Developing skills specimen paper



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MAY, 2011
Identify the four components of the FITT principle of training.
4 marks for 4 from:

  1. Frequency

  2. Intensity

  3. Time

  4. Type


Identify five potential hazards that may be found in a fitness centre.
5 marks for 5 from:

  1. Poorly maintained / faulty / broken / unclean equipment

  2. Equipment / wires (trip hazard) that are obstacles/gets in the way/improperly housed / blocked fire doors

  3. Falling equipment/weights/unstable

  4. Floor slippy/rough/uneven / dirty / water / hard floor

  5. Litter/discarded objects/bags

  6. Improper use of the equipment/lifting too many weights/overdoing the exercise / lack of knowledge

  7. Electrical equipment

  8. Crowded area/too many people/other participants

  9. Clothing/improper footwear/jewellery/loose hair

  10. Door handles / radiators / fixtures and fittings (other than activity equipment) / walls

  11. Air conditioning / heating problems / too hot / too cold

  12. Swimming pool water


JANUARY 2012
Plyometrics and weight training are two ways of exercising to improve fitness.

Describe both of these training methods. (6)


1. Plyometrics involves bounding/hopping / jumping/depth jumping

2. When the athlete jumps onto and off boxes

3. Muscles have to work concentrically (jumping up)

4. (and) eccentrically (landing)

5. Usually working the leg muscles

6. Important that the muscles are warmed and stretched before attempting this type of training

7. This type of training is very strenuous on the muscles / joints
4 marks sub-max for weight training

8. This involves lifting (different) weights

9. Can involve machines or free weights

10. Weights provides resistance/makes you work hard

11. Involves repetitions/sets

12. Important that a warm up takes place (if not given for plyometrics)

13. Targets specific muscle groups

14. Is a type of interval training/enables recovery / mainly anaerobic

15. This type of training is very strenuous on the muscles and joints (if not given for plyometrics)
Describe, using practical examples, the following training principles: overload; specificity; progression. (6)
(Overload)

1. Work harder than normal/puts body under stress/adaptation will follow/comes about by increasing frequency/intensity/duration.

2. Eg Lifting heavier weights.
(Specificity)

3. Training should be particular/relevant to needs (Do not

accept specific on its own without explanation)/relevant energy system used/relevant muscle groups used / specific sport or specific area of the body.

4. Eg choosing main muscle groups used in activity to train for strength.
(Progression)

5. (Gradually) becomes more difficult/demanding/challenging/once adapted then more demands on body.

6. Eg Doing more repetitions of sprints at each training session.
Describe how good personal hygiene can help to avoid minor infections when participating in physical activities. (4)
1. Wash your hair regularly

2. Keep nails short/cut (to avoid infection from dirt)

3. Keep your nails clean (to avoid infection/passing on infection)

4. Wash your skin/hands/shower (after activities to avoid infections) / wash your feet (to avoid infections)

5. Dry your feet (to avoid picking up (fungal) infections)

6. Shower before swimming to avoid taking dirt/infection into the pool

7. Wash your clothes/change your clothes / underwear/change your socks.

8. Cover or clean cuts or abrasions / to form a barrier / infections against spreading infection
JUNE 2012
17) Give three short term effects of physical activity on the respiratory system (3)
3 marks from:

  1. Increase in breathing rate / faster or heavy breathing/ out of breath/ shortness of breath

  2. Increase in tidal volume/ increase (slight) in residual volume

  3. Increase in minute volume

  4. Increase in oxygen uptake/ gaseous exchange

18) The FITT principle for exercise and training identifies that frequency, intensity, time and type are important factors. Describe how you would plan an exercise programme by using these factors of the FITT principle (4)


4 marks from:

  1. (Frequency) – how often / eg the number of training sessions each week

  2. (Intensity) – how hard / eg create a training zone / how hard the performer trains / how much weight they are lifting

  3. (Time) – How long / the length of time you train/ The duration that the training takes up / 20+ minutes for aerobic exercise/ the number of reps

  4. (Type) – This must be chosen that suits the needs of or relevant to the performer eg a games player would have anaerobic/sprinting work as well as aerobic / continuous training


JANUARY 2013
16) Intensity is one of the elements of the FITT principle. Identify the other three elements of the FITT principle (3)
Three marks for three from:

1. Frequency

2. Time

3. Type
22) Describe how examination courses in Physical Education can help promote a healthy lifestyle (4)
Four marks for four from:

