western, branch of the Nile, a small distance from the Mediterranean Sea. Alexander the Great was its founder; and, a few years later, was interred there in a coffin of gold. The city was built in the form of a Macedonian cloak, and extended about 15 miles. The palace, which filled one-fifth of the city, and stood by the sea, contained the royal residence, the museum, and tombs. The main street, which extended the whole length of the city, was a hundred feet wide. The Ptolemies who succeeded Alexander the Great in Egypt made it their residence for more than 280 years, under whom it became the metropolis of Egypt. Its nearness to the Red and Mediterranean Seas drew to it trade from both the east and west, and made it for many ages the seat of commerce for most of the known world, and one of the most flourishing cities, second to none but Rome. It was famous for its library of 700,000 volumes, which, for the last time was burnt down in a fit of madness by the Arabs or Saracens in AD 642.


To relate its various sieges and captures by the Syrians, Greeks, Rom., Persians, Saracens, Turks, and others, would be unsuitable for this work. When the Arabs took it, it contained 4000 palaces, 400 squares, and 12,000 establishments that sold herbs and fruit. It dwindled to a town in the 18th century, with nothing remarkable about it but ruins and relics of ancient grandeur, and some considerable trade. A great numbers of Jews lived there all along from the time of Alexander, sometimes nearly or above 100,000 at one time. Some of these were born in Jerusalem and raised a furious persecution against Stephen. (Acts 6:9) Here, Apollos was born. (Acts 18:24) Some 50,000 Jews were murdered here under the Emperor Nero. When the Arabs took it, they found 40,000 Jews, who paid tribute. In a ship belonging to Alexandria, Paul sailed for Rome. (Acts 27:6) Christianity was planted early in this city where Mk. the Evangelist was said to have been its founder. Clemens, Origen, Athanasius, and a great number of other great men, flourished here. Its bishop was, for many ages, regarded as one of the four chiefs of the Christian Church, having the churches in the eastern part of Africa under his jurisdiction.

By the 18th century, as I have already stated, the city fell into a most wretched condition, full of ancient ruins. That is how Napoleon Bonaparte found it in 1789. Mohamed Ali, Turkish soldier and viceroy of Egypt (1805-1848), one of the most controversial figures in Egyptian history, brought about a renaissance under his rule. He gave away Alexandria’s own Cleopatra’s Needles as gifts to the British and American governments, but he also cut the new Mahmoudeya Canal, and connected it to the Nile, an achievement that revived Alexandria’s as well as Egypt’s economy. He also prepared the Western Harbour as Egypt’s main port, and built a modern lighthouse at its entrance. Under the rule of Mohamed Ali’s successors, Alexandria continued to grow. When the Suez Canal was inaugurated in 1867, Alexandria’s exports increased to constitute 94% of Egypt’s total wealth. In 1882, Ahmed Orabi, an Egyptian nationalist, then Minister of War, led a revolt against the Khedive (King) Tawfik to protest British intervention in Egypt. The situation was aggravated when the British fleet arrived off Alexandria in the May. On July 11th, Alexandria suffered greatly when she was bombarded by the British, which lasted for 2 days. The city surrendered, marking the beginning of a British occupation of Egypt, which lasted for 70 years.

During the 20th Century, the city became Egypt’s summer Capital. In 1944, Arab delegates signed the birth document of the Arab League in Alexandria, and saw the abdication of King Farouk and his departure to exile in Italy on July 26th 1952. Exactly four years later, President Nasser (who was born in Alexandria) announced the nationalisation of the Suez Canal.
Today, the city looks very different from that of the Ptolemies. Greater Alexandria stretches nearly 45 miles (70 kilometres) along the Mediterranean coast as a holiday resort, with urban areas covering more than 100 square kilometres, with a prosperous population.
There has been little archaeological excavation in the ancient town as it lies directly below the modern city centre. Parts of the road leading from the river port to the sea harbour were examined in 1874, and one of the most striking surviving monuments was Pompey’s Pillar, a granite column erected by the Roman Emperor Diocletian in 297 AD. The potential for an ancient underwater site was largely ignored until 1961, when the first excavation took place. Presiden Kamal Abu el-Sadat persuaded the Egyptian Navy to haul out a colossal statue of Isis from the depths of the harbour. In 1994, the French archaeologist Jean-Yves Empereur, and a team of thirty divers from the National Centre of Scientific Research, began a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the underwater site. An additional project led by Frenchman Frank Goddio of the European Institute of Underwater Archaeology soon followed. What Goddio and a French-Egyptian team found was a small paved area they believe to be the island of Antirrhodos. According to the description of Alexandria by the Greek geographer Strabo, who was in Egypt circa 25-19 BC, this island was the site of Cleopatra’s palace, which was abandoned shortly after her suicide in 31 BC. The rest of the city was levelled by an earthquake in A.D. 365.
ALGUM (Sandalwood). Of the genus santalum, especially santalum album

A precious wood growing both in Lebanon (2 Chron. 2:8) and in Ophir. (1 Kings 10:11-12; 2 Chron. 9:10) Edward Leigh imagines it to be the thyine, or sweet wood, mentioned in Rev. 18:12.


ALIEN

Stranger, or foreigner. (Ex. 18:3; Job 19:5) To be aliens from the commonwealth of Israel is to be bereft of interest in the true Church, or the New Covenant of God. (For example, Eph. 2:12 = aliens) See also Deut. 14:21; Ps. 69:8; Is. 61:5; Lam. 5:2; Heb. 11:34.


TO ALIENATE, ALIENATED

Painfully, to separate, to disjoint. (Ezek. 23:17-18,28; Col. 1:21)


(1) To become distant from, or averse to. (Eph. 4:18)
(2) To put something to a common, unusual, or wrong use. (Ezek. 48:14)

ALIKE

(1) With no difference. (Rom. 14:5)


(2) After one and the same way. (Ps. 33:15)
(3) Equally troublesome. (Prov. 27:15)
ALIVE

Possessed of life. One is alive:


(1) Naturally. (Gen. 43: 27)
(2) Supernaturally, when raised from the dead. (Lk. 24:23)
(3) Spiritually, when justified, regenerate, and sanctified. (Lk. 15:24,32) This is to be alive unto God, to his honour and service. (Rom. 6:11)
(4) In opinion only, when men vainly imagine themselves capable of good works and holy deeds righteousness, and are entitled to eternal life. Thus men are alive without the law, that is, without the convictions of it. (Rom. 5, 2:9)
ALL

(1) Every creature (Ps. 119:91; Prov. 16:4), or every part. (Song 4:7)

(2) Everyone. (2 Cor. 5:10)

(3) Plentiful, or perfect. (Rom. 15:13; 1 Cor. 13:2)

(4) Some from all nations, ranks, and degrees. (1 Tim. 2:4; Titus 2:11)
(5) Many, or the greater part. (Mt. 3:5; Phil. 2:21) Thus, it is said, And the Lord did that thing on the morrow, and all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one. (Ex. 9:6) And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field. (Ex. 9:25) And all the people brake off the golden earrings which were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. (Ex. 32:3) And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations: both the cormorant and the bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it. (Zeph. 2:14) And the fame of David went out into all lands; and the Lord brought the fear of him upon all nations. (1 Chron. 14:17) Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judaea, and all the region round about Jordan, and were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins. (Mt. 3:5-6) But if we shall say, ‘Of men’, we fear the people; for all hold John as a prophet. (Mt. 21:26) And ye shall be hated of all men for my name’s sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved. (Mt. 10:22; Mk. 13:13; Lk. 21:17) And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him. (John 3:26) And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven. (Acts 2:5). See WORLD.
How evident, then, is the folly of those who believe in the universal redemption of this world! The words all and every must be so often restricted, and frequently limited by the context, by the nature of the thing spoken about, or by the object of them. Thus servants are required to please their masters well in all things (Titus 2:9), and the Lord is said to uphold all that fall, and raise up all that are bowed down. (Ps. 114:14) The “all men of Asia” that turned away from Paul implied a great many professed Christians there. (2 Tim. 1:15) The elect part of mankind may be called all, or every man, or all the ends of the earth, or all the world, because they come from all nations, whether Jews or Gentiles. They dwell in all places, are of every rank and condition, and are the substance of the earth, on whose behalf it is chiefly preserved and favoured. (Ps. 22:27; Rom. 11:32; Heb. 2:9; 1 John 2:2)
ALLEGED

Affirmed or proven. (Only found in Acts 17:3)


ALLEGORY

A running narrative of metaphors, as in the Song of Solomon, or a representation of some doctrinal point by a story. Thus the two wives of Abraham became emblems of the two covenants of works and grace, and of the two dispensations of the covenant by ceremonies and by the simple gospel. Hagar is an emblem of the former, Sarah of the latter; Ishmael an emblem of those attached to the Law as a covenant and the ceremonies, and Isaac of those attached to the covenant of grace and the gospel dispensation. (Gal. 4:24-31) Perhaps the greatest works of Christian allegory in the English language are: The Pilgrims’s Progress (1678-1684), and The Holy War (1682), by John Bunyan.


ALLELUIA (or the more modern Hallelujah)

A Hebrew word, meaning praise the Lord. The phrase is found at the beginning and end of many of the Psalms, mainly towards the end of the book. (See Ps. 111, 112, 113, 117, 135, 144, 150) It is the burden of the saints’ song at the fall of antichrist, and may point to the eminent concern of the believing Jews, with the universal ascription of all praise to God. (See Rev. 19:1, 3-4, 6 = alleluia)


ALLIED

To be related by blood, or any other tie. (Found only in Neh. 13:4)


ALLONBACKUTH, the oak of weeping

Probably called the oak of weeping because here Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died and was buried. (Gen. 35:8) Here also, although not named specifically, Deborah the prophetess judged Israel. (Judg. 4:5)


TO ALLOW

To consent, to admit, or to approve. (Lk. 11:48; Acts 24:15; Rom. 7:15)


TO ALLURE

To gain someone’s attention by attractive means. (Only found in Hos. 2:14; 2 Pet. 2:18)


ALMS

Whatever money is given in charity to the poor. (Mt. 6:1-4) In Hebrew, it is called righteousness. It is to be given from things lawfully obtained, and as a debt due to the poor, not for their own but for the Lord’s sake. (Lk. 2:41, 12:33) In Greek, the word means mercy, and is to be given from a principle of true love and compassion for the needy. (Acts 10:2,4,31, 24:17) See also Lk. 11:41; Acts 3:2-3,10.


