Developing skills specimen paper

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MAY 2010
20) Identify two major muscle groups of the upper body that are used when performing a standing throw of a ball. Explain how an active lifestyle can keep muscles healthy.
Five marks available.
Two marks max for: (mark first two only)

1 Deltoids

2 Trapezius

3 Latissimus Dorsi

4 Pectorals

5 Biceps

6 Triceps

7 Abdominals

Accept other relevant muscle groups
Three marks max for: (explain how activity can keep muscles healthy)

8 Makes them stronger/more powerful

9 Bigger/hypertrophy/more toned

10 Less likely to strain/injury

11 Good blood/oxygen supply

12 Increase tolerance to lactic acid/tire less easily

13 Can keep going/helps (muscular) endurance
21) Why is lactic acid produced in our muscles? Briefly describe the effects of lactic acid.
Four marks max. One mark for each correct response.

Two marks max for:

1 Produced because of lack of oxygen

2 After prolonged/hard high intensity exercise/overworked/working too hard

Three marks max for:

3 Causes fatigue/tiredness

4 May cause us to stop

5 Performer has to slow down/decreases effectiveness

6 Can hurt/painful/aches/soreness
23) Describe the main functions of the skeletal system that keep the body healthy and active.
Five marks max. One mark for each correct response.
1 Shape/support

2 Eg to give correct posture/supporting muscular system

3 Blood cell (red) production

4 Eg to enable us to have energy

5 Mineral production/store

6 Eg to keep us fit and healthy/body needs to be healthy

7 Protection

8 Eg to protect internal organs

9 To be able to move/keep moving/being mobile

10 Eg to be able to participate in physical exercise/acts as muscle attachment

11 Leverage

12 Eg to be able to make strong/effective movements

Identify and describe two functions of the skeletal system. (4)
Four marks for four from:

2 marks max for i/d (odd numbers)

2 marks max for description (even numbers)
1 Shape/support/structure

2 To help posture/keep shape of body/hold up

3 Blood cell production

4 Blood cells important for energy/minerals/carrying oxygen/to fight infection

5 Protection

6 Avoids injury/allows risk free movement/protects (vital) organs

7 Movement/leverage

8 Provides ability to move/lift/throw etc in physical activities/muscle attachment

9 Mineral store

10 Stores minerals for health such as calcium
Describe four long term effects of exercise on muscles. (4)
Four marks for four from:

1 Increase in size (of muscle fibres)/hypertrophy of muscles

2 Increase in strength (of muscle fibres)/tone/power

3 Increase in muscular endurance/last longer

4 Increase in flexibility(of muscle)/elasticity

5 Increased tolerance to lactic acid

6 Increased rate of removal of lactic acid

7 Greater potential for energy production/more energy available

8 Size/number of mitochondria increased

9 Increase in myoglobin (within muscle cells)

10 Increase in capillaries in muscles/more oxygen/haemoglobin to (working) muscles

11 Helps prevent injury/helps recovery from injury

12 Causes injury/strains/damage/can decrease mobility
MAY, 2011
Give three short term effects of exercise on the heart.
3 marks for 3 from:

  1. Increase in heart/pulse rate

  2. Increase in cardiac output / more blood pumped out per minute

  3. Increase in stroke volume / increase in blood (pumped out per beat)

Explain when and how lactic acid affects the ability of the body to maintain physical activity.
4 marks for 4 from:

  1. During exercise

  2. When there is a lack of oxygen / anaerobic

  3. When working hard/high intensity activity

  4. Builds up in muscle

  5. Causes fatigue / tiredness

  6. Causes pain / discomfort / aches / soreness

  7. So more likely to stop the activity

  8. Decrease performance level in the activity / slows you down

Describe three long term effects of exercise on the muscular system.
1. Increase in size (of muscle fibres)/hypertrophy of muscles / increase in muscle fibres

