Differentiating Instruction



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Differentiating Instruction

  • "In the end, all learners need your energy, your heart and your mind. They have that in common because they are young humans. How they need you however, differs. Unless we understand and respond to those differences, we fail many learners." *
  • *Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd Ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  • Pamela Cain/Area Lead Teacher
  • Cobb County School System
  • The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way.
  • Howard Gardner
  • Dear Miss Brin,
  • Yesterday you got really really mad at me in class. I didn’t argue with you, because that just makes you madder and being yelled at makes my stomach feel funny and I can’t think. But I want to say what happened. Maybe you will understand why it looks like I don’t pay attention in class.
  • You told us to open our books to chapter 4 and read silently. Then you asked everyone to put your hand up if we had finished the third page and Sean didn’t. You waited for him to finish the page. Then you told us to take turns reading out loud. When you got to me, I asked you what paragraph to start on, and you started yelling at me. You asked me a lot of questions but you didn’t let me answer any of them. You answered them yourself but the things you said weren’t true answers!
  • This is what happened. I started reading when you said. I finished the chapter and stopped because you get mad if I read any more. I didn’t get out another book because that makes you mad too. I didn’t doodle or do math or talk to Sarah or get up or walk around because those things make you mad. So I worked on my greek in my head until you called on me.

I tried to keep track of where the other kids were when they were reading. And I had the right page. I just didn’t hear where Kim stopped. Her voice is sooo quiet and the verb I was saying was too loud in my head! So it’s not true that I was day dreaming! And I’m not stuck up or arrogant or insolent or any of the things you said I was! I TRY to follow along but I CAN’T read that slow!!

  • I tried to keep track of where the other kids were when they were reading. And I had the right page. I just didn’t hear where Kim stopped. Her voice is sooo quiet and the verb I was saying was too loud in my head! So it’s not true that I was day dreaming! And I’m not stuck up or arrogant or insolent or any of the things you said I was! I TRY to follow along but I CAN’T read that slow!!
  • You said you got mad because I was wasting everybodies time. But I just asked “which paragraph Miss Brin?” Look at your watch and say it too. It takes 2 seconds. You could have said “the third paragraph.” That takes 21 seconds. I timed it too. Then Sarah and Amy R and Amy B would have 6 minutes to read aloud. Instead you yelled at ME for 6 minutes and they did not get to read any thing!
  • Peter takes almost a whole minute to read “Ben heard the bear cough behind him.” I timed him. It’s a game I made up to pay attention instead of doing Greek or making up poems in my head. If I ask you what paragraph and you tell me it still takes me less than half a minute for me to read a whole paragraph. So I guess I don’t understand why you are mad or why you used 6 minutes to tell the class what a bad stupid mean person i am because I wasted their time for 4 seconds. I think YOU wasted their time!!! And I think YOU were mean to call me those names in front of everybody!!!!
  • Miss Brinn I want to do what you tell me! I don’t understand why I can’t keep reading at the end of a chapter. Or get out my other books. or study my greek. Or draw or doodle or write in my journal. But you don’t want me to do that so I don’t. But I can’t sit and stare at the wall. If i try to do that I just start thinking about something else! I don’t know HOW to not think! I don’t know HOW to read slow! Please tell me what to do so it won’t make you mad at me all the time. And PLEASE don’t yell at me in class.
  • love,
  • your sad student,
  • Anne
  • I know it’s been a long time since you heard from me. I wanted to let you know what I am doing now and that I think of you often, even though I have not been a particularly faithful correspondent.
  • When you last saw me, you must have had some doubt about what I might do with my life. The interesting thing, though, is that if you did have doubts, you never let me know about them. You treated me as though I had all the possibilities in the world in my hands. The fact that I could not pass a vocabulary test seemed incidental to you. What mattered was what I could do.
  • I didn’t get that at the time. I was too exhausted from years of lugging around my disabilities.
  • You need to know that I will be receiving a Masters Degree in just a few days. My mom asked who I wanted to know about that from back home. You need to know. Your belief in me when I had no belief in myself opened the door that led here. . .
  • R.G. .
    • Elizabeth Ann fell back on the bench with her mouth open. She felt really dizzy. What crazy things the teacher said! She felt as though she was being pulled limb from limb.
      • “What’s the matter?” asked the teacher, seeing her bewildered face.
      • “Why – why,” said Elizabeth Ann, “I don’t know what I am at all. If I’m second grade arithmetic and seventh grade reading and third grade spelling, what grade am I?”
      • The teacher laughed. “You aren’t any grade at all, no matter where you are in school. You’re just yourself, aren’t you? What difference does it make what grade you’re in? And what’s the use of your reading little baby things too easy for you just because you don’t know your multiplication table?”
  • Understood Betsy