ALMIGHTY

An attribute of God whereby he is able to do everything. The Hebrew word means one who has all sufficiency in himself, all communicable fullness in his bountiful breasts, and all power to destroy his opposers. In the early ages of the world, God mainly manifested himself in this way to encourage men to depend on him alone, and to expect the full accomplishment of whatever he promised. (Gen. 17:1; Ex. 6:3) See also Gen. 28:3; Job 37:23; Ps. 91:1; 2 Cor. 6:18; Rev. 1:8, 4:8, 11:17, 15:3, 16:7,14, 19:15, 21:22.




ALMOND TREE. Prunus dulcis

A deciduous tree with alternate simple leaves, and pink flowers like a rose, composed of several petals arranged in a circular form. The pistil rises up from the cup, and becomes an oblong leathery and stony fruit. They come in five kinds; but are usually distinguished by their sweet and bitter fruit. The ellipsoidal kernel of this tree is either eaten as a nut, or used for flavouring by extracting the oil They thrive either in the dry or wet, and are often propagated by the grafting of an almond bud into the stock of a pear, peach, or almond tree. The Hebrew name of the almond tree is derived from Shakad, which means to watch, and implies that it keeps its station by being the first to blossom in the Spring and the last to fade in the harvest. Jacob sent a present of almonds to Joseph. (Gen. 43:11)


The bowls of the golden candlestick were formed like almonds (Ex. 25:33-34, 37:19-20), showing the flourishing and soul-nourishing virtue of gospel light. The almonds that grew on Aaron’s rod, when laid up overnight before the Lord, showed the flourishing and duration of the typical priesthood in his family, the duty of the Hebrew priests and other ministers to be early and useful in their work, the speedy approach of vengeance on their opposers, but, especially, the flourishing success and nourishing virtue of the gospel, the rod of Christ’s strength, and the speedy destruction of every opposer. (Num. 17:8) The almond tree shown to Jer. in his vision revealed that the judgements of God would quickly be ripe, or ready to be executed on the wicked Jews of his time. (Jer. 1:11) The head of an old man is said to flourish as the almond tree, as his white hair resemble the white blossoms of the tree. (Eccl. 12:5)
ALMOST

In a great measure, or next to wholly. (Ex. 17:4) One is almost persuaded to be a Christian, whatever knowledge or experience of the truth of the gospel, or talking about it, if his state and nature are not changed by union with, and receiving of, Jesus Christ as the Lord his righteousness and strength into his heart. (Acts 26:28-29) See also Ps. 73:2, 94:17, 119:87; Prov. 5:14; Acts 13:44, 19:26, 21:27; Heb. 9:22.


ALOES. Aloe vera

According to Karl von Linnaeus, the lign aloes of the aloe tree are of the hexandria-monogynia class of plants, having no calyx. The corolla is oblong, and formed with a single petal, is divided into six segments at the extremity. The tube is bunch-backed, and the limb straight. The stamens are six subulated filaments, fully the length of the corolla, and inserted into the receptacle. The anthaerae are oblong and bending, the bud irregular in shape, the style simple, and of the length of the stamina, and the stigma obtuse and trifid. The fruit is a three furrowed case formed of three valves, and containing three cells. The seeds are numerous and angular. Aloes are now produced in all four quarters of the earth. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort reckoned that there were up to fourteen kinds of aloe tree. The American aloe is famous for its fine flower, lily shaped,and the Asian for the useful drug prepared from it. The drug aloe is extracted from the juice of the leaves, fresh plucked and squeezed, and set to harden in the sun. The succotrine aloe is made from the thinnest at the top, the hepatic from the next, and the horse aloe from the coarse sediment, famous as a purgative. The mucilaginous juice or gel extracted from the leaves of this plant is widely used in cosmetics, hair shampoo, and pharmaceutical preparations. Both the wood and drug have an odoriferous and preservative influence.


Aloes were used in ancient times for the embalming of dead bodies, and for the perfuming of beds and clothes. (Prov. 7:17; John 19:39) The graces of the Holy Spirit in Christ and his people are compared with aloes because of their agreeable smell; they also tend to prevent or purge away sinful corruption, and keep their subjects forever fresh and sound. (Ps. 45:8; Song 4:14) The Heb. were compared with lign aloes to show their wonderful increase, flourishing state, and eminent usefulness. (Num. 24:6)
ALONE

(1) Solitary, by oneself, without friends to help or comfort. (Gen. 2:18; Ex. 18:14)


(2) Safe, without harm, none seeking to rob them of anything they enjoy. They are separated to be the God’s special people, enjoying his favour and protection, and behaving in a way altogether different from the other nations. (Deut. 33:28; Num. 33:9)
To let one alone is to forbear urging further, distressing, or dealing with someone. (Ex. 14:12, 32:10; Job 10:20) As we might expect, it is a human condition, and is mentioned 108 times in the Bible.
ALOOF

Afar off, specially one’s friends and family. (Only found in Ps. 38:11)


ALOUD

With a great voice. (1 Kings 18:2-28; Mk. 15:8) See also, Gen. 45:2; Ezra 3:12; Job 19:7; Ps. 51:14, 55:17, 59:16, 81:1, 132:16, 149:5; Is. 24:14, 54:1, 58:1; Dan. 3:4, 4:14, 5:7; Hos. 5:8; Mic. 4:9.


ALPHA and OMEGA (Α and Ω)

The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. Christ is so-called to show that he is the beginning and the ending. (Heb. 12:2; Rev. 22:13) He is the deviser, the author, the preserver and upholder of all things; and his glory is the end of them. (Rev. 1:8, 21:6, 16:13)


ALTAR

Jesus Christ is described as the altar for Christians. (Heb. 13:10) In his divine nature and Person, he presented his humanity as an atoning sacrifice to God, bearing up under all its sad sufferings, and making his offering as that of infinite value. Thus, he still presents and makes mighty his intercession; and through his Person, death, and advocacy, we ourselves, our sacrifices of prayer, praise, and other good works, are presented to God, and made acceptable in his sight. Christ’s standing at the golden altar to offer much incense (Rev. 8:3) speaks of his perpetual readiness, and constant activity, in appearing in the presence of God for us, and pleading for our welfare on the foundation of his own infinite merit. The glorified souls of the martyrs are described as being under the altar (Rev. 6:9); they fell as sacrifices for Jesus’ cause and interest, but in heaven they are near him, and are eternally happy through the influence of his blood and intercession. The altar in the midst of the land of Egypt, and pillar in the border of it, refers not to the temple of Onias, built in rebellion against God’s Law, but a stated and public dispensation of the gospel, in the Christian Church in Alexandria, and other places in Egypt. (Is. 19:19)


An extra note

The etymology of the word altar has brought scholars more trouble than benefit. It is sufficient to know that an altar, in the language of all nations, is an edifice, or erection of whatever kind, on which the sacred offerings are presented to God. It is a remarkable circumstance that almost all nations, whatever their mode of worship, have their altars. Captain Cook gives a very interesting account of the sacrifices and altars of the South Sea islanders. President Duncan Forbes of Culloden (1685-1747), Lord President of the Court of Session, in his well-written treatise entitled: Some thoughts concerning religion, natural and revealed, and the manner of understanding revelation, tending to show that Christianity is, indeed, very near as old as the creation (1735) has very correctly argued that this undeniable fact of the universal use of altars is a very remarkable proof of the truth of revelation. The doctrine of the atonement is a fundamental doctrine of Christianity; and, however ignorant men are of the truths of the gospel, the presence of altars are an avowed aknowledgment:


(1) That worshippers there are sinners.
(2) That by offering a victim, they hope to appease the Deity. The ancients of all nations shed blood on their altars, and believed in its wonderful power. Witness their Taurobolia and Criobolia (offerings of bulls and rams), when they burned the fat, and sometimes the whole victims, with fire.
All this took its rise from the divine promise that the heel of the seed of the woman would be bruised (Gen. 3:15); in other words, that Christ, in order to deliver many sons, and bring them to glory (Heb. 2:10), should die in their place, and that the divine wrath to which they are exposed as sinners before God should take hold of this glorious Substitute. To emphasise this important truth given in promise, sacrifice was instituted, and altars erected.
TO ALTER

To change, to exchange. (Lev. 27:10; Lk. 9:29 = altered) See also Ezra 6:11-12; Ps. 89:34.


ALTOGETHER

Wholly, in every respect, entirely, completely, utterly, all included or counted, all told, on the whole.


See also everything considered. (Num. 16:13; Jn. 9:34); and Ps. 53:3; Song 5:16; Acts 26:29.
ALWAYS

(1) Continually, without ceasing. (Gal. 4:18)

(2) While the world lasts. (Mt. 28:20)

(3) A very long time. (Rom. 11:10)

(4) For a lifetime. (2 Sam. 9:10)

(5) Frequently, on every proper occasion. (Lk. 18:1; Eph. 6:18)


AM. See TO BE

With regard to God, see Ex. 3:14; and to Christ, see John 6:35, 6:41,48,51, 8:12,58.


AMAZED

Filled with wonder or perplexity. (Judg. 20:14; Acts 9:31) See also, for example, Job 32:15; Mt. 12:23; Mk. 1:27, Mk. 16:8; Acts 2:7,12.


AMBASSADOR

A messenger sent by a king or state to carry important news, or transact affairs of state with another prince or state. (2 Chron. 32:31) Gospel ministers are called ambassadors because, in the name of Jesus Christ the King of kings, they declare his will to all men, and promote a spiritual treaty of marriage, peace, and traffic, with them. (2 Cor. 5:20; Eph. 6:20) Eliakim, Shebna, and Joah, the servants of King Hezekiah, were called ambassadors of peace; in their master’s name, they earnestly solicited a peace from the Assyrian monarch, but were made to weep bitterly by his disappointing refusal. (Is. 33:7) See also Prov. 13:17; Jer. 49:14; Obadiah verse 1; Eph. 6:20.



AMBASSAGE (Embassage)

An embassy; the office or function of an ambassador. (Only found in Lk. 14:32)


AMBER

A hard translucent yellow, orange, or brownish-yellow fossil resin, used for making jewellery. Sometimes it contains fossils of insects. This transparent substance has a resinous taste, and a smell like oil of turpentine. It is dug up in a great many places in Germany, Poland, etc., but the kind washed up on the coasts of Prussia is reckoned the best. It was originally in a liquid state. It is of considerable use in medicine and other arts. Samuel Bochart and Jean Le Clerc would have amber in the Bible to be the chasmel (only found in Ezek. 1:4, 27, 8:2). By it, can be represented the union of Christ’s two natures, and the preciousness of Jesus as the brightness of his Father’s glory, as burning with zeal for his honour, and with love for our souls, and wrath against his enemies.


