Dr. Md. Yahya Saba



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My same interest has been shaped on the one hand by my own inclinations and on the other by needs of the Department since I joined the College. My basic training in Urdu literature began early during my graduation. As one of the papers of Urdu (Hons) course, History of Urdu language, required me to read some basic books of Urdu literature which ignited in me a quest to study Urdu Literature. I was thus fascinated by the ways in which languages share their lexicons crossing the geographical boundaries. The very fact that the different root-words travel all the way from Persian, Arabic, English, Hindi, Sanskrit, and finally through Beraj & other regional languages etc. route and then come to survive in Urdu encourages me to look beyond to pursue my career in Urdu Language. I got the proper environment and academic atmosphere to spur and nurture my intellectual appetite in University of Delhi where I did my MA, M.Phil, PhD and two post doctoral research. The courses and new ways of dealing with the course-content and evaluation system all thrilled me into becoming an academician. Various papers in MA, M.Phil, Ph. D, and post doctoral research in University of Delhi, shaped my interest in Urdu language. ‘I worked on several small projects and term-papers during my Masters and M.Phil in University of Delhi under the supervision of Prof. Irteza Karim. The main focus of my term-papers has always been to examine the complex relationships of words to other words and to sentences at large. The issue of relativity and its relationship with other grammatical alteration in the sentence, dative subject constructions and its effect on the role of verbal inflection were some of the issues which I tried to explore in Urdu. While a research scholar at University of Delhi, I was selected through an interview to teach history of Urdu to the under-graduates doing B. A. at the School of Open Learning, University of Delhi. Such an experience to put into practice what I had learned was very exciting. I thus taught origin of Urdu Language, cultural background of Urdu, charms of Urdu language, history of Urdu’, ‘Introduction to Urdu Literature’ in the said Institute for several years. I have had the opportunity to undertake several field-works during MA, M.Phil and PhD research work in Delhi University. I got ample opportunities to work on Urdu language from my M. A. onwards as University of Delhi, had offered various projects to Prof. Irteza Karim, my eventual supervisor of research. To cross-examine the findings of Prof. Irteza Karim who had claimed the existence of some kentum elements in an Indo-Aryan language called Bangani. After an orientation program, which was followed by an interview, I was selected to assist him in the abovementioned project. The language and its structural complexities inspired me to take another field-oriented paper in my M. Phil and I submitted a report on “Agha Shair as a Novelist” for the completion of my M. Phil Degree. My Ph. D work, as it turned out, needed several field-works in order to have varied and diverse collection of linguistic data. All these times I developed a passion to work with eminent scholars of different languages. Employing all necessary field-techniques, I have always been able to create a congenial environment for data collection. Later on, at the University of Delhi, where I continued to pursue my Ph. D, I had the privilege of doing some advanced courses such as cultural and historical background of Urdu, syntax, documentary/descriptive linguistics and psycholinguistics. My research was also largely related to the examination of the complex nature of words and their syntactic environments in which they are patterned to make up sentence and finally the discourse. I had the chance to learn the streaks of professionalism in academics. Teaching Urdu as a modern Indian language in the Department of Urdu, enabled me not only to use the techniques and tools of linguistics in my teaching (such as sound-system, structure of the syllable, words and sentences) but also helped me gain a first hand insight into the problems of syntactic constructions such as conjunct verb construction, infinitives and the small clause-construction in Urdu. I have seen Urdu as a modern Indian language from the perspective of a learner. I submitted my PhD in the Dept of Urdu University of Delhi and my Ph. D thesis & M. Phil dissertation and other collection of articles are under publication by a reputed publisher of New Delhi. I am very happy to report that Prof. Irteza Karim, Head, Department of Urdu has written the foreword for the book. He accepted my request to do this as he had read the draft of my manuscript. Before joining the Department of Urdu, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, I was selected in a reputed research institution abroad. However, I took up the job at the Department of Urdu, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, considering the fact that I would be able to finish my post doctoral work within the stipulated time-limit. It has provided me a very strong and healthy environment of growth and a good opportunity to further shape my research interest.  I have been teaching several papers of Urdu language & literature including ‘history of Urdu, Urdu culture, Urdu society Urdu prose & poetry, in the Department of Urdu and School of Open Learning, DU. I have also helped the Department to carry out intensive field-works on several assignments. In addition to my regular teaching assignments, I have also contributed to other regularly organized programs of the Department. I have thus taught History in such programs to Indian students. Teaching these classes always has helped me to practice the theories of most of the core areas of Urdu literature. The feed back from the programs have enriched my point of view of analyzing the literary corpus. It has also given me insights into the area of interference and the typological similarity of the target and source language, despite the fact that innovation in language teaching in addition to the direct method of teaching is mostly followed and used within teaching of Urdu through English medium. I am working on the role of Urdu language in promotion to nationalism which has been accepted for publication by a reputed publisher. The book contains a precise and in-depth account of historical study of the Urdu language. I also have a plan to work on a text-book–“Introduction to Urdu Language for Foreign language learners” which will help the learners to accelerate their process of learning the foreign language. The work has also been already accepted for publication by a reputed publisher. The publisher has also promised to bring out a foreign print.