Differentiated Instruction Defined

  • “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.”
  • Carol Ann Tomlinson
  • Differentiation
  • Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs
  • Guided by general principles of differentiation
  • Meaningful Tasks on Key Concepts
  • Flexible grouping
  • Ongoing Assessments & Adjustments
  • Teachers Can Differentiate Through:
  • Content
  • (scaffolding)
  • Process
  • Product
  • Environment
  • According to Students’
  • Readiness
  • Interest
  • Learning Style
  • Through a range of strategies such as:
  • Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…Graphic Organizers…RAFTS
  • Compacting…Tiered assignments…Leveled texts…Complex Instruction… Learning Centers
  • Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies. If you have high quality curriculum and materials, then it isn’t so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness, interests and learning profiles of your students.

Differentiated Instruction…

  • IS
  • Using many instructional groupings.
  • Multi-option assignments are frequently used.
  • A BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction
  • Assessment is on-going & diagnostic with multiple uses.
  • Provides MULTIPLE approaches to content, process, and product.
  • STUDENT CENTERED: levels, readiness, and interests drive instruction.
  • Engaging and authentic
  • More QUALITATIVE than quantitative
  • Is Not
  • Individual instruction
  • Single option assignments
  • Dominated by whole class instruction.
  • Assessment is most common at end of learning to see “who got it”.
  • Just another way to provide homogenous instruction. (You DO use flexible grouping instead.)
  • Modifications-any changes that dilute the GPS.
  • More work for the "good" students and less and different for the "poor" students.
  • Affirmation
  • Contribution
  • Power
  • Purpose
  • Challenge
  • Invitation
  • Opportunity
  • Investment
  • Persistence
  • Reflection
  • Important
  • Focused
  • Engaging
  • Demanding
  • Scaffolded
  • Unlocking the Meaning of Differentiation
  • The Student Seeks
  • The Teacher Responds
  • Curriculum and
  • Instruction are
  • the Vehicle
  • Carol Tomlinson, 2002

MEANINGFUL, RESPECTFUL TASKS

  • Respectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both the commonalities and differences of students, but not by treating them all alike.
  • A respectful task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of difficulty that escalate consistently as they develop their understanding and skill.

Looking Inside the Classroom activity…

  • Successful teaching requires two elements:
  • Student Understanding
  • Student Engagement
  • ~Discuss these two classrooms with regard to both of these elements.~
  • KNOW (facts, vocabulary, dates, rules, people, etc.)
  • ecosystem
  • elements of culture (housing/shelter, customs, values, geography)
  • UNDERSTAND (complete sentence, statement of truth or insight – want students to understand that . . . )
  • All parts of an ecosystem affect all others parts. Culture shapes people and people shape culture.
  • DO (Basic skills, thinking skills, social skills, skills of the discipline, planning skills --- verbs)
  • Write a unified paragraph
  • Compare and contrast
  • Draw conclusions
  • Examine varied perspectives
  • Work collaboratively
  • Develop a timeline
  • Use maps as data
  • Tomlinson * 02

How do we structure differentiated learning tasks so that it is easy for teachers to use, and the tasks are linked to a valued outcome for the students and the students find the tasks interesting?

