Earth's Interior, Earthquakes, Faults & Folds, Surface Water, & Groundwater True/False



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Earth's Interior, Earthquakes, Faults & Folds, Surface Water, & Groundwater

True/False

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

____ 1. True or false, the Mercalli Scale measures the amplitude (intensity) of an earthquake.

____ 2. True or false, the dip is the angle between a tilted surface and a horizontal plane.

____ 3. True or false: as temperature increases, materials become less ductile?

____ 4. True or false, point bars erode stream banks?

____ 5. True or false: the controlling factors of turbulent and laminar flow are velocity of flow and the roughness of channel bottom.

____ 6. True or false: Yazoo tributaries are perpendicular to the main channel.

Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 7. What is it called when liquid slows down the seismic waves?




A.

Seismic Shadow Zone

C.

Seismic Discontinuity

B.

Reflection

D.

Refraction

____ 8. What are the two MAIN types of seismic waves?




A.

Surface and P waves

C.

Body and P waves

B.

P and S waves

D.

Body and Surface waves

____ 9. When a seismic wave changes direction and velocity, while traveling from one of Earth’s boundaries to another, it is said to be:




A.

Refracting

C.

Smiling

B.

Reflecting

D.

Demonstrating Elastic Rebound

____ 10. As you move away from Earth’s core, density becomes:




A.

Higher

C.

Stays the Same

B.

Lower

D.

Mickey Mouse

____ 11. This scale measures the intensity of an earthquake:




A.

Richter

C.

Mercalli

B.

Weight

D.

Seismic

____ 12. What instrument is used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake?




A.

Seismograph

C.

Blender

B.

Richter Scale

D.

Thermograph

____ 13. In a tsunami, the water moves because:




A.

There is a wave of energy moving through the water.

C.

There are strong tides.

B.

The ground moves.

D.

The magnetic pull from the moon.

____ 14. What do we call the process in which the strength and stiffness of soil is reduced by earthquake shaking?




A.

Refraction

C.

Liquidation

B.

Liquefaction

D.

Elastic Rebound

____ 15. Water is stored in:




A.

Biosphere

D.

Lithosphere

B.

Hydrosphere

E.

All of the Above

C.

Atmosphere

____ 16. Over 99% of water is not available due to?




A.

Rivers

C.

Oceans

B.

Glaciers

D.

B & C

____ 17. What percent of surface water lies in the ocean?




A.

99%

C.

97%

B.

98%

D.

95%

____ 18. What is transpiration?




A.

Water that moves from one place to

another.



C.

When materials are transported through water.


B.

Plants give off water to atmosphere.


D.

How far water is transported.

____ 19. Where does a syncline fold take place at?




A.

Divergent Plates

C.

Transform Boundaries

B.

Convergent Plates

D.

Subsidents

____ 20. What is the depression in the bedrock beneath a stream that is caused by a swirling rock caught within them?




A.

Potholes

C.

Abrasion

B.

Gradient

D.

Laminar Flow

____ 21. A poorly drained area behind a levee is called a:




A.

Backswamp

C.

Delta

B.

Yazoo Tributary

D.

Alluvial Fan

____ 22. The flood plain rivers which drain the backswamp and are parallel to the main channel are:




A.

Meandering Stream

C.

Natural Levee

B.

Yazoo Tributaries

D.

Delta

____ 23. Stream transport that provides a mechanism by which solid particles of various sizes are separated is:




A.

Sorted by Transportation

C.

Alluvium by Transportation

B.

Sorted by Deposition

D.

Alluvium by Deposition

____ 24. Well sorted material deposited by a stream is called:




A.

Sorted by Transportation

C.

Alluvium by Transportation

B.

Sorted by Deposition

D.

Alluvium by Deposition


Completion

Complete each statement.

25. Seismic waves or when they encounter a boundary.

26. When a wave bounces back off the layers of the Earth it is called . . .

27. Pressure during confining pressure?

28. are areas where an earthquake can’t be recorded.

29. When a seismic wave it bends.

30. occurs when a rock’s shape and volume is changed by stress.

31. Meeting infiltration capacity results in

32. Settling velocity is:

33. When a stream enters an ocean or lake it can form a delta. The stream moves with a velocity into the ocean.



Matching

Match the following types of deformation with its description.




A.

Elastic

C.

Brittle

B.