You will be happy to read the opinion of my Guide Prof. Irteza Karim who is like my elder brother that “As Researcher Dr.Yahya Saba is well known not only in Urdu but also in other subjects. He is deeply committed to the aim of setting highest literary standards by recognizing good literature and also establishing a deep cultural bond among various languages and communities of India through his work and contribution. His published works of high quality in different Urdu newspapers and journals are significant contribution to knowledge. He is actively engaged in research and teaching at University level since ten years. He wants to introduce innovative concepts to provide a multi-disciplinary profile and to allow a cafeteria like approach including initiating new research to cater to frontier development in the concerned subject to combine the practical requirements of research in the Indian academic context with the need to observe high standards. it has also been aimed to combine the goals and parameters of global knowledge with pride in the Indian heritage and India’s contribution in this context…" The purpose of my research has been to provide a broad common framework for exchange mobility and free dialogue across the entire Indian research community. This research will provide a spirit of openness and continuous improvements in creative thoughts and actions in the mind of the people of nation so that they live united and guide people on a path of life with righteousness as righteousness gives the strength of character. Help all religious leaders, philosophers, politicians, historians, academicians and researchers of India to give strength to the people to combat the divisive forces. Guide Indians to develop an attitude to appreciate different ideologies and transform enmity among individuals, organizations and nations into friendliness and harmony and embed the thought that nation is bigger than the individual in the minds of the leaders and people. Help people to work with perseverance to transform the country into a peaceful and prosperous nation, a large scale effort on our part to contribute to harmony in society will help us always to maintain harmony in world. My research will convert our beloved country into a love garden from which whole world will take a holy lesson of love and peace which is the main source of national integration and reconstruction.  Moreover, examine closely my research, work and contribution in Urdu literature, through my bio-data and autobiographical account which are attached with this application. I hope that you and all the Urdu loving people will appreciate the work done continuously during my academic years in preparatory and regular days. Keeping myself updated I am all the time making every possible effort to promote Urdu language and Urdu literature all over the World. My sincere efforts are also to make Urdu very much popular among the young people as well as among the people of all the age groups and, the people belonging to different nationalities and countries. If possible, please e-mail this message to your friends, Urdu poets, writers, journalists, editors, media, educationists, computer experts, senior teachers, students, all the professionals and to all the lovers of Urdu language and literature. You may become the member of my Co-operative Circle which actively participates in literary discussions. I have requested all the poets, writers, educationists, media experts, all the professionals, Urdu loving people, friends, well wishers etc. to keep regular contact with each other so that all of us may work united in every corner of the World to promote Urdu and , to make it more popular everywhere.

A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF TEACHING AND RESEARCH INTEREST

 