  • By developing menus of tiered learning tasks using the differentiating categories continuum, and
  • By developing strategy models that can be adapted and used more than once and offer student choice. Typical strategy models include:
          • Learning Theory
          • Stations
          • Agendas
          • Complex Theories
          • Entry Points
          • Problem-Based Learning
          • Choice Boards

Menu Strategy for Differentiating Assignments

  • Mastery Tasks:
  • Direct Experience, Immediate
  • Use, Step-by-Step practice
  • Questions that have correct answers, Knowing what is expected, Results
  • Focuses on repetitive exercises, practice in skills & information.
  • Answers judged=correctness.
  • Describe, Sequence, Follow the Procedure, Recall & Restate
  • Interpersonal Tasks:
  • Sharing Ideas, Working with Others, Conversation, Personal Attention, Helping Others, Relating Personally to the Content.
  • Focuses on Identifying & using personal characteristics.
  • Answers judged=expressiveness
  • State a preference, examine beliefs, evaluate
  • Understanding Tasks:
  • Planning & Thinking, Studying, Reading, Arguing, Logical Analysis, Challenging Questions, Organizing and Explaining. Focuses on explanations, explaining concepts/theories.
  • Answers judged=reasoning
  • Compare/Contrast, Summarize, Cause/Effect, Prove It (Cite Evidence)
  • Self-Expressive Tasks:
  • Creating & Using Imagination, Making Connections, Pursuing Own Interests, Visualizing, Seeking Alternatives, Expressing Ideas Artistically.
  • Focuses on creation of unique, original products & solution to non-routine problems.
  • Answers judged=originality
  • Explain, What If, Design, Idea Representation (art, song, etc.)

Menu Strategy Example (taken from LFS) Directions: Complete the assignment in one box.

  • MASTERY
  • Nouns are words that name a PERSON, PLACE, or THING. On the attached page, find the nouns and write each noun on the correct column on this chart.
  • PERSON PLACE THING
  • INTERPERSONAL
  • Ask your mother or father to help you make a list of the first words you ever spoke when you were a baby. Write the words below. Look over your list. What do you notice about your first words?
  • UNDERSTANDING
  • Before you can use better nouns, you must be able to find the nouns. See if you are a good noun detective. Try to find the nouns hidden in these three sentences. Tell how you discovered them.
  • Lethargy is difficult to combat.
  • Those fallacies are often believed.
  • Did you write those six sentences?
  • SELF EXPRESSIVE
  • Write a sentence that is full of nonsense words like, “My beautiful snagrid won the porfgret.” Write your sentence so that a friend can easily spot the nouns no matter how many nonsense words are in the sentence.
  • NOUNS
  • Learning Profile Factors
  • Group Orientation
  • independent/self orientation
  • group/peer orientation
  • adult orientation
  • combination
  • Learning Environment
  • quiet/noise
  • warm/cool
  • still/mobile
  • flexible/fixed
  • “busy”/”spare”
  • Cognitive Style
  • Creative/conforming
  • Essence/facts
  • Expressive/controlled
  • Nonlinear/linear
  • Inductive/deductive
  • People-oriented/task or Object oriented
  • Concrete/abstract
  • Collaboration/competition
  • Interpersonal/introspective
  • Easily distracted/long Attention span
  • Group achievement/personal achievement
  • Oral/visual/kinesthetic
  • Reflective/action-oriented
  • Intelligence Preference
  • analytic
  • practical
  • creative
  • verbal/linguistic
  • logical/mathematical
  • spatial/visual
  • bodily/kinesthetic
  • musical/rhythmic
  • interpersonal
  • intrapersonal
  • naturalist
  • existential
  • Gender
  • Female/male
  • Culture
  • Processing
  • Systems
  • Attention
  • Memory
  • Visual Spatial
  • Sequential
  • Language
  • Auditory
  • Motor Function
  • Higher-Order
  • thinking

Processing System …options for differentiating Tests and Assessments…

  • Attention: small group, another environment, folder cubicles, highlight instructions
  • Memory: word bank, extended time, open book/note tests
  • Visual Spatial: following universal design for tests, color coding portions of the tests, cutting tests into pieces or fewer problems per page, finishing and turning in one page
  • Sequential: providing formulas, using calculator, using graphic organizer as test