Ductile

____ 34. Deformation is a permanent change when the material cracks.

____ 35. Folds are an example.

____ 36. Earthquakes an example.

____ 37. Deformation is not permanent and can return to its original shape.

____ 38. Deformation is a permanent change, material bends but does not break.

____ 39. Faults are an example.

Match the following factors of deformation with their description:



A.

Temperature

C.

Pressure

B.

Composition of material

D.

Rate of Deformation

____ 40. When this increases, deformation increases and rocks become more ductile.

____ 41. This increases from a result of overlying rock layers, deformation will also increase.

____ 42. As stress is applied rapidly rocks become more brittle.

____ 43. Varies, some rocks are more elastic, while others are more brittle.

Match the following types of folds with their descriptions.




A.

Anticline

D.

Structural Dome

B.

Syncline

E.

Structural Basin

C.

Monocline

____ 44. When rock beds dip toward the axis, rock layers at center are the youngest.

____ 45. When beds dip in one direction, as a result of basement block faulting.

____ 46. Oldest rock layers at center, rock layers point inward.

____ 47. When rock beds dip away from the axis, rock layers at the center are the oldest.

____ 48. Youngest rock layers at center, rock layers point outward.

Match the following types of stress with strain:


A.

Compressional

C.

Shearing

B.

Tensional

____ 49. Expansional

____ 50. Rotational

____ 51. Contraction

Match the following types of stress with plate boundaries:


A.

Compressional

C.

Shearing

B.

Tensional

____ 52. Divergent Boundaries

____ 53. Transform Boundaries

____ 54. Convergent Boundaries

Match the following types of stress with the type of fault.


A.

Compressional

C.

Shearing

B.

Tensional

____ 55. Reverse Fault

____ 56. Right and Left Lateral Slip

____ 57. Normal Fault

Match the following types of drainage patterns with their associated structures:


A.

Dendritic

C.

Rectangular

B.

Radial

____ 58. Horizontal rock layers

____ 59. Heavily fractured/jointed areas

____ 60. Area of high topography (mountains and volcanoes)

Match the following Stream Flow Controlling Factors with their descriptions:


A.

Gradient

C.

Discharge

B.

Base Level

____ 61. Downward limit of stream erosion


____ 62. Vertical drop of a stream over a fixed distance
____ 63. The amount (volume) of water passing a certain point in a given amount of time
Match the following fault types with the plate boundaries they are associated with:


A.

Normal Fault

C.

Lateral Fault

B.

Reverse Fault

____ 64. Transform Boundary

____ 65. Convergent Boundary

____ 66. Divergent Boundary

Match the following groundwater terms with their description:


A.

Zone of Aeration

F.

Unconfined Aquifer

B.

Cone of Depression

G.

Zone of Saturation

C.

Artesian well


H.

Aquifer

D.

Water Table

I.

Aquitard

E.

Confined Aquifer

J.

Aquiclude

____ 67. An underground boarder between the ground in which all spaces are filled with water and the ground above in which the spaces contain some air.

____ 68. A conical shaped depression surrounding a well, which is caused when the well pumps water and cannot move toward the well fast enough to maintain a flat water table

____ 69. A region in the subsurface which holds and transmits water in a quantity that has the quality to be useful.


____ 70. Layers of the subsurface that drastically slow down the transmission of water.
____ 71. The area above the water table where openings are in the material are filled with air.
____ 72. Occurs when the level of the water table does not vary with the changes of precipitation, and occurs between two layers which doesn’t allow water to pass through. This keeps the water table constant.

____ 73. An area of soil or rock below the level of the water table where all the voids are filled with water.


____ 74. An aquifer that has a water table which is not confined to a single level and can fluctuate with the climate, rising during rainy periods and falling during dry periods.
____ 75. Layers of the subsurface which prevent the transmission of water.
____ 76. A well that flows under pressure generated by a confined aquifer

