Differentials considerations for the caribbean



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19. http://data.unaids.org/pub/EpiReport/2006_Epillpdate_en.pdf

20. Dr. Althea La Foucade, Dr. Ewan Scott, Professor Karl Theodore and Vyjanti Beharry, “HIV/AIDS: Economic Prospects for the Caribbean”, draft paper, presented June 2004, p. 8.

21. Op. cit., Barnett and Whiteside, p. 89-90.

22. http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&ie=ISO-8859- 1&q =sex+tourism+in+the+Caribbean&btnG=Google+Search (Annan Boodram, “Sex Tourism, Caribbean Voice, 1-15, August 2001)

23. http://drclas.fas.harvard.edu/revista/articles/view/59.

It is interesting to note the existence in Barbados of the Sexual Offences Act of 1992 prohibits procuring another person for prostitution whether in Barbados or elsewhere.



24. http://www.awigp.com/default.asp?numcat=sextour

25. Howe, Glenford and Cobley, Alan, The Caribbean AIDS Epidemic, University of the West Indies Press, Kingston, Jamaica, 2000, p.34.

26. Sex in exchange for money or the materialistic “buying of things” is known as ‘transactional sex’.

27. Howe, Glenford and Cobley, Alan, The Caribbean AIDS Epidemic, University of the West Indies Press, Kingston, Jamaica, 2000, p. xix

28. Heterosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS is the most common means of contracting the disease in the Caribbean region.

29. Ibid, Clare Bishop-Sambrok, p.4.

30. http://drclas.fas.harvard.edu/revista/articles/view/59 (David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University).

31. Marcus Hacker, ed., The Macroeconomics of HIV/AIDS, International Monetary Fund, p. 2.

32. Glenford Howe and Alan Cobley, eds., The Caribbean AIDS Epidemic, University of the West Indies Press, 2000, p. 130.

33. www.fao.org/sd/2003/PE10063 en.htm, Clare Bishop-Sambrok, “HIV/AIDS Susceptibility and Vulnerability Pathway: A Tool for Identifying Indicators, Role Models and Innovations”, p3.

34. Op. cit. Barnett and Whiteside, 178-179.

35. According to official statistics from CARICOM, an estimated 22 to 44 % of all women in CARICOM countries are heads of households.

36. http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/6/28146/L.98rev2.pdf, p.19

37. http://www.eclac.org/publicaciones/xml/6/28146/L.98rev2.pdf, p.19

38. Op. cit., Glenford Howe and Alan Cobley, p. 125.

39. http://www.awigp.com/default.asp?numcat=sextour5

40. Op cit, UNAIDS. Report on the Global Aids Epidemic, 2006, p. 8.

41. UNAIDS. 2004 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, Geneva, 2004, p. 31.

42. Op cit, UNAIDS. 2006 Report on the Global Aids Epidemic, pp. 40-41.

43. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, 2002. Geneva, 2002, p.6. Available at: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/epidemiology/pubepidemic2002/en/

44. UNAIDS, UNFPA, UNIFEM. Confronting the Crisis. 2004, p.1

45. Op cit, UNAIDS. UNAIDS. Report on the Global Aids Epidemic, 2006, pp. 506-507.

46. Ibid, Glenford Howe and Alan Cobley, pp. 124-125.

47. Women in the Caribbean have historically almost always been defined by their reproductive role, where mothering is viewed as the chief role through which women’s status is determined.

48. Op. cit., Glenford Howe and Alan Cobley, p. 125.

49. See the website forum stigma-aids@healthdev.net

50. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/feature/iwd/2004/GeorgeAlleyne-stmt.pdf

51. The Kaiser Family Foundation HIV/AIDS Policy Fact Sheet, November, 2005, p. 1

52. Op. cit., Barnett and Whiteside, p. 296.

53. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population, Development and HIV/AIDS with Particular Emphasis on Poverty The Concise Report, 2005, p. 17.

54. Ibid., Population, Development and HIV/AIDS with Particular Emphasis on Poverty The Concise Report, 2005, p. 17

55. Op cit, Hobley and Cowe, p. 14.

56. Commonwealth Secretariat, Gender Mainstreaming in HIV/AIDS Taking a Multisectoral Approach, 2002, p.3

57. Kam Mung and C. James Hospedales, Caribbean Health Situation Analysis Developed for the Caribbean Commission on Health and Development, Draft, September 2004 p. 31; http://www.cpc.paho.org/\Files\DocFiles59_112.pdf

58. The UNAIDS 2006 Report notes that current projections of the long-term demographic impact of AIDS are somewhat less severe than in previous reports. This is partly due to revised HIV prevalence and AIDS mortality estimates for some countries and partly because projections assume antiretroviral therapy will reach increasing numbers of people in hard-hit regions (pp 83-84).

59. Well-resourced communities and households will be able to better cope than poor ones and the same holds true for countries.

60. Op cit, UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, p. 85.

61. http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/hivaids/matlinspence.html

62. Seguino, Stephanie, “Why are Women in the Caribbean So Much More Likely to be Unemployed?”, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Paperr presented in 2002,

63. Op cit, Hacker, p. 102.

64. Ibid, Marcus Hacker.

65. Op cit, Hacker, p. 48.

66. Op cit, Hacker, p.46.

67. Op cit, Howe and Cobley, p. 241.

68. http://data.unaids.org/Publications/IRC-pub06/jc0976-partnershipmenu_lac_en.pdf

69. Op cit Barnett and Whiteside, p. 262.

70. Op cit., p. 304.

71. Dr. Althea La Foucade, Dr. Ewan Scott, Professor Karl Theodore and Vyjanti Beharry, “HIV/AIDS: Economic prospects for the Caribbean”, June 2004.p. 12.

72. Shelton Nicholls, Roger McClean, Karl Theodore, Ralph Henry, Bilali Camara and team, “Modelling the Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in the English Speaking Caribbean –The Case of Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica”, p. 14.

73. Op cit, Howe and Cobley, p. 126.

74. Rene Bonnel, Background paper, “ Economic Analysis of HIV/AIDS”, September, 2000, p. 8.

75. Education is considered to increase factor productivity which in turn will lead to personal and market gains.

76. CARICOM/CARIFORUM countries include Antigua/Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts/Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago. CARCOM associates include Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Island and Turks and Caicos.

77. Op. cit., La Foucade, Scott, Theodore, and Beharry, p. 24.

78. Op. cit., La Foucade, et al.


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