My teaching and research interest has been shaped on the one hand by my own inclinations and on the other by needs of the Department since I have joined the College. My basic training in Urdu literature began early during my graduation. As one of the papers of Urdu (Hons) course, History of Urdu language, required me to read some basic book of Urdu literature and thus motivated an urge to study Urdu Literature. I was thus fascinated by the ways in which languages share their lexicons across the geographical boundaries. The very fact that the different root-words travel all the way from Persian, Arabic, English, Hindi, Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Baltic, Slavic and finally through Germanic route and come to survive in Urdu encourages me to look beyond and pursue my career in Urdu Language. I got the proper environment and academic atmosphere to spur and nurture my intellectual appetite in University of Delhi where I did my MA, M.Phil, PhD and two post doctoral researches. The courses and new ways of dealing with the course-content and evaluation system all thrilled me into becoming an academician. Various papers in MA, M. Phil, Ph. D, and post doctoral research in University of Delhi, that shaped my interest in Urdu language were ‘Research and Critical Study’, ‘North India as a linguistic Area’, Field-Methods and ‘Grammatical theories and models’. I have been interested in the structure of words and sentences from the early days of my training in Urdu. I worked on several small projects and term-papers during my Masters and M.Phil in University of Delhi. The main focus of my term-papers has always been to examine the complex relationships of words to other words and to sentences at large. The issue of relativity and its relationship with the other grammatical alteration in the sentence, dative subject constructions and its effect on the role of verbal inflection were some of the issues which I tried to solve in Urdu (my mother tongue). While research scholar at University of Delhi, I was selected through an interview to teach history of Urdu to the under graduates doing B. A. at the school of open learning University of Delhi. Such an experience to put into practice what I had learned was very exciting. I thus taught ‘history of Urdu’, ‘Introduction to Urdu Literature’ there for several years. I have had the opportunity to undertake several field-works during MA, M.Phil and PhD research work in the University. I worked on Urdu language during my M. A. in University of Delhi. I was closely associated many projects of Prof. Irteza Karim of University of Delhi, to cross-examine the findings of Prof. Irteza Karim who had claimed the existence of some kentum elements in an Indo-Aryan language called Bangani. After an orientation program, which was followed by an interview, I was selected to assist him in the field for the abovementioned project. The language and its structural complexities inspired me to take another field-oriented paper in my M. Phil and do extensive field-work for few days on Bangani. I submitted a report on ‘The structure of NP in Bangani’ for the course. My PhD work, as it turned out, needed several field-works in order to have varied and intense linguistic data. All these years I have developed a passion to work with the native speakers of different languages and with all necessary field techniques, I have always been able to create a congenial environment for data collection. Later on, at the University of Delhi, where I continued to pursue my PhD, I had the privilege of doing some advanced courses such as political and historical back ground of Urdu, syntax, documentary/descriptive linguistics and psycholinguistics. My research was also largely related to the examination of the complex nature of words and their syntactic environments in which they are patterned to make up sentence and finally the discourse. Though, I had to quit the program as my Research Associate-ship got over after one year, I had the chance to learn the streaks of professionalism in academics. Teaching Urdu as a modern Indian language in the Department of Urdu, enabled me not only to use the techniques and tools of linguistics in my teaching (such as sound-system, structure of the syllable, words and sentences) but also helped me gain a first hand insight into the problems of syntactic constructions such as conjunct verb construction, infinitives and the small clause-construction in Urdu, seen as a modern Indian language from the perspective of the learner. I submitted my PhD in the Dept of Urdu, University of Delhi, and the thesis of Ph. D &M. Phil Dissertation and other collection of Articles are under publication by reputed publishers of New Delhi. I am very happy to report that Prof. Irteza Karim, Head, Department of Urdu has written the foreword for the book. He accepted my request to do this as he had read the manuscript of my book.

I have examined eight different varieties of Urdu-Persian, besides providing an account of nine major languages of India to show how the phenomenon of ‘Grammatical Agreement’ works in these languages. My training as a field-researcher in Urdu helped me to collect and collate the data of eight varieties of Urdu-Persian. The incessant drive to try to find a unified theory for the Urdu language phenomenon by comparing and cross examining the structure of different languages that I learned at various stages of either teaching or learning. The study of language typology helped me to provide a better analysis and examination of the function of agreement phenomenon in typologically similar and genetically related varieties of Urdu-Hindi. I have shown that the varieties of Urdu-Hindi can be classified in three different types on the basis of the agreement system that they display;

A. Languages that have only Subject-Verb agreement.

B. Languages that have both Subject-Verb & Object-Verb agreement on an alternative basis (i.e. the verb agrees with either the subject or the object in different syntactic environment).

C. Languages that have primarily Subject-Verb agreement, however, other actants (NPs) also find their marking on the verb due to certain pragmatic value or requirements of the language e.g. specificity marking, animacy factor, scale of honorificity and some pattern gap in the system of pronouns etc. I have tried to unify the agreement types (a) & (c) into one system and have termed it as a single system of agreement and have labelled  the agreement type (b) as a dual system of agreement. The motivation for the combining (a) & (c) into one comes from two main factors; (i) there is no change of the syntactic environment of marking the inflection of other actants (NPs) on the verb besides the subject (ii) the languages do not show overt object agreement. With the help of such micro level study of the phenomenon in the varieties of Urdu-Hindi, I have tried to provide a solution to the problem of ‘agreement facts’ in complex predicates of Urdu-Hindi at a macro level which otherwise remains unexplained.