AMBUSH, AMBUSHMENT

A company of soldiers or murderers hiding in a secret place, that they may unexpectedly fall on an enemy. Ambush is found only in the book of Josh. (8:2,7,9,12,14,19,21) Ambushment is found only in 2 Chron. 13:13.


AMEN

(1) True, faithful, certain. The Authorised Version often translates it verily; and, especially when doubled, it approaches the solemnity of an oath. See Jn. 1:51, 3:3, 5, 11, 5:19,24-25, 6:26, 32, 47, 8:34, 51, 58, 10:1, 7, 12:24, 13:16, 20-21, 38, 14:12, 16:20, 23, 21:18.


(2) So be it; or, so shall it be. (Jer. 28:6; Rev. 1:18)
Christ is called the Amen; he is the God of truth, the substance of revealed truth, the infallible prophet, and the faithful and true witness. (Rev. 3:14) All the promises are in Christ yea and amen; they are infallibly established by his word and oath, and are irrevocably ratified by his death, and sealed by his Spirit. (2 Cor. 1:20)
AMEND

(1) To make better. (Jer. 7:53)

(2) To grow better. (John 4:52)
To make amends is to make restitution, and to repay the full value of something. (Lev. 5:16)
AMERCE

In law, it means to punish by a fine imposed arbitrarily at the discretion of the court. It also means to pay back the full value, or even more. (Only found in Deut. 22:19). For an example, see Lk. 19:8.


AMETHYST

A precious stone of a violet colour, bordering on purple. There are different kinds of amethysts: those of Asia are a deep purple colour, and are the hardest, scarcest, and most valuable, some being pale, while others are of a white colour. The German amethyst is violet. Some of the Spanish are of a blackish violet, while others are white, and a few are tinctured with yellow. Some amethysts are colourless, and all may be made to appear so; in which case, they are hardly distinguishable from diamonds except for their softness. This stone was superstitiously thought by some to prevent drunkenness, preserve from poison, and promote conception. The amethyst was the 9th in the High Priest’s breastplate (Ex. 28:19), and the 12th in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:20).


AMORITES

A tribe of Canaanites springing from Amor, the 4th son of Canaan. (Gen. 10:16) Many of them were giants, like cedars in height, and oaks in strength. (Amos 2:9) They were highlanders, living on the southern slopes of the mountains of Judea, which were called the mount of the Amorites (Deut. 1:7,19-20). They seem to have originally occupied the land stretching from the heights west of the Dead Sea (Gen. 14:7) to Hebron (Compare 3:8, 4:46-48). The Assyrians called them Amurra (or Amurri) in their Assyrian inscriptions. On the early Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Palestine, was known as the land of the Amorites. The Egyptian inscriptions describe them as the having fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards.

Around 1900 BC, a group of Amorites gained control of most of the Mesopotamian region. Like the Akkadians, the Amorites centralised their government over the individual city-states, and based their capital in the city of Babylon, which served as the centre of the Amorite Empire from 1900-1600 BC. In Canaan, they had two powerful kingdoms on the east of the Jordan, governed by Sihon and Og. The former seized most of the territories of Moab and Ammon, but Moses conquered their whole country and gave it to the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh. There were other kingdoms of the Amorites all along the south of Canaan and west of the Jordan. These routed the Israelites at Hormah (Num. 14:45); but, about forty years later, they were subdued by Josh., and their land was given to the tribes of Judah, Simeon, Dan, and Benjamin. (See Num. 21-22; Deut. 1:44; Josh. 12,15,19) As the Amorites were a most powerful tribe, the rest of the Canaanites were sometimes called by this name. (Judg. 6:10; 1 Kings 21:11,26)
The Amorites lived unworthily before God, and had a reputation for wickedness as the worst of the Canaanite tribes. We know that the Amorites lived in close contact with the Sumerians for a long time, probably adopting much of their religion. The Amorites imported a new god into Sumerian religion called Marduk, which they elevated to a supreme position over all other gods. Like the Sumerians, the Amorites did not believe in life after death, so their religion was worldly-centred. In 1963, Dr. Kathleen Kenyon gave a series of lectures on the Ammonites, which were subsequently published as Ammonites and Canaanites. By the time of Samuel, the Ammonites had greatly declined and provided no threat to the Hebrew nation. (1 Sam. 7:14; 2 Sam. 21:2)
Both Judah’s wife Shuah, the mother of Er, Onan and Shelah, and Tamar the mother of Pharez and Zerab, were both Canaanites. (Gen. 38:2; Ezek. 16:3)
The importance of the impact of Ammonite history on the Hebrews is seen in their frequent appearances — Ammonite: Deut. 23:3; 1 Sam. 11:1-2; 2 Sam. 23:37; 1 Chron. 11:39; Neh. 2:10,19, 4:3, 13:1; Ammonites: Deut. 2:20; 1 Sam. 11:11; 1 Kings 11:1,5; 2 Chron. 20:1, 26:8, 27:5; Ezra 9:1; Neh. 4:7; Jer. 27:3, 40:11,14, 41:10,15, 49:1-2; Ezek. 21:20,28, 25:2-3,5,10.
AMPHIPOLIS

An ancient city of Macedonia, on the east bank of the River Strymon, where it flows out of Lake Cercinitis, about 3 miles from the sea. It was a city of on the borders of Thrace. It was built by Cimon the famous Athenian, about 470 years before Christ, and populated with 10,000 of his countrymen. It was taken from the Athenians by Brasidias the Lacedemonian. As it became a terrible thorn in the side of the Macedonian kingdom, Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, seized it. It was surrounded by the river Strymon. Paul and Silas passed through it on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica, but we never read of any notable Christian church founded at that time. (Acts 17)


At the end of the ancient world, the transfer of the capital of the Roman state to Constantinople, and the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, brought a new period of prosperity to Amphipolis as a centre of Christian pilgrimage. In the 6th century AD, monumental churches replaced the pagan sanctuaries on the ancient acropolis. It was called Emboli by the Turks, and was then a place of very small consequence. Today, it is called Amfipoli, and has proved to be a popular holiday resort, with its Kyani Akti Beach.
Work on its Museum started in 1976, only to be discontinued in 1977. It recommenced in 1984, and was completed in 1995. The idea of the Museum originated with the distinguished archaeologist Dimitris Lazaridis. As Eastern Macedonia’s Curator of Antiquities he promoted the foundation, and later, as General Surveyor of Antiquities, the construction of the Museum, which would eventually house the fruits of the lengthy work of excavation carried out in Amphipolis under his supervision between 1956 and 1984, with the support of the Athens Archaeological Society and the Hellenic Ministry of Culture. Many exhibits cover a period of over several thousand years, including a period when Christians were very active in the city.
ANCESTORS

Those from whom we are descended; our ancient fathers. (Only found in Lev. 26:45)


ANCHOR

An instrument for securing a ship, or stopping it drifting at sea. The most ancient anchors were made of large stones: such were the anchors of the Argonauts, who made their voyage up the Hellespont about the time of King Asa. They were later made of wood, with great weights of lead, or baskets full of stones, at the end of them. The anchor with two teeth (or barbs) was invented by Eupalamus of Athens, or Anacharsis the half-Greek Scythian philosopher, not long after the Jews returned from Babylon. On large vessels, they had three or four anchors, one of which was never used except in an emergency. This was called the sacred anchor, and is now called the sheet anchor. The anchors were thrown from the stern in ancient days, or later from the back part of the ship. And as the shipmen were about to flee out of the ship, when they had let down the boat into the sea under colour, as though they would have cast anchors out of the foreship. (Acts 27:20, 29-30,40) The modern anchor is a large piece of iron in the form of a hook that, on whatever side it falls, it may fix itself on to rock or sand. This is fastened to a large beam of wood which, with a strong cable-rope, is fastened to the prow or forepart of the ship.


Hope is the anchor of the soul, sure and steadfast, entering into that which is within the veil, when we leave ourselves, and fix our eyes on Jesus and unseen things, and on the deep and hidden promises and perfections of God. This spiritual anchor effectively secures our soul from being tossed to and fro amid the storms of trouble, and keeps it settled in the dark nights of temptation and desertion, for Jesus, by his Ascension, infallibly procures the safety and happiness of his people. (Only found in Heb. 6:19)
ANCIENT

(1) Old, in former times. (1 Chron. 4:22)


(2) Very old men. (Job 12:12) Ancients are either men of former times (1 Sam. 24:13) or governors, civil or ecclesiastic. (Is. 3:14; Jer. 19:1)
See also Ps. 119:100; Ezek. 7:26, 8:11-12, 27:9) 

God is called the Ancient of days because he existed from all eternity. (Dan. 7:9, 7:13,22) The Lord’s ancients, before whom he will reign in glory, are his ancient people of Judah and Israel who, in the glorious millennium, will be converted to the Christian faith, and be ruled over as a glorious Church. (Is. 24:23)


See also, for example, Job 12:12; Prov. 22:28; Is. 37:26.
AND

A connective. But I wish that our translators had sometimes given us another word for variety’s sake, which might better express the sense of the original. And means:


(1) Because, or for. (1 Cor. 8:4; Col. 1:14)
(2) But, nevertheless. (Jn. 7:30) Very often, it ought to be translated this way, particularly when it is a translation of the Greek particle δε (de).
(3) Even, that is. (Jn. 3:5) Thus, “the great God and our Saviour”, ought to run, “the great God even our Saviour Jesus Christ” (Titus 2:13). In the same way, ought other texts to be read and understood. (For example, 1 Tim. 1:1; 2 Pet. 1:1; Jude verse 4)
(4) Therefore. (Mk. 4:26) And they were astonished might read, therefore they were astonished.
ANGER

To provoke to jealousy and anger. (Rom. 10:19) Anger is a violent emotion, attended with an inclination to harm or destroy, but when directed against sin, it is holy and lawful. (Eph. 4:26) When focussed on the person of our neighbour, or on the innocent creatures of God, it is wicked and sinful. (Mt. 5:22) When it waxes very strong, it is called wrath. When it makes one outrageous, and almost mad to destruction, it is called fury. When it becomes more calm and fixed, it becomes hatred. When fixed, violent, and even directed against those who did us no harm, it is malice. When anger, hatred, wrath, and fury, are ascribed to God, they point no tumultuous passion, but merely his holy aversion at, and just displeasure with, sin and sinners; and the evidence for this is found in his terrible threats or righteous judgements. (Ps. 6:1, 7:11) The Hebrews thought anger came mainly from the nose; and so attributed readiness or slowness to anger as like the shortness or length of the nose. (Deut. 29:20; Joel 2:13) In the east, it is common for those who are angry with others to vent their rage by vilifying their parents. Thus Saul vented his anger against Jonathan by calling him the son of a perverse rebellious woman. (1 Sam. 20:30)


The control of anger is a sign of sanctification and spiritual growth: A soft answer turneth away wrath: but grievous words stir up anger (Prov. 15:1); And he prayed unto the LORD, and said, I pray thee, O Lord, was not this my saying, when I was yet in my country? Therefore I fled before unto Tarshish: for I knew that thou art a gracious God, and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repentest thee of the evil (Jonah 4:2); Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice (Eph. 4:31); But now ye also put off all these; anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth (Col. 3:8).
ANGUISH

Severe inward pain, torment, or perplexity, as of a travailing woman. (Ex. 6:9; Jer. 6:24) See also Gen. 42:21; Deut. 2:25; 2 Sam. 1:9; Job 7:11, 15:24; Ps. 119:143; Prov. 1:27; Is. 8:22, 30:6; Jer. 4:31, 49:24, 50:43; John 16:21; Rom. 2:9; 2 Cor. 2:4.