Language: reading test to student, using software to read to student, allowing more time, simplifying wording on test, allowing oral answers to written essay questions

  • Language: reading test to student, using software to read to student, allowing more time, simplifying wording on test, allowing oral answers to written essay questions
  • Motor Function: allowing use of word processor, allowing script writer, oral test taking
  • Higher-Order Thinking: using graphic organizers for testing, using pictures as prompts, highlighting type of question
  • ***REMEMBER to ask yourself: “Are we assessing content or skill?***

Multiple Intelligences -Gardner’s Theory (1992)

  • Visual/Spatial
  • Logical/Mathematical
  • Verbal/Linguistic
  • Musical/Rhythmic
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic
  • Interpersonal/Social
  • Intrapersonal/Introspective
  • Naturalist

-CHOICE- The Great Motivator!

  • Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and learning styles.
  • Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos – NO taking the easy way out!)
  • Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems, spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group arrangement, ETC . . .
  • GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!

Differentiation According to Sternberg’s Intelligences

  • Know: What makes a Tall Tale
  • Definition of fact and exaggeration
  • Understand: An exaggeration starts with a fact and stretches it.
  • People sometimes exaggerate to make their stories or deeds seem more wonderful or scarier.
  • Do: Distinguish fact and exaggeration
  • Analytical Task
  • Listen to or read Johnny Appleseed and complete
  • the organizer as you do.
  • Practical Task
  • Think of a time when you or someone you know was sort of like the Johnny Appleseed story and told a tall tale about something that happened. Write or draw both the factual or true version of the story and the tall tale version.
  • Creative Task --- RAFT Assignment
  • Role Audience Format Topic
  • Someone Our Diary entry Let me tell you
  • in our class class what happened while Johnny A. and I were on the way to school today….
  • Tall Tales
  • Grade 3
  • Johnny Appleseed’s
  • Facts Exaggerations

Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom

  • Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.)
  • Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.)
  • Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile.
  • Assessments are part of “teaching for success”.
  • Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.
  • Assessment MAY be differentiated.
  • Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.
  • Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.

A Few Routes to READINESS DIFFERENTIATION

  • Varied texts by reading level
  • Varied supplementary materials
  • Varied scaffolding
      • Tiered tasks and procedures
      • Flexible time use
      • Small group instruction
      • Homework options
      • Tiered or scaffolded assessment
      • Compacting
      • Mentorships
      • Negotiated criteria for quality
      • Varied graphic organizers

Reading Partners / Reading Buddies

  • to Differentiate Content
  • Reading Partners / Reading Buddies
      • Read/Summarize
      • Read/Question/Answer
      • Visual Organizer/Summarizer
      • Parallel Reading with Teacher Prompt
  • Choral Reading/Antiphonal Reading
  • Flip Books
  • Split Journals (Double Entry – Triple Entry)
  • Books on Tape
  • Highlights on Tape
  • Digests/ “Cliff Notes”
  • Note-taking Organizers
  • Varied Texts
  • Varied Supplementary Materials
  • Highlighted Texts
  • Think-Pair-Share/Preview-Midview-Postview
  • Tomlinson – ‘00
  • Ways
  • FRIENDSHIPS
  • Shape up!
  • Reading Contract
  • Choose an activity from each shape group. Cut out your three choices and glue them
  • Below. You are responsible for finishing these activities by _________. Have fun!
  • This contract belongs to _____________________________________
  • Make a poster advertising
  • yourself as a good
  • friend. Use words and
  • pictures to help make
  • people want to be your
  • friend. Make sure your
  • name is an important
  • part of the poster
  • Get with a
  • friend and make
  • a puppet show
  • about a problem and
  • the solution in your book
  • Draw a picture of a problem
  • in the story. Then use words
  • to tell about the problem and
  • how the characters solved
  • their problem
  • Make a two sided
  • circle-rama. Use it to tell
  • people what makes you a
  • good friend. Use pictures
  • and words and make
  • sure your name is an
  • important part of the
  • display
  • Get with a
  • friend and act out
  • a problem and its
  • solution from your
  • book
  • Write a letter to one of the
  • characters in your book. Tell
  • them about a problem you have.
  • Then have them write back with
  • a solution to your problem.
  • Make a mobile that
  • shows what makes you
  • a good friend. Use
  • pictures and words
  • to hang on your mobile.
  • Write your name on the
  • top of the mobile in
  • beautiful letters.
  • Meet with me
  • and tell me about a
  • problem and its solution
  • from the story. Then tell
  • me about a problem you have
  • had and how you solved it
  • Think about another
  • problem one of the
  • characters in your book
  • might have. Write a new
  • story for the book about the
  • problem and tell how it
  • was solved.

Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile

  • to Differentiate Product
  • Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile
  • Clear expectations
  • Timelines
  • Agreements
  • Product Guides
  • Rubrics
  • Evaluation
  • Ways

Map

  • Map
  • Diagram
  • Sculpture
  • Discussion
  • Demonstration
  • Poem
  • Profile
  • Chart
  • Play
  • Dance
  • Campaign
  • Cassette
  • Quiz Show
  • Banner
  • Brochure
  • Debate
  • Flow Chart
  • Puppet Show
  • Tour
  • Lecture
  • Editorial
  • Painting
  • Costume
  • Placement
  • Blueprint
  • Catalogue
  • Dialogue
  • Newspaper
  • Scrapbook
  • Lecture
  • Questionnaire
  • Flag
  • Scrapbook
  • Graph
  • Debate
  • Museum
  • Learning Center
  • Advertisement
  • Possible
  • Products
  • Book List
  • Calendar
  • Coloring Book
  • Game
  • Research Project
  • TV Show
  • Song
  • Dictionary
  • Film
  • Collection
  • Trial
  • Machine
  • Book
  • Mural
  • Award
  • Recipe
  • Test
  • Puzzle
  • Model
  • Timeline
  • Toy
  • Article
  • Diary
  • Poster
  • Magazine
  • Computer Program
  • Photographs
  • Terrarium
  • Petition Drive
  • Teaching Lesson
  • Prototype
  • Speech
  • Club
  • Cartoon
  • Biography
  • Review
  • Invention
  • Mrs. Mutner liked to go over a few
  • of her rules on the first day of class

Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Best Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann

  • Student Voice and Involvement
  • Balanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities:
  • Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc.
  • Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assess
  • Some themes / inquiries are built from students’
  • own questions
  • Students assume responsibility and take roles
  • in decision making

A “Typical” Day in a D.I. Class

  • predictable, not rigid, schedule
  • blocks of time for units of study
  • procedures defined and in place
  • students assuming responsibility
  • voice and choice for students
  • a variety of materials are in use
  • flexible grouping occurs regularly
  • daily reflection on learning
  • regular community gatherings
  • (for fun and problem solving)

Should be purposeful:

  • Should be purposeful:
  • may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness
  • may be based on needs observed during learning times
  • geared to accomplish curricular goals (GPS)
  • Implementation:
  • purposefully planned using information collected – interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations, readiness, academic needs, etc.
  • list groups on an overhead; place in folders or mailboxes
  • “on the fly” as invitational groups
  • Occasionally let students choose groups
  • Cautions:
  • avoid turning groups into tracking situations
  • provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups
  • practice moving into group situations and assuming roles within the group
  • FLEXIBLE GROUPING
  • My
  • Appointment Clock
  • Round the Clock Learning Buddies
  • Make an appointment with 12 different people – one for each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks.
  • Tape this paper inside a notebook, or to something that you will
  • bring to class each day.

Anchor Activities What Do I Do If I Finish Early?

  • Read – comics, letters, books, encyclopedia, poetry, etc.
  • Write – a letter, poetry in your Writer’s Notebook, a story, a comic, etc.
  • Practice your cursive or calligraphy
  • Keyboarding
  • Help someone else
  • Create math story problems or puzzles
  • Work on independent study of your choice
  • Play a math or language game
  • Find out how to say your spelling words in another language
  • Practice CRCT vocab. cards
  • Solve a challenge puzzle
  • Practice anything!
  • Get a jump on homework
  • Use your imagination and creativity to challenge yourself!