Short Answer

77. Describe the Elastic Rebound Theory.

78. Define an Earthquake.

79. Which seismic waves are more destructive, p-waves or s-waves?

80. Which seismic waves are faster p-waves or s-waves?

81. What are the differences between P and S Waves?

82. What is in the correct order of Earth’s interior (moving from inside to outer)?

83. How do we locate the epicenter of an earthquake?

84. What is the difference between a fault and a fold?

85. Explain what chart relates the force that is applied on a rock with the stress and strain?

86. What is the difference between uniform stress and differential stress?

87. What are the four factors that affect deformation?

88. What is the difference between a syncline fold and an anticline?

89. Where is the hanging wall positioned in relation to the footwall in a normal fault?

90. Where is the hanging wall positioned in relation to the footwall in a reverse fault?

91. What is the difference between a structural dome and a structural basin?

92. How do rocks react to different types of stress in an earthquake, fault, and fold?

93. List all the possible causes of faults and folds:

94. What causes structural domes?

95. What type of fold is associated with anticlines and synclines?

96. What causes structural basins?

97. What are the three types of transported loads?

98. What’s the difference between transportation and deposition?

99. What is the difference between an alluvial fan and a delta?

100. What is infiltration, and how does it relate to stream formation?

101. What are the stages of stream development and how do they differ?

102. List places where water is stored.

103. List ways in which water can be transported.

104. What are the differences between a youthful stream, mature stream, and old stream?

105. What is the difference between a laminar flow and turbulent flow?

106. What is the difference between a braided and meandering stream?

107. Point bars are areas of what on a meandering stream?

108. Cut banks are areas of what on a meandering stream?

109. List reasons why the water cycle is important.

110. What is a stream?

111. What is saltation?

112. Where does water move the fastest and slowest on a meandering stream?

113. What develops when the area behind a levee is not drained?

114. What is the water table and what does it separate?

115. What is a karst and what are examples of a karst?

116. What is the difference between recharge and discharge?

117. What happens when contaminants flow in groundwater?

118. Define porosity and permeability:

119. What are the four ways Geologists know what is inside the Earth?

120. How do P and S waves travel throug the earth?

121. What are the three types of Earth’s Delivery Systems and what are their differences?

122. What causes fractures?

123. What are the three types of deformation?

124. How is a natural levee formed?

125. What is the smallest storage reservoir for water?

126. Name three ways that a stream can be eroded.

127. Where do distributaries occur?

128. List the controlling factors that affect the development of a stream.

129. What are the three types of sediment load?

130. What is the difference between an influent stream and effluent stream?

131. Name three types of karsts.



Essay

132. An earthquake has hit downtown Los Angeles in California, a heavily populated city. The Richter scale recorded the earthquake to be a 6.5 in magnitude. What scale would you use to measure the destruction and would the destruction be high or low?

133. Draw Seismic waves being recorded on a Seismograph during an earthquake. Label the type of waves and which one’s would be the fastest and most destructive.
Earth's Interior, Earthquakes, Faults & Folds, Surface Water, & Groundwater

Answer Section

TRUE/FALSE

1. ANS: F

The Richter Scale measures earthquake intensity

PTS: 1


2. ANS: T PTS: 1

3. ANS: F

False, materials become more ductile.

PTS: 1


4. ANS: F

Cut banks erode stream banks.

PTS: 1

5. ANS: T PTS: 1



6. ANS: F

False, Yazoo tributaries are parallel to the main channel.