ANISE, or DILL. Species of the pentandria digynia plants

They only thrive in warm climes. Anise (Pimpinella anisum) is an annual, aromatic Mediterranean herb of the parsley family, cultivated for its seed (aniseed), and the oil obtained from is used to flavour foods, liqueurs, and sweets, as well as medical preparations, good for indigestion. Dill (Anethum graveolens) is an aromatic herb native to Eurasia, having finely dissected leaves and small yellow flowers clustered in umbels. The leaves are like those of fennel, and its seeds are used as seasoning.


Jesus condemned the Scribes and Pharisees in their scrupulous tithing of such small plants — Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith. (Mt. 23:23)
ANOINT

(1) To pour oil on someone. (Dan. 10:3; Jas. 5:14-15)

(2) To set apart for some notable service. (1 Kings 19:15)

(3) To make ready. (Is. 21:5)



(4) To daub, to besmear. (John 9:6,11)
The anointing of people or things under the Law meant setting them apart for the service of God, or for the notable offices of prophet, priest, or king. It was typical of the communication of the Holy Spirit to Christ and his Church. (Ex. 28-29) The Holy Spirit is called an unction or anointing. When receiving him, believers are separated from the world for the service of God; they have their nature and works made beautiful and shining; and they are made fit to walk in the ways of God, and to fight the good fight of faith. (1 Jn. 2:20, 27) God’s anointing of our Redeemer refers to his calling him to the office of mediator, prophet, priest, and king, and giving him a human nature fully furnished with all the gifts and graces of the Holy Spirit dwelling in him, and, in due time, with all its undescribable comforts. On this account, he is called Messiah (Hebrew) or Christ (Greek), both meaning Anointed. (1 Sam. 2:35; Ps. 84:9; Dan. 9:24; Rom. 1:1) He is anointed above his fellows, being called to higher offices, and is more abundantly filled with the Holy Spirit than all his people. (Ps. 45:7)
God anoints his chosen people when he endues them with the gifts, graces, and comforts of the Holy Spirit, and brings prosperity to them. (Ps. 23:5, 92:10; 1 Cor. 1:21) They anoint their eyes with eyesalve when they apply Jesus’ word and Spirit as their saving instructions in the things of God. (Rev. 3:18) Saul, David, Zedekiah, and Cyrus, were called the Lord’s anointed because they were set apart and equipped by him for the kingly office, and the particular work assigned to them. (1 Sam. 12:3, 16:6; Is. 45:1; Lam. 4:20) Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm; that is, “Do no harm to the Hebrew patriarchs, or their seed, whom I have chosen and called to my particular friendship and service.” (1 Chron. 16:22; Ps. 105:15) The yoke will be destroyed on account of the anointing; the ravage and bondage of the Assyrians will be removed on account of Hezekiah’s prayer, etc.; and the covenant of royalty made with David – all for the sake of Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah, and by means of the Holy Spirit poured down from heaven to reform the land. (Is. 10:27)
An extra note

Anointing was a very ancient custom, and played a very significant part in the revelation of important truths. We find the first example of it in Scripture in Jacob when he stopped briefly at Bethel (Gen. 28:18), where, we are told, he anointed (by pouring oil on) the stone that had been his pillow. He set it up as a pillar, and declared, This pillar shall be God’s house. We find that when God addressed him (Gen. 31:13), he took particular note of what Jacob had done at Bethel (where thou anointedst the pillar). Anointings were very frequent under the Law, and typified “Him whom the Father sanctified and sent into the world, to execute the great offices of prophet, priest, and King, in the Church of God.” For this reason, Jesus was called the Lord’s Christ, his Messiah, or Anointed One. Thus was he the greatest antitype of all the anointing oil under the Law when the Holy Spirit descended on him at his baptism in bodily form, and the Father’s voice was heard declaring, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. (Mt. 3:17, 12:18, 17:5 ; Mk. 1:11; Lk. 3:22; 2 Pet. 1:17) But he was anointed above all his fellows, as the great Anointed One at his resurrection from the dead. It was then that he was consecrated not only Lord, but also Christ. (Acts 2:36) The Father gave him the Spirit above measure, and all his garments smelled of aloes, myrrh, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces. (Ps. 45:8) Aaron and his sons were anointed with very fragrant oil; but its odour fell infinitely short of what was poured out (to carry on the metaphor) on the glorified body of Jesus Christ, when he was anointed on the holy hill of Zion!
On the day of Pentecost, the Apostles, the founders of the early Church, were anointed with the Holy Spirit as a rushing mighty wind. (Acts 2:1-4) The anointing that all the first churches experienced in the days of the apostles was accompanied by signs, wonders, and different miracles. But the anointing which the churches have received since, is pointed out in Zech.’s vision in 4:11,14. There, the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament are evidently considered the two anointed ones, which stand by the Lord of the whole earth, or the two branches or pipes which empty the golden oil out from themselves. The Scriptures are thus considered as the means by which the Lord of the whole earth anoints his various churches. When any guilty sinner is taught to call Jesus Lord, having the eyes of his understanding opened to understand the Scriptures, he is anointed; and that truth, which the Scriptures bring before his eyes, purifies his heart by faith.
ANON

At another time, later, in a short time, soon. Archaic = at once, immediately. Anon appears only twice in the Bible: But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it (Mt. 13:20), and But Simon’s wife’s mother lay sick of a fever, and anon they tell him of her. (Mk. 1:30)


ANOTHER

(1) A different person or thing. (Gen. 11:3, 30:24; John 21:18; Acts 1:20; Rom. 7:23, Rom. 14:5)


(2) More excellent. Caleb had another spirit than the unbelieving spies; he was disposed to acquiesce in the will of God, and to trust in his power and promise. (Num. 14:24) Saul, when anointed King of Israel, became another man, and had another heart given him. His spirit was made more intelligent, wise, majestic, bold, and fit for government, than before. (1 Sam. 10:6,9)
Another Jesus, spirit, or gospel, is one that was insinuated by false teachers as more excellent than that preached by Paul, or communicated by the means of his ministry. (2 Cor. 11:4) False doctrine, particularly in fundamental points, is another gospel, and yet not another; though it may be different from, and possibly undermine, the gospel of Christ; yet, in itself, it is no gospel, no good tidings at all, to sinful men. (Gal. 1:6-7)
TO ANSWER

(1) To reply to a question, or respond to a call. (Prov. 26:4)

(2) To make a defence or apology before a judge. (2 Tim. 4:16)

(3) To speak after another. (Deut. 27:15)

(4) To begin to speak. (Dan. 2:26)

(5) To witness for. (Gen. 30:33)

(6) To obey a call. (Is. 65:12)

(7) To grant what is prayed for. (Ps. 27:7)

(8) To account for. (Job 9:3, 40:2)

(9) To provide a suitable punishment. (Ezek. 14:7)

(10) To suit, to correspond to. (Prov. 27:19; Gal. 4:23)
Answerable = corresponding to, fit for. (Ex. 38:18; Mt. 3:8) An answer of peace is one that leads to peace, prosperity, and happiness. (Gen. 41:16; Deut. 20:11) The answer of a good conscience, necessary before baptism, is a conscientious profession and practice of the gospel, by which the promises of baptism are fulfilled. (1 Pet. 3:21) A fool is to be answered, and yet not replied to according to his folly; his folly is to be exposed, but not in his own foolish and stupid way. (Prov. 26:4-5)
ANT. Of the family Formicidae

A very busy insect which, in the summer and harvest time, stores up provision for the winter.


Consult the Internet website at (http://www.lingolex.com/jstefl.htm), where there are some fascinating facts about the ants, which are so highly recommended in Proverbs.
(1) Like all insects, ants have six legs, and each leg has three joints. The legs of ants are very strong so that they can run very quickly. If a man could run as fast (for his size) as an ant, he would run as fast as a racehorse. Ants can lift 20 times their own body weight. An ant brain has about 250 000 brain cells. A human brain has 10,000 million; so a colony of 40,000 ants has collectively the same sized brain as a human!
(2) The average life expectancy of an ant is 45-60 days. Ants use their antennae not only for touch, but also for their sense of smell. The head of the ant has a pair of large, strong jaws. The jaws open and shut sideways like a pair of scissors. Adult ants cannot chew and swallow solid food. Instead they swallow the juice that they squeeze from pieces of food. They throw away the dry part that is left over. The ant has two eyes, each one made of many smaller eyes. They are called compound eyes.
(3) The abdomen of the ant contains two stomachs. One stomach holds the food for itself, and the second stomach is for food to be shared with other ants. Like all insects, the outside of their body is covered with a hard armour this is called the exoskeleton. Ants have four distinct growing stages, the egg, larva, pupa and the adult. There are over 10000 known species of ants. Each ant colony has at least one or more queens. The job of the queen is to lay eggs, which the worker ants look after. Worker ants are sterile, so they look for food, look after the young, and defend the nest from unwanted visitors. Ants are clean and tidy insects. Some worker ants are given the job of taking the rubbish from the nest and putting it outside in a special rubbish dump. Each colony of ants has its own smell. In this way, intruders can be recognised immediately. Many ants such as the common Red species have a sting, which they use to defend their nest.
(4) The common Black Ants and Wood Ants have no sting, but they can squirt a spray of formic acid. Some birds put ants in their feathers because the ants squirt formic acid, which gets rid of the parasites. At night the worker ants move the eggs and larvae deep into the nest to protect them from the cold. During the daytime, the worker ants move the eggs and larvae of the colony to the top of the nest so that they can be warmer. If a worker ant has found a good source for food, it leaves a trail of scent so that the other ants in the colony can find the food.
Solomon recommends their example to the consideration and imitation of sluggards (lazy people). Ant is found once in Prov. 6:6: Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise, and ants once in Prov. 30:25 — The ants are a people not strong, yet they prepare their meat in the summer.
ANTIPATRIS