10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom

  • Have a strong rationale for differentiating instruction based on student readiness, interest and learning profile.
  • Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable for you.
  • Time differentiated activities for student success.
  • Use an “anchor activity” to free you up to focus your attention on your students.
  • Create and deliver instructions carefully.

10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom

  • Have a “home base” for students.
  • Be sure students have a plan for getting help when you are busy with another student or group.
  • Give your students as much responsibility for their learning as possible.
  • Engage your students in talking about classroom procedures and group processes.
  • Use flexible grouping.

Students in a differentiated classroom do not need to work the system . . . . .

  • Students in a differentiated classroom do not need to work the system . . . . .
  • because the system works for them!
  • Begin Slowly – Just Begin!
  • Low-Prep Differentiation
  • Choices of books
  • Homework options
  • Use of reading buddies
  • Varied journal Prompts
  • Orbitals
  • Varied pacing with anchor options
  • Student-teacher goal setting
  • Work alone / together
  • Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations
  • Flexible seating
  • Varied computer programs
  • Design-A-Day
  • Varied Supplementary materials
  • Options for varied modes of expression
  • Varying scaffolding on same organizer
  • Let’s Make a Deal projects
  • Computer mentors
  • Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile
  • Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation
  • Open-ended activities
  • Mini-workshops to accelerate, re-teach or extend skills
  • Jigsaw
  • Negotiated Criteria
  • Explorations by interests
  • Games to practice mastery of information
  • Multiple levels of questions
  • High-Prep Differentiation
  • Tiered activities and labs
  • Tiered products
  • Independent studies
  • Multiple texts
  • Alternative assessments
  • Learning contracts
  • 4-MAT
  • Multiple-intelligence options
  • Compacting
  • Spelling by readiness
  • Entry Points
  • Varying organizers
  • Lectures coupled with graphic organizers
  • Community mentorships
  • Interest groups
  • Tiered centers
  • Interest centers
  • Personal agendas
  • Literature Circles
  • Stations
  • Complex Instruction
  • Group Investigation
  • Tape-recorded materials
  • Teams, Games, and Tournaments
  • Choice Boards
  • Think-Tac-Toe
  • Simulations
  • Problem-Based Learning
  • Graduated Rubrics
  • Flexible reading formats
  • Student-centered writing formats
  • OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION
  • To Differentiate Instruction By Readiness
  • To Differentiate Instruction By Interest
  • To Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profile
  • equalizer adjustments (complexity, open-endedness, etc.
  • add or remove scaffolding
  • vary difficulty level of text & supplementary materials
  • adjust task familiarity
  • vary direct instruction by small group
  • adjust proximity of ideas to student experience
  • encourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areas
  • give choice of mode of expressing learning
  • use interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peers
  • give choice of tasks and products (including student designed options)
  • give broad access to varied materials & technologies
  • create an environment with flexible learning spaces and options
  • allow working alone or working with peers
  • use part-to-whole and whole-to-part approaches
  • Vary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract)
  • adjust for gender, culture, language differences.
  • useful instructional strategies:
  • - tiered activities
  • Tiered products
  • compacting
  • learning contracts
  • tiered tasks/alternative forms of assessment
  • Scaffolding
  • Guided reading and/or math
  • useful instructional strategies:
  • interest centers
  • interest groups
  • enrichment clusters
  • group investigation
  • choice boards
  • Multiple Intelligence options
  • internet mentors
  • useful instructional strategies:
  • multi-ability cooperative tasks
  • Multiple Intelligence options
  • Triarchic options
  • 4-MAT
  • CA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97

My teacher did not care as much about page 51 as she did about ME! S. Kronos

  • Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction
  • ASCD.org, Educational Leadership magazine, ASCD video series
  • Brandt, Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Cooper, J. David (2000). Literacy: Helping Children Construct Meaning, Fourth Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
  • Cummings, Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Erickson, H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Teaching Beyond the Facts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
  • Erickson, H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
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