PTS: 1

MULTIPLE CHOICE

7. ANS: C PTS: 1

8. ANS: D PTS: 1

9. ANS: A PTS: 1

10. ANS: B PTS: 1

11. ANS: A PTS: 1

12. ANS: A PTS: 1

13. ANS: A PTS: 1

14. ANS: B PTS: 1

15. ANS: E PTS: 1

16. ANS: D PTS: 1

17. ANS: C PTS: 1

18. ANS: B PTS: 1

19. ANS: A PTS: 1

20. ANS: A PTS: 1

21. ANS: A PTS: 1

22. ANS: B PTS: 1

23. ANS: A PTS: 1

24. ANS: D PTS: 1

COMPLETION

25. ANS: Reflect & Refract

PTS: 1

26. ANS: Reflection



PTS: 1

27. ANS: Increases

PTS: 1

28. ANS: Seismic Shadow Zones



PTS: 1

29. ANS: Refracts

PTS: 1

30. ANS: Deformation.



PTS: 1

31. ANS: Sheet Flow

PTS: 1

32. ANS: Speed at which particles fall through a still liquid.



PTS: 1

33. ANS: Decreasing

PTS: 1

MATCHING

34. ANS: C PTS: 1

35. ANS: B PTS: 1

36. ANS: A PTS: 1

37. ANS: A PTS: 1

38. ANS: B PTS: 1

39. ANS: C PTS: 1

40. ANS: A PTS: 1

41. ANS: C PTS: 1

42. ANS: D PTS: 1

43. ANS: B PTS: 1

44. ANS: B PTS: 1

45. ANS: C PTS: 1

46. ANS: D PTS: 1

47. ANS: A PTS: 1

48. ANS: E PTS: 1

49. ANS: B PTS: 1

50. ANS: C PTS: 1

51. ANS: A PTS: 1

52. ANS: B PTS: 1

53. ANS: C PTS: 1

54. ANS: A PTS: 1

55. ANS: B PTS: 1

56. ANS: C PTS: 1

57. ANS: A PTS: 1

58. ANS: A PTS: 1

59. ANS: C PTS: 1

60. ANS: B PTS: 1

61. ANS: B PTS: 1

62. ANS: A PTS: 1

63. ANS: C PTS: 1

64. ANS: C PTS: 1

65. ANS: B PTS: 1

66. ANS: A PTS: 1

67. ANS: D PTS: 1

68. ANS: B PTS: 1

69. ANS: H PTS: 1

70. ANS: I PTS: 1

71. ANS: A PTS: 1

72. ANS: E PTS: 1

73. ANS: G PTS: 1

74. ANS: F PTS: 1

75. ANS: J PTS: 1

76. ANS: C PTS: 1



SHORT ANSWER

77. ANS:

Describes the release of stored energy as two plate tectonics slip past each other, then the plates rebound back to their original shape (rubber band).

PTS: 1


78. ANS:

A release of stored energy as two tectonic plates move past each other.

PTS: 1

79. ANS:



S-waves

PTS: 1


80. ANS:

P-waves


PTS: 1

81. ANS:

P-waves: are faster (4 m/s), less destructive, can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, move with compressional (push) and tensional forces (pull).
S-waves: are slower (2 m/s), more destructive, can only travel through solids, move with shearing forces (side to side).

PTS: 1


82. ANS:

Inner Core, Outer Core, Mantle, & Crust

PTS: 1

83. ANS:



Three seismic recording stations must record the earthquake. The epicenter of the earthquake is located where all three circles or radius’ meet.

PTS: 1


84. ANS:

A fault is when rock layers fracture and movement is associated with it, and a fold is when rock layers fold or bend.

PTS: 1

85. ANS:



Rheology chart. As more stress, temperature, and pressure is applied to rock layers they move from elastic to ductile and finally to brittle zones of deformation.

PTS: 1


86. ANS:

Uniform stress: compressional forces are the same in all directions. Differential stress: compressional force is greater in one direction.

PTS: 1

87. ANS:



Confining pressure, time (rate of deformation), mineral composition, and temperature.

PTS: 1


88. ANS:

A syncline fold the youngest rock layers are at the axis and the bed dips toward the axis. An anticline fold the oldest rock layers are at the axis and the bed dips away from the axis.

PTS: 1

89. ANS:



Below the footwall.

PTS: 1


90. ANS:

Above the footwall.

PTS: 1

91. ANS:



In a structural dome the oldest rocks are in the center and the rock layers point inward. In a structural basin the youngest rocks are in the center and the rock layers point outward.

PTS: 1


92. ANS:

-Earthquakes rebound

-Folds bend

-Faults fracture or crack

PTS: 1

93. ANS:



Compressional stress, subsidence, intrusions, tensional stress, and shear stress.

PTS: 1


94. ANS:

Intrusions

PTS: 1

95. ANS:



Compression Folds.

PTS: 1


96. ANS:

Subsidence, the sinking of the ground due to crustal thinning

PTS: 1

97. ANS:



Bed load, suspended load, and dissolved load

PTS: 1


98. ANS:

Transportation: stream transport provides a mechanism by which solid particles of various sizes are separated (sorted). Deposition: well sorted material deposited by a stream is called an (Alluvium).

PTS: 1

99. ANS:



Alluvial fans: develop where high gradient streams leave a narrow mountain valley. Deltas: form when a stream enters an ocean or lake and velocity decreases.

PTS: 1


100. ANS:

Occurs when the ground absorbs water. When infiltration capacity is met a stream begins to form (Sheet flow stage).

PTS: 1

101. ANS:



1. Sheet flow: occurs when infiltration capacity is met.

2. Rills: threads of current and tiny channels.

3. Streams: channelized flow of any size.

PTS: 1


102. ANS:

Oceans, icecaps, glaciers, groundwater, fresh-water lakes, inland seas, soil moisture, atmosphere, and rivers.