1. Raises awareness of positive reasons/health benefits of participation/educates about health and fitness or diet

2. Keeps you fit/you become fitter

3. To enhance performance/ encourages you to get better at your sport or activity

4. Enjoyment/fun of following these courses leads to a healthy lifestyle

5. Measures health/fitness/diet

6. Helps to set goals for better health/fitness/diet motivates you to get fitter or be healthier

7. School provides resources/(better) equipment that can be used by all

8. Encourages participation (because of the practical element)/you have to participate in practical activities to complete the course/ to be more active

9. Provides role models in the school/others want to copy successful pupils/others around you are motivated

10. You get to try new/a range of different games/activities/different opportunities

11. You make friends with others who participate and this encourages you to participate in games/competitions with friends

12. You get reward/a certificate/qualification through participation

13. Links often made with outside clubs/agencies which encourage participation outside school

14. Extra-curricular activities are often taken up for exam candidates to improve/curricular activities are often taken up for exam candidates to improve
23) Identify three roles of the International Olympic Committee (3)
Three marks for three from:

1. Administers the Olympic Movement/Parallel Olympics

2. Promotes the Olympic values/run education programmes/promotes fair play

3. Selects the venue/host/city/country (for summer and winter)

4. Inspect/monitor the progress of the host

5. Owns/administers the rights to the Olympic symbol and the Games

6. Markets the Olympic Games/promotes or seeks sponsorship

7. Distributes funding.

8. Chooses the sports to be included

9. Leads in anti-doping measures/sets protocols/set up the World Anti-Doping Agency/WADA

10. Invites or withdraws invitations to compete
JUNE 2013
25) Decribe an exercise programme which includes the training principles of: overload, specificity, progression and reversibility (6)
(Overload)

Work harder than normal/puts body under stress/adaptation



will follow/comes about by increasing frequency/intensity/duration

Eg Lifting heavier weights.


(Specificity)

Training should be particular/relevant to needs



(Do not accept specific on its own without

explanation)/relevant energy system used/relevant muscle groups used

Eg choosing main muscle groups used in activity to train for strength.


(Progression)

(Gradually) becomes more difficult/demanding/challenging g/once adapted then more demands on body

Eg Doing more repetitions of sprints at each training

session.
(Reversibility)

Performance can deteriorate


OPPORTUNITIES AND PATHWAYS
SPECIMEN PAPER
19) Describe two government initiatives to promote active, healthy lifestyles (2)


  • Five hours of high quality PE and sport per week

  • One hour of physical activity per day

  • Eating five fruit and vegetables a day

  • Any other current initiatives

20) Explain how local provision can encourage participation in physical activity (6)




  • Facilities provided by local authority

  • Through private enterprise

  • Wide variety to choose from

  • Subsidies / making it affordable

  • Easy access

  • Specific target groups e.g age, gender

  • Gives taster courses / specific coaching

  • Encouraging those with disabilities e.g access

  • Provide transport

  • Effective advertising / promotion of their activities



JANUARY 2010
22) Describe the roles of both the International Olympic Committee and the British Olympic Association
IOC:


  • Owns all the rights to the Olympic symbol and the games

  • This is the world body that administers the Olympic movement

  • Members are responsible for selecting the host cities of the Olympics (Summer and Winter)

  • Consider activities included in the Olympics

BOA:



  • Supplies delegates for the National Olympic Committee (NOC)

  • Responsible for planning and execution of the Great Britain Olympic team participation

  • Works with the Olympic Governing Bodies

  • Selects the TEAM GB

  • Independent from government / no political issues

  • Dependent on commercial sponsorship and fundraising

  • Responsible for developing the Olympic movement

  • Delegating funding

25) Using your knowledge of current government initiatives related to healthy eating and exercise, explain how they help young people to follow a healthy, active lifestyle (6)




  • Healthy Living Programme

  • Aimed to tackle barriers of limited parental awareness

  • 5 a day messages

  • Walking to school / use of bikes

  • Simple message easy to understand

  • Top tips for mums / advice to mothers

  • Encourages parents to share tips and ideas with each other, on how to get child to eat 5 a day


MAY 2010
16) Describe how the British Olympic Association might help you if you

were an Olympic athlete.


Three marks max. One mark for each correct response

1 The BOA selects Team GB/select the best

2 Helps prepare and acclimatise before the Olympics

3 Organises visits to the host city prior to the Olympic Games

4 Has an (exclusive) preparation camp

5 With the (best) facilities for Team GB/places to stay

6 Provide some (top class) equipment/kit

7 Provides (top-class) facilities at the British Olympic Training Centre/places to train (Austria)

8 Runs programmes which assist athletes throughout their training

9 Help with funding/providing discounts at national and local sports centres

10 Helping athletes find jobs (which fit around their training and competition)

11 Help with travel


17) Explain how assessment courses in physical education can help to

promote an active, healthy lifestyle.


