4. Objects in the sky move in regular and predictable patterns. As a basis for under-standing this concept: e. Students know the position of the Sun in the sky changes during the course of the day and from season to season.
California Science Standards: Grade 6 anticipate
Heat (Thermal Energy) (Physical Science)
3. Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know energy can be carried from one place to another by heat flow or by waves, including water, light and sound waves, or by moving objects.
c. Students know heat flows in solids by conduction (which involves no flow of matter) and in fluids by conduction and by convection (which involves flow of matter).
d. Students know heat energy is also transferred between objects by radiation (radiation can travel through space).
Science Standards: Grade 6 (cont.)
Energy in the Earth System
4. Many phenomena on Earth’s surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the sun is the major source of energy for phenomena on Earth’s surface; it powers winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
b. Students know solar energy reaches Earth through radiation, mostly in the form of visible light.
Science Standards: Grade 6 (cont.)
6. Sources of energy and materials differ in amounts, distribution, usefulness, and the time required for their formation. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process.
b. Students know different natural energy and material resources, including air, soil, rocks, minerals, petroleum, fresh water, wildlife, and forests, and know how to classify them as renewable or nonrenewable.
Earth Science Standards: High School
Energy in the Earth System
4. Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and eventually escapes as heat. As a basis for understanding this concept:
a. Students know the relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s internal energy and the energy used by society.
b. Students know the fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection, absorption, and photosynthesis.
c. Students know the different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth’s thermal radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse effect.
d.* Students know the differing greenhouse conditions on Earth, Mars, and Venus; the origins of those conditions; and the climatic consequences of each.
Ascertain principles of solar home Design based on Underwear man story
Hold up a model home and demonstrate how it could or could not be a “solar home”
note: be clear what a solar home is
Demonstration #2: Angle and Energy
With volunteer, demonstrate the effect of angle with a focused beam flashlight or spotlight. Ideally focus it on a piece of graph paper.
Take it outside with a solar cell and a multimeter set on 10 amps. Experiment with Angle and amps produced. Record your findings.
Note: relationship between light intensity and amps produced. Recall experiment with light funnel.
The Demonstration of light beam dispersed and the exploration of the quantity of electricity produced affected by the angle of the solar cell provide the reason we need to record sun angles.
Reasons for the Seasons Why Cold in Winter; Hot in Summer
Step 1: Observations: Gathered Systematically: Same time of Day on Weekly or Daily Basis (Data tables in your packet)
Length of Day: September 22 December 22
Solar Angle: Sept. 22 Dec 22
Optional: Comparative Room Temperatures
Solar Shadow Instrument: Shadow at December 3, 12:25 pm
2.0 Students identify, describe, and classify the properties of, and the relationships between, plane and solid geometric figures:
Measure, identify, and draw angles, perpendicular and parallel lines, rectangles, and triangles by using appropriate tools (e.g., straightedge, ruler, compass, protractor, drawing software).
Step 2: Graph Observations
Length of Day
Optional: Room Temperatures
Content Standards: Math 4th Grade
2.0 Students use two-dimensional coordinate grids to represent points and graph lines and simple figures:
Solar Angle: Graphing From Fall to Winter
Date Measurement Taken
Graphing Length of Day
Hours and Minutes
Step 3: Interpret Observations
The Reason for the Seasons: the reason it gets colder as we move from fall to winter is that the sun is at a shallower angle so less energy hits a given area of Berkeley and the days are shorter, so the solar energy hits Berkeley for less time each day.
#3: Storage: Store Energy Gained Thermal Mass: (Conduction and Convection)
Earth Sciences 4th GRADE
4. The properties of rocks and minerals reflect the processes that formed them.
Direct Gain with Thermal Mass Aim for 3 times the south facing glass (or more)
Thermal Mass: Water Tubes
Trombe Wall: Blocks Glare, Thermal Storage, Heat Control
Trombe Wall with Windows
#4: Keep Sun’s Energy In: Weatherization:
Reduce Heat loss, Reduce Amount of solar gain and thermal mass required (source: sunlight homes)
Insulation: Straw Bale: waste material: R35 (More insulation less heating and cooling needed)
Earth Plaster over Straw Bale
Insulation: Straw Bale: Holds in heat in winter and keeps it out in Summer. (Combined with thermal mass and shading, can eliminate need for air conditioning)
Insulation: SIPs: Structural Insulated Panels
Content Standards: 4th Grade Math
Fourth Grade MathAlgegra: 1.0 Students use and interpret variables, mathematical symbols, and properties to write and simplify expressions and sentences: 1.1 Use letters, boxes, or other symbols to stand for any number in simple expressions or equations (e.g., demonstrate an understanding and the use of the concept of a variable).
