____ 62. Vertical drop of a stream over a fixed distance
____ 63. The amount (volume) of water passing a certain point in a given amount of time
Match the following fault types with the plate boundaries they are associated with:
____ 64. Transform Boundary
____ 65. Convergent Boundary
____ 66. Divergent Boundary
Match the following groundwater terms with their description:
Zone of Aeration
Cone of Depression
Zone of Saturation
____ 67. An underground boarder between the ground in which all spaces are filled with water and the ground above in which the spaces contain some air.
____ 68. A conical shaped depression surrounding a well, which is caused when the well pumps water and cannot move toward the well fast enough to maintain a flat water table
____ 69. A region in the subsurface which holds and transmits water in a quantity that has the quality to be useful.
____ 70. Layers of the subsurface that drastically slow down the transmission of water.
____ 71. The area above the water table where openings are in the material are filled with air.
____ 72. Occurs when the level of the water table does not vary with the changes of precipitation, and occurs between two layers which doesn’t allow water to pass through. This keeps the water table constant.
____ 73. An area of soil or rock below the level of the water table where all the voids are filled with water.
____ 74. An aquifer that has a water table which is not confined to a single level and can fluctuate with the climate, rising during rainy periods and falling during dry periods.
____ 75. Layers of the subsurface which prevent the transmission of water.
____ 76. A well that flows under pressure generated by a confined aquifer
77. Describe the Elastic Rebound Theory.
78. Define an Earthquake.
79. Which seismic waves are more destructive, p-waves or s-waves?
80. Which seismic waves are faster p-waves or s-waves?
81. What are the differences between P and S Waves?
82. What is in the correct order of Earth’s interior (moving from inside to outer)?
83. How do we locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
84. What is the difference between a fault and a fold?
85. Explain what chart relates the force that is applied on a rock with the stress and strain?
86. What is the difference between uniform stress and differential stress?
87. What are the four factors that affect deformation?
88. What is the difference between a syncline fold and an anticline?
89. Where is the hanging wall positioned in relation to the footwall in a normal fault?
90. Where is the hanging wall positioned in relation to the footwall in a reverse fault?
91. What is the difference between a structural dome and a structural basin?
92. How do rocks react to different types of stress in an earthquake, fault, and fold?
93. List all the possible causes of faults and folds:
94. What causes structural domes?
95. What type of fold is associated with anticlines and synclines?
96. What causes structural basins?
97. What are the three types of transported loads?
98. What’s the difference between transportation and deposition?
99. What is the difference between an alluvial fan and a delta?
100. What is infiltration, and how does it relate to stream formation?
101. What are the stages of stream development and how do they differ?
102. List places where water is stored.
103. List ways in which water can be transported.
104. What are the differences between a youthful stream, mature stream, and old stream?
105. What is the difference between a laminar flow and turbulent flow?
106. What is the difference between a braided and meandering stream?
107. Point bars are areas of what on a meandering stream?
108. Cut banks are areas of what on a meandering stream?
109. List reasons why the water cycle is important.
110. What is a stream?
111. What is saltation?
112. Where does water move the fastest and slowest on a meandering stream?
113. What develops when the area behind a levee is not drained?
114. What is the water table and what does it separate?
115. What is a karst and what are examples of a karst?
116. What is the difference between recharge and discharge?
117. What happens when contaminants flow in groundwater?
118. Define porosity and permeability:
119. What are the four ways Geologists know what is inside the Earth?
120. How do P and S waves travel throug the earth?
121. What are the three types of Earth’s Delivery Systems and what are their differences?
122. What causes fractures?
123. What are the three types of deformation?
124. How is a natural levee formed?
125. What is the smallest storage reservoir for water?
126. Name three ways that a stream can be eroded.
127. Where do distributaries occur?
128. List the controlling factors that affect the development of a stream.
129. What are the three types of sediment load?
130. What is the difference between an influent stream and effluent stream?
131. Name three types of karsts.
132. An earthquake has hit downtown Los Angeles in California, a heavily populated city. The Richter scale recorded the earthquake to be a 6.5 in magnitude. What scale would you use to measure the destruction and would the destruction be high or low?
133. Draw Seismic waves being recorded on a Seismograph during an earthquake. Label the type of waves and which one’s would be the fastest and most destructive.
Earth's Interior, Earthquakes, Faults & Folds, Surface Water, & Groundwater
1. ANS: F
The Richter Scale measures earthquake intensity
2. ANS: T PTS: 1
3. ANS: F
False, materials become more ductile.
4. ANS: F
Cut banks erode stream banks.
5. ANS: T PTS: 1
6. ANS: F
False, Yazoo tributaries are parallel to the main channel.