Four marks max. One mark for each correct response.

1 Raises awareness of positive reasons/health benefits of participation

2 Enjoyment/fun of following these courses leads to a healthy lifestyle

3 Measures health/fitness/diet

4 Educates about health and fitness

5 Helps to set goals for better health/fitness/diet

6 School provides resources/(better) equipment that can be used by all

7 Encourages participation because of the practical element/you have to

participate in practical activities to complete the course

8 Provides role models in the school/others want to copy successful pupils/others around you are motivated

9 You get to try new/a range/different games/activities/different opportunities

10 You make friends with others who participate and this encourages you to participate in games

11 You get reward/a certificate/qualification through participation

12 Links often made with outside clubs/agencies which encourage participation outside school

13 Extra-curricular activities are often taken up for exam candidates to

improve/curricular activities are often taken up for exam candidates to

improve
25) Explain how the media influences those who participate in physical

activities.


Levels marked question
Level 1 (1-2 marks)

Candidates make only one or two valid points about the media influences

and describes, rather than explains, and only very superficially. Few links

are made with participation.

There is little or no use of technical vocabulary and sentences have limited

coherence and structure.

There is much irrelevant material.

Errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling may be noticeable and

intrusive.
Level 2 (3-4 marks)

Candidates make a few valid points about media influences and

demonstrate good knowledge and understanding. Good links are made with

participation.

There is some use of technical vocabulary and sentences for the most part

are relevant and coherent.

There are occasional errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.
Level 3 (5-6 marks)

Candidates make several developed points about media influences and

these are fully explained possibly with advantages and disadvantages.

Excellent links made with participation.

Candidates demonstrate excellent knowledge and understanding of the

factors involved.

Candidates give relevant material that is clearly structured and using

appropriate terminology and technical vocabulary.

There are few if any errors in grammar, punctuation and spelling.
JANUARY, 2011
Give three examples of current government initiatives to promote a healthy lifestyle. (3)
Three marks for three from:
1 Healthy Living programme

(aimed to tackle barriers of limited parental awareness of weight status and associated health risks/parental beliefs that a healthy lifestyle is too challenging/pressures on parents which undermine healthy food choices/a perception that there are limited opportunities for active lifestyles.)

2 5 A Day message/5(+)fruit and veg each day

3 Walking to school/use of bikes to get to school

(Simple message easy to understand/has little scientific standing but is known by many so very motivating)

4 Top Tips for Top Mums/advice to mothers

(Encourages parents across the country to share tips and ideas with each other on how they get their children to eat more fruit and vegetables.)

5 Fruit and veg of different colours provide a wide range of vitamins, minerals, fibre and healthy antioxidants, which can help to protect the body throughout life.

6 Promotion of healthy diets and physical activity in the run-up to the 2012 Olympics/2012 initiatives for health.

7 Change4Life healthy lifestyles marketing initiative.

(Partnerships with commerce to appeal to young people/more motivating/attractive to young)

8 Five Choices to help you stay healthy

(You should not smoke/Do some regular physical activity/Eat a healthy diet/Try to lose weight if you are overweight or obese/Don't drink too much alcohol)

9 30/60 minutes of moderate aerobic physical activity, on most days

10 minimum of two sessions of muscle-strengthening activities per week (not on consecutive days).
The British Olympic Association is a national organisation involved in promoting sport and participation in physical activities.

Identify three other types of organisations that promote participation in physical activities. (3)


Three marks for three from:



1) Local authority

2) Schools

3) Private enterprise/commercial companies/National Lottery

4) Voluntary organisations/sports/local clubs

5) National organisations (other than the BOA)/NGB’s/Sport England Sport UK/CCPR

6) International Olympic Committee/IOC/International federations eg FIFA
Explain how schools might encourage an active, healthy lifestyle. (6)
Six marks for six from:
1) Fitness/exercise/activity promotional campaigns/educate/inform parents/(health) posters/PE activity days/sports days

2) Make physical activity enjoyable/inspire/use positive reinforcement/praise (for following a healthy lifestyle)

3) Through healthy eating/healthy school meals/assemblies

4)Not allowing ‘junk food/drink’ machines/stopping/controlling poor health habits

5) Through the health/PSHE curriculum/health awareness programmes

6) Through PE lessons/National Curriculum/compulsory PE lessons/regular exercise/varied PE programme