A city of Canaan, situated in a pleasant valley near the mountains, on the way from Jerusalem to Caesarea, and about 17-18 miles from Joppa, 42 miles from Jerusalem, and 26 miles from Caesarea. Antipatris was founded on the site of biblical Aphek. The city was was embellished and enlarged by Herod the Great; and, from his father Antipater, it got its name. Here Paul and his guard halted on their way to Caesarea. (Only found in Acts 23:32)


Antipatris has been identified with the modern Ras-el-Ain, where rise the springs of Aujeh, the largest springs in Palestine. There was a Turkish citadel on the mound, built on the remains of a Crusader castle. The name Antipatris was preserved in the Arabic name Abu Butrus, an Ottoman fortress on the mound. Limited archaeological excavations were carried out at Antipatris in the 1930s and early 1960s. Excavations were carried out between 1972 and 1985 (Institute of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University, with various institutes from abroad, led by Perahiah Beck and Moshe Kochavi).
ANTIQUITY

Ancient times, existing a long time ago. (Only found in Is. 23:7)


ANVIL

A smith’s tool for placing his work on, to be beaten out and forged. The face, or uppermost surface of the anvil, is very hard and smooth. It often has a beak (or horn) at the end for rounding off hollow work. The whole is usually mounted on a wooden block. An anvil is mentioned just once in connection with workmen helping one another — They helped every one his neighbour; and every one said to his brother, Be of good courage. So the carpenter encouraged the goldsmith, and he that smootheth with the hammer him that smote the anvil, saying, It is ready for the sodering: and he fastened it with nails, that it should not be moved. (Is. 41:6-7)


APACE

At a rapid pace, swiftly, speedily. (Found only in 2 Sam. 18:25; Ps. 68:12; Jer. 46:5)


APART

At a distance in place, position, or time, aside from others. (Mt. 14:23) To set apart is to separate from others and go somewhere else (Lev. 15:19), or to a sacred use. (Ex. 13:12) God marvellously sets apart the godly for himself. With astonishing grace, and by means of an equally astonishing ransom, he sets them apart from the world to enjoy his favour and fellowship, and to honour and serve him. (Ps. 4:3) See also Lev. 18:19; Ezek. 22:10; Zech. 12:12-14; Mt. 14:13, 17:1,19, 20:17; Mk. 6:31, 9:2; Jas. 1:21.



APES. Primates of the family Pongidae (including monkeys)

A four-footed animal somewhat resembling human form. Its face is naked, and its claws are like men’s nails. Some of the apes particularly resemble mankind, and of old were worshipped as gods. Some have no tail, and look a bit like ugly old man. The ourang-outang (or black-faced monkey) is next in resembling mankind; then comes the baboon (or whiskered ape) with a short tail.


The largest of the anthropoid apes are the gorillas (gorilla gorilla), great apes native to the forests of equatorial Africa, having a stocky body and coarse, dark brown or black hair. These are gentle in nature, and intelligent, and are shy, peaceful vegetarians. But, since their discovery in the 19th century, they are believed by most people to be a threat, and are frequently portrayed as aggressive, dangerous killers. Another species of intelligent monkeys is the chimpanzee (commonly abbreviated to chimp), which come from west and central Africa. Other kinds of monkeys are not so much like the human species. Apes are normally quite well-behaved, but can sometimes be very mischievous and destructive. Some can be taught to perform many tricks in imitation of men. They used to be caught using coconut shells with holes in them and fruit or nuts inside. Anciently, the Egyptians worshipped apes; and they are still adored in many places of India. Among other rarities, Solomon’s fleet brought from Ophir ivory, apes, and peacocks. (1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chron. 9:21)
APHEK. See ANTIPATRIS

(1) A city of the tribe of Judah, where the Philistines encamped when the ark of God was brought from Shiloh, and captured, and which is possibly the same as Aphekah. (Josh. 15:53; 1 Sam. 4:1)


(2) A city of the tribe of Issachar, in valley of Jezreel, near the mountains of Gilboa where Saul and his sons fell in battle. It was probably the king of this city that Josh. slew. (Josh. 12:18; 1 Sam. 29:1)

(3) A city of Asher on the border of the Zidonians, and where they permitted the Canaanites to remain. (Josh. 19:30; Judg. 1:31) It was probably one of the two cities into which Benhadad’s beaten troops fled, and were cut off to the number of 27,000 by the the walls falling on them. It may have been Aphek near Biblos in Syria, where there was a temple of Venus, famous for its most notorious immorality. (1 Kings 20:26)


APIECE

For every one, for each one. (Num. 3:47, 7:86; Lk. 9:3) See also Num. 17:6; 1 Kings 7:15; Ezek. 10:21, 41:24; John 2:6.


APOLLONIA

There was a city of this name on the west of Canaan, but the one mentioned in Scripture was a city of Macedonia, founded by the Corinthians, and was located south of Lake Bolbe. It is notable only for the fact that Caesar Augustus learned Greek there. It stood about midway between Thessalonica and Amphipolis, and, to the south of it. Paul passed through on the Via Egnatia, on his way to Thessalonica, just 36 miles away. (Only found in Acts 17:1)


A modern monument in Apollonia, written in both Greek and English, says, “Here Took [Place] St. Paul’s Speech.” The inscription also includes the text of Acts 17:1. The plaque is located on the side of a very small hill.
APOSTLE, sent

A messenger sent on a special and important errand. Jesus Christ is called the Apostle of our profession. (Heb. 3:1) God sent him to declare his will and build his Church; and he is the author, subject, and end of those divine truths that we are required to believe and profess.


The first mission of the Apostles

Corresponding to the twelve patriarchs, or twelve tribes of Israel, our Saviour, in the second or third year of his public ministry, first appointed, and then sent out twelve of his disciples, whom he named apostles. These he sent out in pairs: Simon Peter and his brother Andrew, Jas. the son of Zebedee and his brother John, Philip and Bartholomew, Thomas and Mt., Jas. the son of Alpheus and his brother Jude, Simon the Canaanite and Judas Iscariot. Of these apostles, Maatthew was a tax-collector; the other four, if not all the rest, were Galilean fishermen. The New Testament Church was not founded till after our Saviour’s resurrection, so the Apostle’s first mission was only temporary, confined to the cities of Israel, and was not superior to that of the seventy disciples, afterwards sent out in the same way. Their work was to preach that the kingdom of heaven, or gospel dispensation, was at hand, and to confirm their doctrine by the miraculous healing of diseases and the casting out of devils. They were to take no food or money for their journey, but to expect it from their hearers. Nor were they to use any fawning courtesy to gain favour, and to shake off the dust from their feet as a testimony against any city or family that rejected them. In the execution of their mission, they had great success. When Jesus travelled, they were his daily attendants; and when he multiplied the loaves, they, as his servants, distributed the bread to the crowds. (Mt. 10, 14-15; Mk. 3:6, 7-13; Lk. 6)


Christ teaching the Apostles

At their request, he set them a pattern on which to model their prayers. What he publicly preached to the multitude, he privately explained to them. He often discussed with them his sufferings, and committed to them the keys of the kingdom of heaven. When Jas. and John revealed their ambition for high positions in his government, the rest were highly offended, for as yet they did not know the nature of his kingdom. Earlier, it seems that most of them at first agreed with Judas in taking offence at Mary’s expensive anointing of their Master. Just before his death, Jesus informed them of the approaching destruction of the Jewish Church and state, and of his own coming to judgement. He assured them that, in a few days, one of them would betray him into the hands of his enemies to be crucified. He celebrated his last Passover with all of them, except perhaps Judas, and observed his first sacred supper. On that occasion, he delivered to them a great number of suitable exhortations and consolatory promises, particularly concerning the Holy Spirit who was to be poured out on them. They were so taken with this teaching that, whatever impertinent questions they had formerly asked, they now agreed that he spoke plainly. When Jesus was arrested, he desired his persecutors not to lay hands on them. However, ungenerously, they forsook him and fled. His crucifixion threw then into great perplexity as they had all along dreamed of his bringing in an earthly kingdom. On the evening after his resurrection, Judas Iscariot being dead and Thomas absent, he appeared to ten of them amid their perplexity. He renewed their mission, and breathed on them as a sign of his sending the Holy Spirit. (Mt. 16, 20, 24-26; Lk. 11:13; John 12-18, 20)


The apostolic commission

After giving them repeated proofs of his resurrection, just before his Ascension, he gave them a formal commission to go into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature, and assured them of his presence and protection, and that he would confirm their teaching by miraculous proofs. He told them to wait in Jerusalem for the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, which would happen in a few days. After they had witnessed their Master’s departure to the heavenly mansions, they chose Matthias in place of Judas. On the day of Pentecost, a feast appointed to commemorate the giving of the Law and the bringing in of the first harvest, the Holy Spirit, in the shape of cleft tongues of fire, descended on each of them, making them bold and infallible in preaching the gospel, qualifying them to speak with power in every language, to discern men’s thoughts, and to confer the miraculous influence of speaking in tongues on others with the laying on of hands. They preached to the crowds, and thousands were converted. They went daily to the courts of the Temple, where, among vast numbers, they proved Jesus to be the true Messiah, who had risen from the dead and ascended to glory. They confirmed their mission with innumerable miracles. Stung with indignation at their extolling one they had put to death as a criminal, and at their bold charges concerning their guilt regarding his murder, the Jewish Sanhedrin imprisoned them, an angel liberated them, and they returned to their preaching work. They were again arrested, and were furiously prohibited from preaching in their Master’s name. With amazing joy, they endured their sufferings, and went on with their work both in public and private. When they were next arrested, the Sanhedrin almost agreed to put them to death; but, advised by Gamaliel, they dismissed them with a solemn charge to never again preach in the Saviour’s name. Soon after this, they ordained a number of deacons to manage the almsgiving of the Church. A furious storm of persecution arose that scattered the other preachers, but the apostles remained in Jerusalem. When they had continued in Judea about 18 years, the Eleven (for Jas. the brother of John was murdered by Herod) called a solemn synod, where it was ruled that no observance of the Mosaic ceremonies ought to be imposed on the [Gentile] Christian converts; but that, to avoid giving offence to weaker (Jewish) brothers, they should abstain from meats offered to idols, and from things strangled, and blood. (Mt. 28; Mk. 16; John 21; Acts 1-7,15)



Where the Apostles went

Not long after, it seems that the Apostles dispersed themselves into other countries: Peter into Pontus, Galatia, and places adjacent; Andrew into Scythia (Eurasia extending from the mouth of the Danube River on the Black Sea to the area east of the Aral Sea) and Sogdiana (modern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan); John into Asia Minor; Philip into Armenia, Media, and Colchis (a region on the Black Sea, south of the Caucasus Mountains); Bartholomew into Arabia Felix; Matthew into Chaldea, Persia, and Parthia; Thomas into Hircania(Spain), Bactreria, and India; Jude into Syria and Mesopotamia; Simon the Canaanite into Egypt, Cyrene, Libya, and Mauritania; Matthias into Cappadocia and Colchis; Jas., the brother of Jude, remained in Judea. Meanwhile, Paul, who more than sufficiently took the place of Jas. the brother of John, flew like a seraph almost everywhere to win souls for Christ.