32. ANS: Speed at which particles fall through a still liquid.
33. ANS: Decreasing
34. ANS: C PTS: 1
35. ANS: B PTS: 1
36. ANS: A PTS: 1
37. ANS: A PTS: 1
38. ANS: B PTS: 1
39. ANS: C PTS: 1
40. ANS: A PTS: 1
41. ANS: C PTS: 1
42. ANS: D PTS: 1
43. ANS: B PTS: 1
44. ANS: B PTS: 1
45. ANS: C PTS: 1
46. ANS: D PTS: 1
47. ANS: A PTS: 1
48. ANS: E PTS: 1
49. ANS: B PTS: 1
50. ANS: C PTS: 1
51. ANS: A PTS: 1
52. ANS: B PTS: 1
53. ANS: C PTS: 1
54. ANS: A PTS: 1
55. ANS: B PTS: 1
56. ANS: C PTS: 1
57. ANS: A PTS: 1
58. ANS: A PTS: 1
59. ANS: C PTS: 1
60. ANS: B PTS: 1
61. ANS: B PTS: 1
62. ANS: A PTS: 1
63. ANS: C PTS: 1
64. ANS: C PTS: 1
65. ANS: B PTS: 1
66. ANS: A PTS: 1
67. ANS: D PTS: 1
68. ANS: B PTS: 1
69. ANS: H PTS: 1
70. ANS: I PTS: 1
71. ANS: A PTS: 1
72. ANS: E PTS: 1
73. ANS: G PTS: 1
74. ANS: F PTS: 1
75. ANS: J PTS: 1
76. ANS: C PTS: 1
Describes the release of stored energy as two plate tectonics slip past each other, then the plates rebound back to their original shape (rubber band).
A release of stored energy as two tectonic plates move past each other.
P-waves: are faster (4 m/s), less destructive, can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, move with compressional (push) and tensional forces (pull).
S-waves: are slower (2 m/s), more destructive, can only travel through solids, move with shearing forces (side to side).
Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, & Crust
Three seismic recording stations must record the earthquake. The epicenter of the earthquake is located where all three circles or radius’ meet.
A fault is when rock layers fracture and movement is associated with it, and a fold is when rock layers fold or bend.
Rheology chart. As more stress, temperature, and pressure is applied to rock layers they move from elastic to ductile and finally to brittle zones of deformation.
Uniform stress: compressional forces are the same in all directions. Differential stress: compressional force is greater in one direction.
Confining pressure, time (rate of deformation), mineral composition, and temperature.
A syncline fold the youngest rock layers are at the axis and the bed dips toward the axis. An anticline fold the oldest rock layers are at the axis and the bed dips away from the axis.
Below the footwall.
Above the footwall.
In a structural dome the oldest rocks are in the center and the rock layers point inward. In a structural basin the youngest rocks are in the center and the rock layers point outward.
-Faults fracture or crack
Compressional stress, subsidence, intrusions, tensional stress, and shear stress.
Subsidence, the sinking of the ground due to crustal thinning
Bed load, suspended load, and dissolved load
Transportation: stream transport provides a mechanism by which solid particles of various sizes are separated (sorted). Deposition: well sorted material deposited by a stream is called an (Alluvium).
Alluvial fans: develop where high gradient streams leave a narrow mountain valley. Deltas: form when a stream enters an ocean or lake and velocity decreases.
Occurs when the ground absorbs water. When infiltration capacity is met a stream begins to form (Sheet flow stage).
1. Sheet flow: occurs when infiltration capacity is met.
1. A youthful stream: characterized by downcutting and a v-shaped valley.
2. A mature stream: occurs once the stream has sufficiently lowered its gradient, it begins to erode laterally producing a wide valley.
3. An old age stream: occurs when a valley is cut several times wider than the depth of the meandering belt.
-Laminar flow is gentle and particles flow in a straight line path parallel to stream channel. -Turbulent flow is wild and water moves in an erratic fasion. Characterized by whirlpool like eddies.
-A braided stream is made up of several interwoven stream channels caused by an accumulation of sediment choking off the channel. This occurs when load capacity is exceeded.
-A meandering stream is a single stream channel that bends. Cut banks and point bars create the distinct bending in a meandering stream.
Areas of deposition (depositing of sediments)
Areas of erosion.
Essential for life, transportation, drinking water, irrigation, and industrial processing
Any channelized flow of water of any size
Particle transport by jumping or skipping along the bottom
Water moves the fastest at the cutbanks, and the slowest at the point bars.
The water table is an underground boarder between the ground in which all spaces are filled with water and the ground above in which the spaces contain some air. The level of the water table tends to follow the shape of the overlying ground surface.
A karst is a feature created when acid rain dissolves limestone in the subsurface. These features include: caves, caverns, sink hole, and disappearing streams.
Recharge is anywhere water can enter the groundwater system. Discharge is anywhere water leaves the groundwater system.
Either with regional groundwater flow direction (contaminants light weight) or against flow direction (contaminants are heavy).
Porosity is the void space in the subsurface where water can reside. Permeability is the interconnectedness of porosity, water can move between open spaces.
Astronomy (Earth’s layers, density, mass, and volume), Drilling into the crust, Earth’s Delivery Service (Kimberlites, Xenoliths, & Ophiolites), and Seismic Data (Earthquakes, Seismographs, and Elastic Reboud).
-P waves: travel through all materials (solids, liquids, and gases), move with compressional and tensional forces.
-S waves: travel through solids only, move with shearing forces.
Kimberlites: vertical rock pipe structures that erupt rocks and minerals (such as diamonds) from the mantle to Earth’s surface for geologists to study.
Xenoliths: exotic rocks, such as meteorites.
Ophiolites: Uplift in oceanic crust that reveals mantle rocks below the surface.