Geometry: 1.0 Students understand perimeter and area: 1.1 Measure the area of rectangular shapes by using appropriate units, such as square centimeter (cm2), square meter (m 2), square kilometer (km 2), square inch (in 2), square yard (yd2), or square mile (mi 2). 1.2 Recognize that rectangles that have the same area can have different perimeters. 1.3 Understand that rectangles that have the same perimeter can have different areas. 1.4 Understand and use formulas to solve problems involving perimeters and areas of rectangles and squares. Use those formulas to find the areas of more complex figures by dividing the figures into basic shapes.
Project Pause: Evaluate the Classroom
Check Orientation of the Building
Measure floor space of building and calculate the amount of needed south facing glass.
Does the room measure up? How will it perform
Evaluate thermal mass. Does the room measure it up?
Review Solar Home Design Principles
Design/Build Solar Homes with GeoBlocks
Write up of form and function of your solar block house: fenestration, orientation, thermal mass, overhangs, landscaping, etc.
Content Standards 4th Grade
1.0 Writing Strategies Students write clear, coherent sentences and paragraphs that develop a central idea. Their writing shows they consider the audience and purpose.
Note: so description of home’s solar design, the various features and their functions….meet a language arts standard as well as being rich in science and technology
Content Standards: Writing 5th Grade
1.0 Writing Strategies Students write clear, coherent, and focused essays. The writing exhibits the students’ awareness of the audience and purpose. Essays contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed.
Content Standards 4th Grade
2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Students deliver brief recitations and oral presentations about familiar experiences or interests that are organized around a coherent thesis statement.
Note: so verbal description of home’s solar design, the various features and their functions….meet a language arts standard as well as being rich in science and technology
5.1 Students describe the major pre-Columbian settlements, including the cliff dwellers and pueblo people of the desert Southwest, the American Indians of the Pacific Northwest, the nomadic nations of the Great Plains, and the woodland peoples east of the Mississippi River.
1. Describe how geography and climate influenced the way various nations lived and adjusted to the natural environment, including locations of villages, the distinct structures that they built, and how they obtained food, clothing, tools, and utensils.
Content Standards: Indigenous Economy/Architecture: 4th G
4.2 Students describe the social, political, cultural, and economic life and interactions among people of California from the pre-Columbian societies to the Spanish mission and Mexican rancho periods.
1. Discuss the major nations of California Indians, including their geographic distribution, economic activities, legends, and religious beliefs; and describe how they depended on, adapted to, and modified the physical environment by cultivation of land and use of sea resources.
Indigenous “Solar” Architecture
Incorporates important green energy concepts including orientation, shading, thermal mass
Utilizes local, usually on site building opportunities and materials
Opportunity to show how other cultures solved their energy challenges using locally available materials and cultural developed technologies
Anasazi Pithouse 500 CE,
Green Energy and Materials: geothermal temperature control using constant temp of earth (dug in); insulation and thermal mass from the floor/wall/roof construction; good use of local materials with minimal consumption of wood.
Navaho: Hogan: Sacred Home
Spiritual"The circular hogan with its east-facing door and its earthen floor is constructed to encourage harmony, just as the spiritual beings first instructed," Cambridge explained.
[Note use of local materials, east-facing door brings in morning light/warmth, solar mass, ?insulation. Well sealed.
Navajo (Dine) Hogan
East Facing for morning solar gain
Thermal mass and possibly insulation from the combination of earth, mud, clay, wood grasses
Protection from infiltration of cold from North
Use of Local Materials
Taos Pueblo Copyright(C) 1999 David Slauson. This image is copyrighted. The copyright holder allows anyone to use it for any purpose, provided that the photographer is credited.
Taos Pueblo (continuously inhabited for over 1,000 years [ck]) Built between 1000 and 1450: Thick Adobe Wall Construction Puebloan (aka Anasazi) Photo taken by Bobak Ha'Eri. May 2005
Pueblos as Green Buildings
Adobe provides thermal mass as well as local green building product with healthy breathable walls
Built with materials on site
Orientation: South-facing for passive solar gain [ck] if this is always the practice
Many adjacent units increases the energy efficiency—all have access to the south but the other directions are protected and “insulated.” ck