PTS: 1

103. ANS:



Through dissolved, suspended, and bed loads

PTS: 1


104. ANS:

1. A youthful stream: characterized by downcutting and a v-shaped valley.

2. A mature stream: occurs once the stream has sufficiently lowered its gradient, it begins to erode laterally producing a wide valley.

3. An old age stream: occurs when a valley is cut several times wider than the depth of the meandering belt.

PTS: 1

105. ANS:



-Laminar flow is gentle and particles flow in a straight line path parallel to stream channel. -Turbulent flow is wild and water moves in an erratic fasion. Characterized by whirlpool like eddies.

PTS: 1


106. ANS:

-A braided stream is made up of several interwoven stream channels caused by an accumulation of sediment choking off the channel. This occurs when load capacity is exceeded.

-A meandering stream is a single stream channel that bends. Cut banks and point bars create the distinct bending in a meandering stream.

PTS: 1


107. ANS:

Areas of deposition (depositing of sediments)

PTS: 1

108. ANS:



Areas of erosion.

PTS: 1


109. ANS:

Essential for life, transportation, drinking water, irrigation, and industrial processing

PTS: 1

110. ANS:



Any channelized flow of water of any size

PTS: 1


111. ANS:

Particle transport by jumping or skipping along the bottom

PTS: 1

112. ANS:



Water moves the fastest at the cutbanks, and the slowest at the point bars.

PTS: 1


113. ANS:

Backswamp

PTS: 1

114. ANS:



The water table is an underground boarder between the ground in which all spaces are filled with water and the ground above in which the spaces contain some air. The level of the water table tends to follow the shape of the overlying ground surface.

PTS: 1


115. ANS:

A karst is a feature created when acid rain dissolves limestone in the subsurface. These features include: caves, caverns, sink hole, and disappearing streams.

PTS: 1

116. ANS:



Recharge is anywhere water can enter the groundwater system. Discharge is anywhere water leaves the groundwater system.

PTS: 1


117. ANS:

Either with regional groundwater flow direction (contaminants light weight) or against flow direction (contaminants are heavy).

PTS: 1

118. ANS:



Porosity is the void space in the subsurface where water can reside. Permeability is the interconnectedness of porosity, water can move between open spaces.

PTS: 1


119. ANS:

Astronomy (Earth’s layers, density, mass, and volume), Drilling into the crust, Earth’s Delivery Service (Kimberlites, Xenoliths, & Ophiolites), and Seismic Data (Earthquakes, Seismographs, and Elastic Reboud).

PTS: 1

120. ANS:



-P waves: travel through all materials (solids, liquids, and gases), move with compressional and tensional forces.
-S waves: travel through solids only, move with shearing forces.

PTS: 1


121. ANS:

Kimberlites: vertical rock pipe structures that erupt rocks and minerals (such as diamonds) from the mantle to Earth’s surface for geologists to study.


Xenoliths: exotic rocks, such as meteorites.
Ophiolites: Uplift in oceanic crust that reveals mantle rocks below the surface.

PTS: 1


122. ANS:

Folding, Faulting, and Cooling

PTS: 1

123. ANS:



Elastic, Ductile, and Brittle

PTS: 1


124. ANS:

Built by successive floods, piles of sand and gravel build up to confine a stream to its main channel.

PTS: 1

125. ANS:



Rivers

PTS: 1


126. ANS:

Abrasion, solution, and lifting poorly consolidated particles.

PTS: 1

127. ANS:



Where the main channel divides into several smaller channels

PTS: 1


128. ANS:

-Slope of the land

-Vegetation Cover

-Intensity and duration of rainfall

-Soil texture and prior wetting conditions

PTS: 1


129. ANS:

Dissolved load, saltation load, and bed load.

PTS: 1

130. ANS:



An influent stream occurs where water from the stream seeps into the ground. An effluent stream occurs where the stream gains water from the subsurface.

PTS: 1


131. ANS:

-Caves


-Sink holes

-Aquifers

PTS: 1

ESSAY

132. ANS:

Mercalli Scale, and it would mostly likely cause a high amount of destruction becasue the earthquake has hit a major city with many buildings.

PTS: 1


133. ANS:

P and S Waves



PTS: 1

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