Before joining the Department of Urdu, Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, I was selected in a reputed research institution .However, I took up the job at University of Delhi, considering the fact that I would be able to finish my post doctoral work within the stipulated time-limit if I work in University of Delhi in general and the Department of Urdu Kirori Mal College in particular. It has provided me a very strong and healthy environment of growth and a good opportunity to further shape my research interest.  I have been teaching several papers of Urdu language & literature since 2000. They include ‘history of Urdu, Urdu culture, Urdu society Urdu prose & poetry. I have also helped the Department to carry out intensive field-works on several assignments. In addition to my regular teaching assignments, I have also contributed to other regularly organized programs of the Department. I have thus taught history in such programs to Indian students. Teaching these classes always has helped me to practice the theories of most of the core areas of Urdu literature. The feed back (the assignments) from the programs have enriched my point of view of analyzing the corpus. It has also given me insights into the area of interference and the typological similarity of the target and source language, despite the fact that innovation in language teaching in addition to the direct method of teaching is mostly followed and used within teaching of Urdu and English. I am working on the role of Urdu language in promotion of nationalism which has been accepted for publication by a reputed publisher. The book contains a precise and in-depth account of historical study of the Urdu language. I am also planning to work on a text-book–“Introduction to Urdu Language for Foreign language learners” which will help the learners to accelerate their process of learning the foreign language. The work has also been already accepted for publication by a reputed publisher. The publisher has also promised to bring out a foreign print.

I have professional interest in various schools of thought in Urdu literature. My area of interest started emerging while doing post graduation in Urdu from University of Delhi. I started reading more about poetry & novel. Most of my study period was devoted towards this direction. This area of interest continued in my M. Phil course with new direction. I did a lot of work in the same field with progressive approach. Ph. D work slightly deviated from this direction and adopted a new specialization area in Romantic long verse (Mathnavi). Attending seminars /workshop in this field is the documentary and literary proof of my interest in this field. I also touched the cultural field in Urdu literature. Ministry of Tourism & culture had awarded me the junior fellowship to carry out research on “Urdu -Hindi Folk Literature". My work on the same was well appreciated by learned officials of the Ministry. On basis of that Indian Council of Historical Research has awarded me Post Doctoral Fellowship for doing Research on "A Study of Hindu-Muslim Relations around Partition as reflected in Saadat Hasan Mantos Stories". In the same spirit, I would like to accept the challenging work of promoting Urdu language from different perspectives of Teaching & Research, which have become extra forte of my life style. You will be happy to read the opinion of my Guide Prof. Irteza Karim who is my elder brother that You will be happy to read the opinion of my Guide Prof. Irteza Karim who is like my elder brother that “As Researcher Dr.Yahya Saba is well known not only in Urdu but also in other subjects. He is deeply committed to the aim of setting highest literary standards by recognizing good literature and also establishing a deep cultural bond among various languages and communities of India through his work and contribution. His published works of high quality in different Urdu newspapers and journals are significant contribution to knowledge. He is actively engaged in research and teaching at University level since ten years. He wants to introduce innovative concepts to provide a multi-disciplinary profile and to allow a cafeteria like approach including initiating new research to cater to frontier development in the concerned subject to combine the practical requirements of research in the Indian academic context with the need to observe high standards. it has also been aimed to combine the goals and parameters of global knowledge with pride in the Indian heritage and India’s contribution in this context…" The purpose of my research has been to provide a broad common framework for exchange mobility and free dialogue across the entire Indian research community. This research will provide a spirit of openness and continuous improvements in creative thoughts and actions in the mind of the people of nation so that they live united and guide people on a path of life with righteousness as righteousness gives the strength of character. Help all religious leaders, philosophers, politicians, historians, academicians and researchers of India to give strength to the people to combat the divisive forces. Guide Indians to develop an attitude to appreciate different ideologies and transform enmity among individuals, organizations and nations into friendliness and harmony and embed the thought that nation is bigger than the individual in the minds of the leaders and people. Help people to work with perseverance to transform the country into a peaceful and prosperous nation, a large scale effort on our part to contribute to harmony in society will help us always to maintain harmony in world. My research will convert our beloved country into a love garden from which whole world will take a holy lesson of love and peace which is the main source of national integration and reconstruction.  Moreover, examine closely my research, work and contribution in Urdu literature, through my bio-data and autobiographical account which are attached with this application.