7) Sports College status

8) Examination courses/qualifications

9) Extra-curricular clubs/teams

10) Trips/skiing etc

11) Links with clubs/agencies

12) Use of role models/speakers coaches/teachers

13) Playgrounds
MAY, 2011
Identify and describe three ways that local authority provision can promote participation in physical activities.
6 marks for 6 from:


  1. Sports centres/indoor facilities/equipment

  2. Local facilities that serve the community

  3. Swimming pools

  4. Available for all in locality

  5. Parks and sports grounds /green space /school fields / tennis courts

  6. For tennis / a range of outdoor activities

  7. Outdoor/adventurous Education Centres

  8. For outdoor education activities / climbing etc

  9. Sports development officers/5 x 60 Officers/ coaches

  10. Co-ordinate/promote activities in the locality

  11. Analyse local needs

  12. To know what people want/surveys/target resources

  13. Promotional campaigns/web site

  14. Healthy lifestyle/eating/exercise campaigns

  15. Courses/taster sessions/activities/events presentations/ (new) sports available / teams / clubs / leagues

  16. These encourage people to participate


Give three examples of National Governing Bodies and name the sports they represent.
3 marks for:

Eg FA – Football

LTA – tennis

ASA – swimming etc
Give two positive effects and two negative effects that the media may have on following an active, healthy lifestyle.
2 marks sub/max for positive
Positive

  1. Promotes sport /exercise / increases interest through sports coverage / raises profile

  2. Promotes healthy living

  3. Motivates through role models / sports stars / successful / attractive people / want to look like them

  4. Promotional campaigns / public service broadcasting

  5. Wide variety on some channels / some minority sports

  6. Have created funds / sponsorship that can be used to encourage health / more funding for sports

  7. Gives information about healthy lifestyles eg the internet


2 marks max for negative (only 1 mark max for opposites)
Negative

  1. May reinforce unhealthy lifestyle / alcohol / drugs consumption / gambling / poor role-models

  2. Too much contact with the media discourages activity / ‘couch potato’ syndrome

  3. Minority sports under-represented / not many sports shown or represented / only a narrow representation of sports are shown or represented

  4. Women’s sport / activity under-represented / mis-represented

  5. Disability sport under-represented / mis-represented

  6. Campaigns against provision.


JANUARY 2012
Explain how private enterprise can increase participation in physical activities.
1. Can provide good/better facilities to attract more

2. Can provide good/better equipment to attract more

3. Can offer other services of support/provide personal trainers to enable participation / better coaching

4. Can offer an exclusive/comfortable environment so more likely to join and return / social aspects

5. Can be locally available/good access so that people can participate easily / more facilities or equipment.

6. Sponsoring teams or individuals to participate

7. Promotional campaigns / advertises facilities / benefits / free taster days
Describe recent government initiatives to promote active, healthy lifestyles.
1. Healthy Living programme - to encourage following healthy lifestyles

2. aimed to tackle barriers of limited parental awareness of weight status and associated health risks/parental beliefs that a healthy lifestyle is too challenging/pressures on parents which undermine healthy food choices/a perception that there are limited opportunities for active lifestyles

3. 5 (+)A Day message

4. Fruit and veg / different colours/rainbow foods provide a wide range of vitamins, minerals, fibre and healthy antioxidants, which can help to protect the body

throughout life

5. Run-up to the 2012 Olympics/2012 initiatives for health

6. Promotion of healthy diets and physical activity

7. Walking to school/use of bikes to get to school / Bikes around London / bikeability

8. Simple message easy to understand/has little scientific standing but is known by many so very motivating

9. Top Tips for Top Mums/advice to mothers

10. Encourages parents across the country to share tips and ideas with each other on how they get their children to eat more fruit and vegetables

11. Change4Life healthy lifestyles marketing initiative

12. Partnerships with commerce to appeal to young people/more motivating/attractive to young / any relevant change towards a more healthy lifestyle/Great Swapathon – change habits

13. Small Steps 4 Life

14. Healthy lifestyles through small changes in diet / exercise / wellness

15. Five Choices to help you stay healthy

16. You should not smoke/Do some regular physical activity/Eat a healthy diet/Try to lose weight if you are

overweight or obese/Don't drink too much alcohol

17. 30 minutes of (moderate aerobic) physical activity, on most days

18. Minimum of two sessions of muscle-strengthening activities per week (not on consecutive days)

19. Children and teenagers should get at least one hour a day of moderate physical activity / 5X60 initiative (Wales)

20. Can be achieved by a mixture of play/PE/games/dance/cycling/a brisk walk to

school/sports/various outdoor activities or equivalent

21. School based initiatives.

22. Description of school-based initiatives eg walking to school or canteen provision

23. Free swimming

24. Access to swimming for young and older people

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