2. Increase in strength/power/speed (of muscle fibres) / increase in muscle tone

3. Increased tolerance to lactic acid/onset of fatigue delayed

4. Greater potential for energy production/more energy available / increase in energy stores

5. Size/number of mitochondria increased

6. Increase in myoglobin (within muscle cells)

7. More oxygen to working muscles / increase in blood flow / increase in capillaries

8. Increased (muscular) endurance

9. Increased flexibility

10. Increased rate of removal of lactic acid

11. Causes injuries

12. Helps prevent injuries
Tendonitis can be a barrier to participating in physical activities.

Describe the symptoms of tendonitis. (3)

1. Inflammation of the tendon / redness

2. Skin can be warm/hot

3. Tenderness / painful

4. Swelling can occur

5. Reduction in mobility/can’t move very well/ stiffness / Weakness
Describe the structure of a joint. Give an example of a hinge joint. (4)
1. Where two or more bones meet

2. Has a joint capsule

3. Has synovial fluid

4. Synovial membrane

5. Has cartilage (on articulating surfaces)

6. Has ligaments (linking bone to bone)

(1 mark max for example of a hinge joint)

7. Elbow or knee or ankle
JUNE 2012
19) Identify where synovial fluid is found and explain its function (4)
4 marks from:

1 mark sub max for identifying location:

  1. Found in / around (synovial) joints

3 marks sub max for function:

  1. It lubricates the joint

  2. Thus protecting (cartilage)/prevents injury/ wear and tear

  3. Ensures smooth/unobstructed/ efficient movement/ prevents friction/ stiffness / pain

  4. This is secreted into the joint by the synovial membrane. eg knee joint

  5. Nourishes the cartilage/ keeps joint healthy

  6. Helps to stabilise the joint

21) Describe how lactic acid affects the ability of the body to maintain physical activity (3)

3 marks from:

1. Builds up during exercise / builds up/ produced in muscle/ when there is a lack of oxygen / when working hard / high intensity activity

2. Causes fatigue/tiredness

3. Causes pain / discomfort / stiffness/ soreness/ aching

4. So more likely to stop

5. Can lead to decrease performance / activity / restricts movements / slows you down/ can’t do as much
22) Explain using practical examples how an active lifestyle can be good for the health of muscles (6)
6 marks from:

1. Helps with the elasticity of muscles prevents stiffness

2. Practical examples – stretching during warm–ups/cool downs

3. Muscle use can build muscle/hypertrophy/build more fibres/strengthens muscles stops weakening of muscles / stops reversibility / keeps toned/ stops muscle wastage / atrophy

4. Practical examples – regular walking/running gardening/training/exercise classes

5. Variety of exercise will maintain and strengthen / develop a good range of muscles

6. Practical examples – varied trained methods/walking and swimming

7. Less likely for injury

8. Practical examples – regular exercise maintains health/posture

9. Improve recovery/ increases rate of lactic acid removal/ Resting muscles/recuperation (after injury) can help to maintain and heal

10. Practical examples – resting during and after exercise

11. Rehabilitation/specialist therapy/ physiotherapy/ massage can help to maintain and develop

12. Practical examples – if pulled a muscle then go to doctor to be referred/go to physio for treatment/use rehab exercises

13. Increase in speed

14. Practical examples – can run faster

15. Increase power

16. Practical examples – can lift/do physical work more effectively

17. More endurance/can work for longer/ increase tolerance to lactic acid/ increase in 02/ more efficient/ increase energy production

18. Practical examples – can keep going/not get tired

19) Giving a practical example for each, describe what is meant by adduction and abduction in joint movements (4)
Four marks for four from:

Sub max three marks from:

1. (adduction) is movement towards (the midline of) the body

2. Eg In swimming the propulsive/kicking of the legs during the breaststroke leg kick involves adduction

3. (abduction) is movement away from (the midline of) the body

4. Eg Box splits in gymnastics shows abduction
20) Describe three long term effects of exercise on the heart and three long long term effects of exercise on the lungs (6)
Six marks for six from:

Three marks sub max heart

1. Increase size/muscle of heart/hypertrophy/heart is stronger

2. Increase in stroke volume (resting/maximum)/ more blood per beat

3. Increase in (maximum) cardiac output/more blood (per minute)

4. Decrease in (resting) heart rate

5. Decrease in likelihood of CHD or related heart problems/healthier heart
Three marks sub max lungs

6. Increase in lung volume or capacity/increase in resting lung volume/increase in alveoli/more air or more oxygen

7. Increased capillarisation

8. Increase in (maximum) pulmonary ventilation

9. Increase in minute volume

10. Increase in tidal volume

11. Increase in strength of respiratory muscles

12. Decrease in lung disease/healthier lungs
JUNE 2013
19) Identify the type of joint found at the knee. Explain the role of the quadriceps and the hamstrings in flexing the knee (4)
1 mark sub max for named joint:

1. Hinge/synovial hinge.

3 marks sub max for the role of muscles in flexion at knee:
2 marks sub max for quads

2. Quads will help by stabilising/working against/opposes the hamstrings

3. Quads relax/lengthen

4. Quads are the antagonists.
2 marks sub max for hams

5. Hamstrings will bend the knee

6. Hamstrings will contract/shorten

7. Hamstrings are the agonists/the prime mover.
22) Describe tendonitis and suggest one way in which this might be avoided (4)
4 marks for 4 from:

Sub max 3 marks for description:

1. Often through overuse (of tendon)

2. Tenderness/sensitivity (of tendons) increased/painful/sore (tendon)

3. Swelling of area

4. Rise in temperature (of surrounding connective tissue)/ inflammation/redness

5. Reduced movement/stiffness.
Sub max 1 mark for avoidance strategy:

6. Avoid repetitive movements or not doing too much at any one time or to rest or strengthen the muscles/ tendons or to bandage/ice/anti-inflammatory painkillers/steroid injection or surgery (in extreme cases)or antibiotics (if infected)/appropriate footwear/ appropriate equipment/correct technique/treatment.

23) When does the build up of lactic acid occur? Identify two effects of the build up of lactic acid (3)
25) Explain the short and long term effects that regular exercise has on the heart (6)
Programme is relevant and should include the following

principles or within the description the principles are recognised:

Work harder than normal/puts body under stress/adaptation

will follow/comes about by increasing frequency/intensity/duration

Eg Lifting heavier weights.


Training should be particular/relevant to needs

(Do not accept specific on its own without explanation)/relevant energy

system used/relevant muscle groups used

Eg choosing main muscle groups used in activity to train for strength.


(Gradually) becomes more difficult/demanding/challenging g/once adapted then more demands on body

Eg Doing more repetitions of sprints at each training session.

Performance can deteriorate if training stops/decreases

21) Describe an occasion when correct carrying technique will reduce the chance of injury during or preparing for a physical activity (2)

  • Bending legs / use of large muscle groups

  • Keeping back straight / protecting the back muscles

  • When lifting / carrying in the sports hall

  • Do not lift / carry unless necessary

  • Enlist the help of others / use lifting / carrying equipment

22) Describe the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise, giving an example of each (4)


  • Cardiovascular fitness / heart, blood and blood vessels

  • Involves oxygen

  • Ability to work for long period of time

  • Examples e.g interval / fartlek / circuit etc


  • Ability to work at high intensity

  • For a short period of time

  • Without oxygen

  • Examples: sprinting. Sprint swim

24) Choose the role of either participant, leader or official and describe how you might reduce risks and injuries to yourself in that particular role (4)

  • correct clothing

  • personal protective clothing

  • follow health and safety

  • Lift, carry and place equipment safety procedures

  • Participate at the right level

  • Warm up and down

  • Keep fit and healthy

26) Exercise is important in maintaining an active, healthy lifestyle. Describe a warm up exercise. Explain the importance of a warm up when exercising (4)

  • To improve skills and techniques

  • To increase flexibility

  • To improve the speed of movement

  • To improve strength of muscular contraction

  • To reduce injury

27) State three long term benefits of training on a performer’s well being (3)

  • Feel better about yourself

  • Feel better about the way you look

  • Feel better within yourself

  • Cope better with stress

  • More likely to be fit and healthy

  • Body systems work better

21) Describe the training method of plyometrics. What type of physical activities is plyometrics particularly good for (4)

  • Plyometrics involves bounding / hopping

  • Jumping / in depth jumping

  • When athlete jumps onto and off boxes

  • Muscles have to work concentrically (jumping)

  • And eccentrically (landing)