The “Apostles’ Creed”

Without any shadow of proof, our common creed is ascribed to the apostles as it authors. Yet nobody can tell us when or where they met to draw it up, or show us how a creed written by inspired men could be less than divine authority. None of the fathers in the first three centuries state that it was written by the Apostles; nor in the early years did it have the same wording in all churches, or was identical with what we now possess. Far less ought the canons and constitutions called by their name pass for apostolic. Besides a variety of other blunders, they refer to general letters and other things not found in the Christian Church till long after the Apostles were buried in their graves. It is probable they were collected, or forged, in the fifth century, when impostors were becoming impudent enough, and the people credulous enough.


False apostles

Vast numbers of false and pretended apostles very early pestered Paul, and the churches, particularly those of Syria, Galatia, Corinth, Colosse, etc. (Acts 15; Gal. 1:7-9; 2 Cor. 10-11; Col. 2)


APOSTLESHIP

The office of an apostle. To constitute this, it was necessary for applicants to have seen the Lord, to have received a commission and right to go everywhere and found and gather churches, to be infallible in doctrine, the power to speak with tongues never learned, to work miracles, and to confer the Holy Spirit by the laying on of hands. (1 Cor. 11:1-2; 2 Cor. 12:2) See also Acts 1:25; Rom. 1:5; 1 Cor. 9:2; Gal. 2:8.


APOTHECARY

One who compounds or prepares drugs or perfumes. (See Ex. 10:25,35, 30:25,35, 37:29; Eccl. 10:1)


APPAREL

(1) Clothing, garments. (Is. 3:22)

(2) Appearance. (Is. 61:1)
Advice to believers concerning apparel is found in Acts 20:33; 1 Tim. 2:9; Jas. 2:2; 1 Pet. 3:3.
APPARENTLY

In familiar visions, and as if face-to-face. (Found only in Num. 12:7-8: My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all mine house. With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD shall he behold: wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against my servant Moses?)



TO APPEAL

To decline someone’s judgement, and refer the case to someone else, as Paul did to Caesar. (Acts 25:11,21,26,32; Acts 28:19)


TO APPEAR

(1) To be seen, to become visible. (Gen. 1:9)

(2) To come before. (Is. 1:12)

(3) To seem. (Mt. 6:16)


God’s appearing points to his giving a visible sign of his presence. Thus he often appeared to the fathers in the Old Testament (Gen. 3:8, 8:3; Num. 12:62; 2 Chronicles 1:7), or his making some visible display of his perfections in his work of providence, or some clear revelation of his will. (Ps. 102:16; Acts 26:16)
Christ’s appearing refers to his coming in the flesh (Heb. 9:26), his showing himself alive to his followers after his resurrection (Mk. 16:9,11,14), and his interceding with the Father in heaven for us (Heb. 9:24). But chiefly, it refers to his coming in the clouds with power and great glory to judge the world, when every eye shall see him, and he will clearly unveil the mysteries and excellencies of God. (1 Tim. 6:14; Titus 2:13; Rev. 1:7)
Men’s appearing before God refers to their coming into his courts to worship (Ex. 23:15-16; Ps. 13:2), or standing before Christ’s tribunal on the last day to receive their final sentence of damnation or happiness. (2 Cor. 5:10)
The appearance of a man is the outward shape and form of a man. (Dan. 8:15) The appearance of evil is what bears the greatest likeness of, or tendency towards, sin. (1 Thess. 5:22)
TO APPEASE

To remove anger. Appease = only found in Gen. 32:20; appeased = only found in Esth. 2:1 and Acts 19:35.



TO APPERTAIN

To belong to (Lev. 6:5), to relate to (Rom. 4:1; Jer. 10:7).


APPETITE

(1) A desire for food. (Job 38:39; Is. 29:8) To be given to appetite is to be of a gluttonous and voracious disposition. (Prov. 23:2)


(2) A strong desire for wordly things. (Is. 56:11)
See also Eccl. 6:7 - All the labour of man is for his mouth, and yet the appetite is not filled.
APPII FORUM

A market town in the southwest of Italy, about 50 miles south of Rome, and 18 miles from the Three Taverns. It lay on the Appian Way from Rome to Brundusium, one of the ‘halting stations’ built every ten to fifteen miles along the entire length of the Roman road system. Here Paul was met by some Roman Christians. It was natural that they should halt here and wait for him because they came out to greet him on his way from Puteoli to Rome (Only found in Acts 28:15)


According to Dr. William Smith’s Bible Dictionary (1884), there is no difficulty in identifying the site with some ruins near Treponti.
APPLE. Malus pumila

A well-known, large, and attractive fruit. Its varieties are many, and its fruit round, refreshful, cooling, and medicinal. Perhaps the Heb. extended this name to the pear, cherry, and other fruit. Indeed, Jas. Brocard states that there were a few or all these fruit in Canaan. A drink called cider is still often made from apples, as well as pure apple juice. Apples are included in a variety of very delicious dishes.


Jesus Christ is compared to an apple tree among the trees of the wood; perhaps the citron apple-tree, to mark his glorious height, his attractiveness, his fruitfulness, and his delightful shadow, always coming to refresh the heart, quieting, and bring nourishing virtue from his influence. (Song 2:8) The spiritual promises and blessings of the New Covenant are called apples. How they delight, nourish, refresh, revive, and heal our soul! (Song 2:5) The saints’ breath, or the smell taken up by their nose, is like apples; their fervent prayers, devout praises, and holy lives, reveal the soundness of their inward disposition; and they are pleasing and acceptable to God, and refreshing and edifying to men. (Song 7:8) The saints raise up Christ under the apple tree; meaning, they enjoy sweet protection and close fellowship with him; and their prayers prevail with him, as a means of exciting him to do his saving work. (Song 2:3, 8:5)
Good words, carefully chosen, are like citrons, oranges, or like apples of gold in pictures of silver, presenting a most attractive appearance, and producing a delightful and edifying influence. (Prov. 25:11) The apple of our eye is the eyes’s small rolling ball. To keep a thing as the apple of the eye (Ps. 17:8) is to preserve it with the utmost tenderness, care and safety. The saints are compared with the apple of God’s eye. (Deut. 32:10; Prov. 7:2) He found him in a desert land, and in the howling waste of the wilderness. He led him about, instructed him jealously. (Zech. 2:8) In themselves, they are weak and easily hurt, but are incomparably connected with him, and infinitely dear to him; for he exactly observes them, and tenderly sympathises with them, in all their afflictions, and is offended with, and terribly resents, every injury done to them. (Ps. 17:8)
The apple of Sodom, or Dead Sea apple, have been thought by some scholars to be the solanum sanctum (Hebrew hedek), a red apple nauseous to the taste, and translated brier in Mic. 7:4, a thorny plant bearing fruit like the potato apple, a shrub that used to abound in the Jordan valley.
TO APPLY

To apply the heart to wisdom, or good works, is to study by all means to get wisdom and knowledge, and to perform good works. (Apply = Ps. 90:12; Prov. 2:2, 22:17, 23:12; applied = Eccl. 8:9)


TO APPOINT

(1) To command, to order. (2 Sam. 13:15)

(2) To ordain, to set apart for an office. (Gen. 41:34; Acts 6:3)

(3) To assign, to allot as a portion or charge. (Num. 4:19)

(4) To decree, to purpose. (Acts 20:13)

(5) To settle, to fix. (Prov. 8:29)

(6) To agree upon. (Acts 28:23)

(7) To set a place. (2 Kings 10:24)


To be appointed to wrath in the sovereign and unchangeable purposes of God is to be left to endure the just and everlasting punishment of sin. To be appointed to salvation is to be sovereignly and unchangeably the chosen heirs of everlasting happiness. (1 Thess. 5:9) To be appointed to death, or trouble, is to be sentenced by men, or set apart in the providence of God, to endure it. (Ps. 102; 1 Cor. 4:9; 1 Thess. 3:3)

For further uses of appointed, see 1 Thess. 5:9; 2 Tim. 1:11; Titus 1:5; Heb. 1:2, 3:2, 9:27; 1 Pet. 2:8.



TO APPREHEND

To take into custody and arrest (1 Kings 18:40; Acts 12:4; 2 Cor. 11:32), to grasp mentally, to understand, to become conscious of something through the emotions or senses, to perceive, to understand something.



I count not myself to have apprehended: but I follow on, that I may apprehend that for which I am apprehended of Christ Jesus (Phil. 3:12-13); that is, “I do not reckon myself to have attained to any noted degree of knowledge, fellowship, or likeness to God; but I proceed from one duty to another, and one degree of grace to another, that I may speedily receive the full prize of perfect glory, which, when he graciously seized me in the day of his power, made me the prisoner of his love, and fixed me in a New Covenant state of union and communion with himself.”
TO APPROACH

Often means to have illicit sexual dealings with someone (see Lev. 18:6-19), but it is used particularly with respect to place or time. (2 Sam. 11:20) Jesus Christ approached God as an offended judge; he fully satisfied his law and justice with the infinite offering of himself. (Jer. 30:21) To approach God as a gracious sovereign and father is to wait upon him in his ordinances, but chiefly to enjoy his fullness. (Ps. 58:2, 65:4) A reverential comment about worship is found in 1 Tim. 6:16. 