A short Description Regarding the Research Related to Doctor and Master of Philosophy

DOTOR OF PHILOSPHY I have done Ph.D. in the History of Urdu classic literature entitled “A critical study of romantic long verse” which is a reliable source of Modern History. Long verse is most popular form of Urdu poetry because of its approach to Modern History. Long poems with social and Philosophical content had also been written during classic period. It was under the Influence of western poetry that poets of renaissance, some writers wrote long poem with content of modern historicity in Urdu in the 2nd half of 19th century. In 20th century the Philosopher poet IQBAL further developed and popularized long poem in Urdu introducing variety of themes in it. Presently the long poem in one of the most representative accounts of Modern History. Most Of the socio-political, Historical, Geographical and Culture problems of this period had been dealt with in long poems. Various new experiments of technique and expression had also been attempted by the writers in this form. Thus the long poem in Urdu has been greatly enriched in contents and artist expression. Classicism and Romanticism are among the most often used yet extremely perplexing terms of literary jargons. The terms denote two tendencies not only different but directly opposed to each other and conspicuously dissembled in work spread over different periods of history of a literature. For example in English literature, the age of Dryden and his poems i.e. from 1660 up to the French revolution (1787) is called the age of classicism and the period from French revolution up to the middle of the 19th century is known as the age of Romanticism. The terms, are, therefore, best understood when discussed and analyzed in contrast with each other. It is interesting to have a look into the etymology of Classicism and Romanticism. The usage of classical word in literary field was first of all quoted by Aulis Gillis, a Roman grammarian of 2nd century A.D. Its Latin equivalent classiest pointed to a person’s belonging to highest income group, membership of which was obviously bound to be quite limited. Therefore, classical writer was the one who, by dint of excellence of literary style, wrote for the selected few. Towards 6th century classis’ was also used for the student attending a class in school and in effect, for his text books ‘which were essentially to be of very high merit. Thus in both of these situation classis’ acquired identical import referring to a literary work deemed generally excellent, of sup rime and recognized merit and of value as a model , the term was applied, at the same time to collection of high quality work though divergent in form and content. However, emphasis on the standard and greatness brought in high estimation the ancient Greek and Roman literary works which were considered worthy of imitation –both in form and subjects and therefore considered classics.’ But such work belonged to an era bygone and the term eventually came to be used for an age of highest poetic achievement. It is in this sense that age of Dante in Italian literature or age of John Dryden and Alexander Pole in English literature is known as age of classics. But the ‘excellence’ of the age of Pole and Dryden rest mainly on conscious, even slavish, imitation both of ancient Greek and Roman writers such as Homer and Virgil and of formulations laid down by ancient critics like Aristotle and Horace. This age has, thereby, earned the epithets of ‘neo-classical’ or ‘pseudo-classical.’ English classical writers had actually revolted against the enthusistatic and fantastic tendencies of the writer of their preceding age. But these tendencies surfaced and struck more forcefully towards the end of 18th century. The reaction was given the name of Romanticism. The term was introduced by German scholar Frederick Senegal to denote the tendency opposed to classicism. ‘Romantic’ here does not carry the usual meaning of something relating to love. Romantic is derived from ‘Latin Romance of French’ ‘describing something written in vernacular known as romance language and not in Latin, a language of learning. The most popular literary form of the romance language of medieval age was the folk tale of chivalry, composed in prose and war. Famous Robin Hood episodes or ‘the Arabian Nights serial fall in this tradition. These romantic writings were characterized by high flow sentiments, improbability, exaggeration and unreality. So any work displaying such traits and there by appealing to imagination and feeling was, therefore, called ‘Romantic’. Romanticism too, appeared as a revolution, a movement in style and thought with characteristic standing in direct contrast with those of classics. Classicism prefers power of reason to power of emotion as the guiding force for literary creation. Pope said in an essay on Man ‘Reason alone countervails all the other faculties’. This stresses on reason and rationalism was born out of the new concept of the universe working in definite orders. This order under lying the universe and the scientific discoveries could be known and analyzed by calculation, judgment and reason. The classical writers who disliked disorders, eccentricity and extra advantages of their preceding literature wanted to foster the same order in literature by means of the faculty of reason. Romanticism, on the other hand, is a grand leap from reason to emotion. William Wordsworth defined poetry as the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings’. Romanticism is actually, the sincere expression of all the passion and desires, emotions, and aspiration, joys and grief genuinely and strongly felt. As described by George Romanticisms is ‘emotion rather than reason, the heart opposed to head’. The classical mind realized that order in the universe was being generated and governed by definite cosmic principles. It was, therefore, at pains to lay out some enduring and standard law or rules of literature which when properly observed would produce correct and therefore a nice composition. But instead of formulating rules of their own these writers turned to the ancient writers and critics. Alexander pope, the champion of English classicisms advised in ‘Essay on Criticism’: “Learn hence for ancient rules a just Esteem; to copy Nature is to copy them”.


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