1. INTRODUCTION This report gathers current practices and challenges that educational and research institutions face in relation to teaching and research activities at university level conducted online, with a special focus on “cross-border” elements (e.g. students and researchers located in different countries, materials obtained from/published in other countries, etc).
The report aims at presenting how the existing copyright legal framework operates in this field, either through Exceptions and Limitations (E&L) granted in national copyright laws and licensing schemes available, for specific copyrighted contents, in different markets.
Information has been gathered through questionnaires distributed to academics and educational institutions, as well as Collective Management Organizations (CMOs) and copyright owners from different countries or territories and legal traditions (common law/civil law). Debates and interviews with government officials and stakeholders at the three Regional Seminars organized by WIPO1 have also provided relevant information for this report.
Copyrighted contents used in teaching and research activities at universities may be diverse: different kinds of works (literary, music, audiovisual, art, etc) and recordings (phonograms, videos) as well as software, databases, etc. Teaching and research activities may take place in restricted environments (such as a virtual learning environment (VLE) only accessed by registered students) and is often directed at obtaining an official degree or a certificate, or on publicly accessible websites, such as Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and Open Educational Resources (OER).
In order to present the findings, several scenarios have been identified:
Teaching programs at different levels (degrees, postgraduate, life-long learning certificates) offered by universities and high-education institutions face-to-face and online,