TO APPROVE

To sustain as right, to love, to commend. (Ps. 49:13; 1 Cor. 11:19) Jesus Christ was approved of God; dearly beloved to him, his Person and work accepted, and he himself undeniably demonstrated by his providence that he was the true Messiah. (Acts 2:22) We approve ourselves when, by good works, we gain the approbation of men’s consciences, and show that we are favoured and made righteous by God. (2 Cor. 6:4; 2 Tim. 2:15) To approve of others: And when I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters, them will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem. (1 Cor. 16:3) To approve of moral things: That ye may approve things that are excellent; that ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ. (Phil. 1:10)


Approved by God (Acts 2:22; 2 Cor. 10:18; 2 Tim. 2:15); by Christ (Rom. 16:10); by men (Rom. 14:18; 1 Cor. 11:19; 2 Cor. 13:7); by ourselves (2 Cor. 7:11)
APRONS

With fig leaves stitched together, or with fig branches properly fixed to the front of their bodies, our first parents supplied the need of aprons. (Gen. 3:7) It was probably Ruth’s apron, not her veil, into which Boaz poured the six measures of barley to carry home to her mother-in-law. (Ruth 3:15) For some unusual miracles, see Acts 19:12 — So that from his (Paul’s) body were brought unto the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of them.


APT

Exactly suitable, appropriate, having a natural tendency, inclined, quick to learn or understand. Found only in 2 Kings 24:16; 1 Chron. 7:40; 1 Tim. 3:2; 2 Tim. 2:24.



ATONEMENT

A pacification of God’s justice by giving him as a ransom to balance the offences done to him by sin. The Hebrew word translated atonement indicates a covering, and reveals that, by a proper atonement, our offences are covered before the avenging justice of God. The atonement made by the ceremonial offerings did not at all appease the divine justice, but looked only towards the impending temporal punishment. These typified the satisfaction of Jesus Christ, which sufficiently balances our most dreadful crimes. (Ex. 29:33,36-37)


Extra note

We form a clear idea of the meaning of the word atonement from the covering of the ark, which was dyed red. Over this stood the propitiation (mercyseat), indicating that justice and judgement were established at God’s throne, but not in the earthly Tabernacle. What shall I give for the sin of my soul? (Mic. 6:7) is a most fascinating question. This shall be an atonement for your souls are words that come from the Law of Moses (Ex. 30:15-16; Lev. 17:11), evidently demonstrating that, although the sacrifices of the Law could never make those who came to it perfect, yet it was the bringer in (the introducer) of a better hope. The Law, by establishing that atonement for the soul, brought into view through all the ordinances of its worship and service, and was the schoolmaster to teach the doctrines of the cross of Christ. (Gal. 3:24-25) Christ died for our sins and rose again for our justification. (Rom. 4:25) By his one offering of atonement, he has forever perfected his guilty chosen company. He has fulfilled all the righteousness that the Law prefigured, and thus we receive grace for grace. (John 1:16) Those who deny the doctrine of atonement had better renounce the Scriptures straight away! Cancelling this invaluable doctrine from them, and the conduct of all the Old Testament saints in their sacrifices, etc., appears like the action of fools, making service in the worldly sanctuary more like a slaughterhouse than the Temple of God. Happy for guilty man that the doctrine of the atonement stands on a foundation which all the philosophy and vain deceit of the worldly-wise in this world, the sneers of their wit, or the profanity of the Deist, cannot deny! Not even the gates of hell shall prevail against it!


The English word atonement (AT-ONE-MENT) expresses well the meaning of the original, ad anam (to one), or reconciliation. See Propitiation.
ARABIA

A large country in Asia, lying partly on the east, but chiefly south, of Canaan. It is so situated that its greatest length from east to west is about 1620 miles, and its greatest breadth from north to south is about 1350 miles. And in its northern parts, east of Canaan, it is far less than half of any of its previous dimensions. It has the Indian Ocean on the south, the Red Sea and Isthmus of Suez on its west, with Canaan and Syria on its northwest and north. The mountains of Chaldea and the Persian Gulf fall on its east. In modern times, this peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf is divided politically into Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait. Arabia, so it is estimated, holds one third of the world’s oil reserves. The modern history of the Gulf began with establishment of the Saudi state in central Arabia in about 1750. A regional ruler, Muhammad bin Saud, joined forces with an Islamic reformer, to create a new political entity. The modern Saudi state was founded by King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud. In 1902, Riyadh was captured. Abdul Aziz continued his conquests between 1913 and 1926. In 1926, Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud became the King of Hijaz. By the Treaty of Jeddah, signed in 1927, Britain recognized the independence of Abdul Aziz’s realm, then known as the Kingdom of Hijaz and Nejd. In 1932, these regions were unified as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The discovery of oil in March 1938 transformed the country economically, and has afforded the kingdom legitimacy in the West over the years.


Arabia is usually divided into three parts:

(1) Arabia Petraea (the rocky), on the northwest, which is now called Hejaz. In the southwest part of this now stands the famous cities of Mecca and Medina, so much visited by Mahometan pilgrims. This area used to be the land of Edom, the wilderness of Paran, and the land of Cushan, and seems to have been first called Arabia from its westerly situation, or the mixed tribes that lived there.


(2) Arabia Deserta (of the desert), which lay east of Canaan, and takes in the lands of Uz, Ammon, Moab, Midian, the country of the Itureans, and Hagarenes.
(3) Arabia Felix (happy), on the south of the two other areas. This seems to have been called Kedem, or the East, by the Heb.. Hardly any part of Arabia is well-watered; but Arabia Felix is famous for its great number of fine spices and fruits. Arabia Felix seems to have been mainly populated by the numerous family of Joktan, a descendant of Shem. The other two parts seem to have been originally inhabited by the Rephaim, Emim, Zanzummim, Amalekites, Horites, and other descendants of Cush, the eldest son of Ham. The Cushites were gradually expelled by the descendants of Nahor, Lot, and Abraham. Ishmael first settled in Hejaz, and formed 12 powerful tribes of Nabatheans, Kedarenes, Hagarenes, etc. But they gradually spread out at least into the whole northern parts of Arabia; and the remains of the Uzites, or Ausitae, Buzites, Ammonites, Moabites, Midianites, were united with them. The ancient Arabs, or Arabians, were gross idolaters. They worshipped the heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and stars, and a number of angels and men who were famous in their view. They worshipped a great number of large stones, which were probably, at first, no more than the places where their ancestors had worshipped the true God. (See Gen. 28:18) The Persians introduced their Magian religion among some of them. The Jews, who fled from the fury of the Rom., proselytised some of them to their religion. Paul preached in some part of Arabia, and ten tribes are said to have received the Christian faith, then and the following ages. Since Mahomet’s rise (about AD 608), or rather his conquests (about AD 630), the Arabs have generally been followers of the Mahometan delusion.
To take particular notice of the Arabian tribes, or of the barren history of their ancient kingdoms of Hamyar (or Yemen), which are the same as Arabia Felix, Ghassan, and Hira, in Arabia Deserta, or of Hejaz, the original residence of the Ishmaelites, is hardly suitable for this Bible dictionary. It is more to our purpose to show the astonishing way the ancient predictions of Scripture were fulfilled among them for more than three thousand years of its history. It was prophesied that the Ishmaelites would be like wild free men; that they would have their hand against every man, and every man’s hand against them; and yet they would dwell in the presence of all their bothers, multiply into twelve tribes, and become a great nation. Or, in other words, that however they were harassed, they would never be utterly subdued: and that, in the latter days, they whould push at the Roman Empire, and, like so many locusts, plague the third part of mankind. (Gen. 16:11-12, 17:20, 21:10-13; Is. 21:11-17; Num. 24:20; Jer. 25:23-25, 48:28-33; Dan. 11:40; Rev. 9:1-11) Let us trace their rise:
Ishmael had twelve sons, each of which made a tribe. They lived next to their relatives, the offspring of Lot, and those of Abraham by Keturah, and of Esau, the father of Edom. They gradually increased till they swallowed up their neighbours on the north and east, if not most of the children of Joktan in Arabia Felix. Numbers of them at an early date began to trade with Egypt in spices. (Gen. 37:27, 39:1) They long traded with the Tyrians in ebony, ivory, precious clothes, spices, jewels, gold, and cattle. (Ezek. 27:15, 20-22) Vast numbers of them roved about with their cattle, dwelling in tents, and without any settled abode. (Is. 13:20) They were always famed for their lust, robbery, revenge, ravage, and murder, such, to use the words of a Roman historian, as one would neither wish his friends or his foes. It was therefore in the interest of every conqueror to root them out; and it is observable that almost every would-be conqueror pushed his conquests to their very borders, but left them unsubdued. They oppressed the Heb., but were severely chastised by Gideon. (Judg. 8:24) They sent presents to Solomon, but there is no record that his father or himself ever subdued them. (1 Kings 10:15) Sesostris (or Shishak), the Egyptian conqueror, would have no Arabs in his vast and mixed army which be marched against Rehoboam. Indeed, he was obliged to draw a line along their frontiers to protect his own country from their inroads and ravages. They sent a present of some flocks to Jehoshaphat, but soon after entered into a grand alliance against him. (2 Chron. 17:11; Ps. 83:6) They terribly ravaged Judea under Jehoram, and murdered all his sons except the youngest. (2 Chron. 21:16-17) They probably attacked Uzziah, but paid dearly for their pains. (2 Chron. 27:7) Shalmanezer (or Sennacherib), hostilely ravaged part of their country, and drove the Dedanites into their woods, where many of them perished by famine. The Kedarenes he murdered, and carried off their wealth as spoil. Nebuchadnezzar entered and wasted their country; he murdered vast numbers of Dedanites, Buzites, Temanites, Scemites, Kedarenes, Zamarines, reducing Hazor and other major cities to lasting ruins, and carried off their tents and cattle as a prey.
Cyrus seized the whole Empire of the Assyrians and Chaldeans, and even reduced a body of Arabs about the north of Arabia Deserta. But Herodotus assures us that, under Darius Hystaspis, who further extended the Persian dominions, the Arabians were exempt from tribute. This people highly provoked the proud Alexander, and treated him with contempt. He intended to conquer or ruin them, but death forestalled the execution of his project. To chastise their plundering and pillaging on his adjacent territories, Antigonus, one of Alexander’s successors, first by himself, and then by his son Demetrius, tried to subdue their country; but he was obliged to make peace with them, almost on their their own terms. Pompey, the famous Roman conqueror, ravaged part of their country; but when his army was recalled, the Arabs followed hard on their heels and, for quite some some time after, terribly harassed Roman subjects in Syria and other places. About the 23rd year before our Saviour’s birth, Elias Gallus, another Roman general, sailed up the Red Sea to subdue their country, but his attempt failed.
About AD 120, Trajan, the Roman Emperor, decided to reduce Arabia Hejaz, and ravaged part of it. He besieged Petra their capital, but thunder, lightning, hail, whirlwinds, swarms of flies, and the like, terrified and repulsed his troops very time they repeated their attacks. About AD 200, the famous warrior, the Emperor Severus, twice besieged it with a powerful army and a fine train of artillery. An unaccountable difference between himself and his troops obliged him to lift the siege. During the next 400 years, we find part of the Arabs sometimes allied with the Persians and sometimes with the Rom.; but they were never subject to either of these mighty Empires.
In the 7th century, Mahomet (570-632), an Arab from Hejaz, came on the scene as an exceptionally astute man; and, having invented a false religion, his countrymen, under the name of Saracens, began to propagate it by subduing all of Arabia, most of western Asia, all Africa north of the Senegal river, together with Spain, Sicily, and a great many isles of Europe, all of which constituted an Empire about 7000 miles in length. Their own divisions existed in Africa and Spain, also in Asia, together with the growing power of the Seljukian Turks, and at last the terrible ravages of the Tartars, etc. (between AD 900 and 1260), and this caused a gradual decline in this widespread Empire. For the next three centuries, the Ottoman Turks and Spaniards reduced the remaining fragments of the Arab Empire in Africa and Spain. But Hejaz, the original country of the Ishmaelites, and its inhabitants was never subdued. Up to the 18th century, the Turkish sultans paid them an annual tribute of 40,000 crowns (a crown being an old English coin worth 5s = 20p) for a safe passage to their holy cities of Mecca and Medina. If payment was not made, the Arabs were sure to recover their loss by falling on caravans, or companies of pilgrims, or by ravaging Mesopotamia or Syria.
An extra note