  • Important that the muscles are warm

  • This is very strenuous and need reasonable amount of fitness

Type of Activity (1 mark)

  • Dynamic strength

  • Speed

  • Power

  • Throwing

  • Jumping

24) Give four ways in which a participant in a physical activity might minimise the risk of injury (4)

  • Correct footwear / clothing

  • Personal protective equipment

  • Follow health and safety procedures

  • Lift and carry equipment correctly

  • Exercise to correct standard

  • Warm up and cool down

  • Correct technique

  • Stop / cease activity

MAY 2010
18) Other than frequency, what are the other components of the FITT principle?
Three marks for:

1 Intensity

2 Time

3 Type

4 Tedium
19) To help with the management of stress in physical activities.
Four marks max. One mark for each correct response (Max of two marks without practical examples).
1 Relaxes you/takes away pressure

2 Practical example, eg controlling anxiety in a tennis game

3 Keeps you calm/‘chilled’/lowers arousal/controls arousal/positive self-talk

4 Practical example, eg calms you down before performing a gymnastics

floor routine

5 Therefore do not get carried away/over-excited/more angry

6 Practical example, eg less angry when someone fouls you in hockey

7 Can make decisions more effectively/makes you more confident

8 Practical examples, eg a cricket captain can set a field calmly and


9 Less likely to be physically abusive/violent

10 Practical example, eg will not retaliate if punched in rugby

11 Less likely to make inflammatory comments/avoid criticising others

12 Practical example, eg no back-chat to ref in football

13 Be able to see other people’s point of view/weigh things up more


14 Practical examples, eg can see why another player in netball is angry

because you have fouled them

15 Focussing/will not miss important cues/hearing the whistle/officials

decisions that might lead to foul play/to ignore the crowd/makes you

work harder (on what is important)
The main training principles are overload; specificity; progression and reversibility.

Describe three of these training principles and give a practical example for each. (6)

Six marks for six from:

One mark max for description

One mark max for practical example/equivalent

Work harder than normal/puts body under stress/adaptation will follow/comes about by increasing frequency/intensity/duration.

Eg Lifting heavier weights

Training should be particular/relevant to needs/relevant energy system used/relevant muscle groups used.

Eg choosing main muscle groups used in activity to train for strength.

(Gradually) becomes more difficult/demanding/challenging/once adapted then more demands on body (suggest time)

Eg Doing more repetitions of sprints at each training session

Performance/fitness can deteriorate if training/exercise stops/decreases.

Eg If you stop endurance training your stamina will reduce in time.
Describe ways in which you might reduce the potential risks in outdoor, adventurous activities. (5)
Five marks for five from:

1 Activity supervised/qualified instructor/go with someone else/being trained/know what you are doing

2 Correct clothing/footwear/shoes/properly fastened clothing/fits well

3 Personal protective equipment/the right equipment

4 Wear sun tan lotion

5 Risk assessment/knowledge of risks of activity

6 Follow health and safety procedures/take first aid kit/regulation of activity/safety briefing

7 Check equipment (for faults)

8 Take the climate/weather/environment/surfaces into account (when planning/continuing)/keep track of where you are/checking the area

9 Activities suitable for the age/ability/experience of the participants

10 Lift and carry equipment correctly

11 Exercise/compete at appropriate level/don’t overdo it

12 Warm up/cool down/stretching exercises

13 Correct technique/skills

14 Take telephone/tell someone where you are going

15 Cover any cuts/abrasions (with a plaster)

16 Rehydration/eat (regular) snacks
Describe four ways in which continuous training can improve performance in physical activities. (4)
Four marks for four from:
Improves fitness/stamina/(cv)endurance/you can keep going/increases energy levels

Can assist weight control/weight loss

Decrease in fatigue/less need for rest

Increase tolerance to lactic acid

Emulates/duplicates the ‘real game’ situation/prepares for competition

Reduces resting heart rate

Increases heart efficiency/or adaptations identified (other than reducing resting heart rate)

Improved efficiency of vascular shunt

Increases lung efficiency/better use of O2/or adaptations identified

Increases muscular efficiency or adaptations identified

Reduces blood pressure

Reduces risk of health problems/or examples of these problems

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