The Arabs used to dwell, and some still do, in the desert like their ancestors, and have no houses but tents covered with black hair-cloth. Those who inhabit the fertile parts are civilised, living in houses built with stone, but the architecture is not noteworthy. The front is used to accommodation the men, and the women live in the back. Those of the same family usually live together in order to protect one another. In politeness and courtesy, they are inferior to the Persians, and the hospitality for which they were once famous, may still be traced among the modern Arabs. “Peace be with you” (Salaam eleikum) is their customary greeting, as they lay their right hand on their heart. But they do not treat Christians so kindly. They have the habit of kissing the hand of a superior. Their princes are very kind to strangers who apply to them for refreshment. Those who used to live in the desert were extremely rapacious, as they led wandering lives, and lay in wait for caravans, which they frequently plundered as they travelled across the desert from Egypt to Mecca, and Bussorath to Aleppo. Some of their tribes even robbed the husbandmen of their seed-corn, which caused the sower to have an armed man or two not far away to protect him and the seed while he sowed it in the field.


The Arabians abstain from alcohol, their only beverage being water or milk. Their lower classes used to eat little else than an inferior form of bread made of a sort of millet, and mixed with camel milk, grease, butter, or oil. The climate of Arabia is extremely hot, and springs and rivulets are rarely found. A destructive wind blows mostly on the frontiers called the Simoon, a violent hot sand-laden wind on the deserts of Arabia, which causes instant suffocation to every living creature that happens to be within the sphere of its activity, and immediate erosion of the body follows.
See Arab: Josh. 15:52; Arabia: 1 Kings 10:15; 2 Chron. 9:14; Is. 21:13; Jer. 25:24; Ezek. 27:21; Gal. 1:17; Gal. 4:25; Arabian: Neh. 2:19; Neh. 6:1; Is. 13:20; Jer. 3:2; Arabians: 2 Chron. 17:11, 21:16, 22:1, 26:7; Neh. 4:7; Acts 2:11.
ARARAT

Modern Armenia, a country of Asia, part of which is now called Turcomania (where traditionally nomadic Turkic people live in Turkmenistan and neighbouring areas in Iran and Afghanistan), and the rest in Persia. It has Georgia in the north, Media in the east, Kurdistan (or Assyria) on the south, and Anatolia (Asia Minor) on the west. Here the famous rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Araxes (modern Araks), and Phasis (modern Rion), have their source. Here stand the great mountains, the Moschic (modern Surami Ridge), in the northwest, the east end of the Taurus and Antitaurus, on the west, and Mounts Niphates and Gordian (including Ararat, the resting place of Noah’s Ark), etc.


There are some who think that the mountain of Ararat was on the east of Persia and north of India. But it is more probable that it was the finger mountain near the northeast of Armenia, a huge inactive volcano towering above the arid steppe of Eastern Turkey, connecting the borders of Armenia, Iran and Turkey. From the summit, an overview of the cradle of ancient civilisations can be seen high above the cloud line. Mount Ararat is a massif of extreme eastern Turkey, near the Iranian border, rising to about 5,168 m (16,945 ft.). It stands in a large plain, 36 miles east of Erivan, and is shaped like a sugar-loaf, and is visible for about 160 or 200 miles. Its top is high and inaccessible because of the snow that covers it all the year round. The middle part is haunted by many tigers, some scabby flocks, and two monasteries can be seen at its foot. In the north, this mountain (also called Masius) is, by the most careful geographers, located about 100 miles east of Shinar; but, if we take Mount Cardu (or Gordian) as that upon which the ark rested, the travels of Noah and his family to Shinar would be seen to be short and easy.

Armenia is generally a high and cold country. It was early on divided into two kingdoms: Greater Armenia on the east, and Lesser Armenia on the west. Probably, it was populated by Hul, the son of Aram, and father of the Syrians (Gen. 10:23; 1 Chron. 1:17); and the language of the two nations appears to have been nearly identical. It is after him, or from its lofty heights, or from Har-minni, the mountain of the Minni, it seems to have got its name. To this country, the two murderous sons of Sennacherib fled; which tempts me to think that it was not then subject to Assyria. (Is. 37:38; 2 Kings 19:37) Armenian troops assisted Cyrus against the Chaldeans. (Jer. 51:27) The Armenians later had a long race of kings of their own, though they fell subject to Alexander’s successors in Syria. About 50 years before Christ, they began their fall under the Rom., and in about as many years, their kings were abolished. About AD 687, the Saracens or Arabians wrested Armenia from the Roman Emperor of the east. They had hardly kept it for 150 years when the ravaging Turkmans seized it, and, for some ages later, it came under the sultanates (kingdoms) of the White and Black Sheep, the last of which was very powerful and large. In 1472, Armenia became a province of the Persian Empire. In 1522, it was conquered by the Turks, who rule the western part of it to this day.

Christianity came early to Armenia, and remains there still. The Armenians are great traders, so about 40,000 of them reside in Persia carrying on their trade. Today, about 94% of Armenians consider themselves to be Christians, believing their faith came directly from Christ’s apostles. The Christian faith has shaped Armenian culture so intimately that it permeates the very landscape at virtually every corner of the country. Christianity was first introduced in Armenia by the apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the first century AD. Although it is a distinct church, the Armenian Apostolic Church is in communion with other churches such as the Coptic, Syrian, Ethiopian, and Indian Malabar churches. Small Roman Catholic and Protestant communities also exist in Armenia. Catholic missionaries began converting Armenians in the Ottoman and Persian Empires in the early modern era, and American Protestant missionaries were active in the nineteenth century. There is also a Russian Orthodox community.
According to Armenians, on April 24, 1915, during World War 1, the Turkish government headed by the Young Turks, the ruling political party of the Ottoman Empire, began to deport and massacre its Armenian Christian minority population, approximately 2.5 million people. Turkey denies that there was a planned campaign to eliminate Armenians from Anatolia. It says that both sides suffered losses in the war. Atrocities may have occurred, they say, but only at the hands of rogue groups or individuals, Turkish as well as Armenian. Turkey says no more than 300-thousand Armenians perished in the clashes, but Armenia claim up to one and a half million in a genocide.
The search for Noah’s Ark

Several attempts have been to find remains of the Ark on the mountain. All have proved unsuccessful. Mount Ararat has many “eyewitnesses” in the past speaking of a boat-like structure. These alleged witnesses are the only reason why the search has continued on the mountain. Despite all the ground and aerial expeditions (one with sophisticated mapping capabilities), one may conclude that, if the remains of Noah’s Ark are indeed on Mount Ararat, they are not in plain view, and are probably buried. There have been two attempts using sub-surface Radar (GPR = Ground Penetrating Radar) technology on Mount Ararat to look under the ice. The 1988 Willis expedition, and the 1989 Aaron/Garbe/Corbin expedition, used GPR. The 1988 expedition successfully surveyed the eastern summit plateau, and the saddle area between the two peaks, coming to the conclusion that there was no Ark remains under the ice. The 1989 expedition was not as successful as the preceding year, where a less efficient GPR system was used on the western plateau of Mount Ararat. If the remains of Noah’s Ark were in the moving ice on Mount Ararat (there is only one legitimate glacier, the Black Glacier, though there are other moving ice flows like the so-called Parrot Glacier), the remains of the Ark would have been ground to pieces.


For the two occasions when Ararat is mentioned in the Bible, see Gen. 8:4 - And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat, and Jer. 51:27 - Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz; appoint a captain against her; cause the horses to come up as the rough caterpillers
ARRAY

(1) When the word refers to clothing, it means garments, or a handsome way of putting them on. (Esth. 6:9; 1 Tim. 2:9;1 Pet. 2:9) The saints are arrayed in heaven in their white robes of righteousness. (Rev. 7:13, 19:8)


(2) When the word refers to war, it means the arrangements whereby an army defends itself and attacks the enemy. (2 Sam. 10:9) The terrors of God set themselves in array against one, when they appear in great numbers, and are ready to surround and destroy. (Job 6:4) Nebuchadnezzar arrayed himself as a shepherd with the land of Egypt, when he covered it with his troops, easily conquered it, and loaded himself and his army down with rich spoils. (Jer. 43:12)
ARCHANGEL

A prince of the angels. But whether in Scripture this ever referred to a created angel, or always Christ, the Lord of all angels, is hard to judge. (Found only in 1 Thess. 4:16 and Jude verse 9) The name of the archangel is given in the latter verse as Michael (meaning, Who is like God?) He is described as one of the chief angels in Dan. 10:13, 21; 12:1), having a special responsibility for Israel as a nation. He disputed with Satan over the body of Moses (Jude 1:9), and issued a warning against that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world. (Rev. 12:7-9)


ARCHES

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