Developing skills specimen paper



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PAST PAPER QUESTIONS FOR B453

DEVELOPING SKILLS
SPECIMEN PAPER
18) How would you use extrinsic motivation to encourage a teenager to follow an active, healthy lifestyle? (3)



  • Give praise / encouragement

  • Badges (tangible) rewards

  • Give opportunity to join a team / club

  • Point out the health / fitness benefits

  • Show others as role models

  • Show positive benefits for body image / to look good

  • To make friends / do as friends do

23) Explain how skills in physical activities can be learned effectively (5)




  • Practice / rehearsal

  • Copying / watching others / imitating

  • Role models / qualified teachers / coaches will motivate them

  • Training for better physical fitness / fitness training

  • Trial and error / having a go at the skills

  • Being taught

  • Extrinsic motivation / rewards

  • Enjoyment / having fun

  • Learning part of a skill then building on it / whole part whole

25) Explain how goal setting can help to develop self confidence to follow an active lifestyle (6)




  • Ensuring / giving / enabling success

  • Recognising progress / progress made obvious / measurable / recorded

  • Encouraging and exciting

  • Gives evidence of faster / stronger / fitter

  • Motivating

  • Control over what happens

  • Identifying challenges

  • Gives more time

28) Identify and explain two extrinsic motivating factors that are important for a performer learning new skills (2)




  • rewards / badges / trophies

  • Positive feedback / encouragement from teachers and coaches

  • Knowing how well you are doing / KR

  • Raises arousal levels

  • Raises confidence

  • Control anxiety


JANUARY, 2010
16) Identify four types of feedback (4)


  • Intrinsic

  • Extrinsic

  • Knowledge of Results

  • Knowledge of Performance

  • Terminal

  • Concurrent / continuous

  • Positive

  • Negative

17) A key process in physical education is to learn and develop skills and techniques. Describe, using practical examples, three methods that might be used to learn and develop skills and techniques (6)




  • Copying / Modelling

  • Practical example of above

  • Trial and error

  • Practical example of above

  • Watching

  • Practical example of above

  • Trying hard / effort / motivated

  • Practical example of above

  • Get feedback / reinforcement


MAY 2010
22) Explain, using practical examples, how you might motivate a young

person to be involved as an official in a physical activity.


Six marks max. One mark for each correct response.
1 To try something different/novel/variety in life/let them have a go/experience officiating/past-time

2 Show them/teach/coach them how to officiate

3 Give praise

4 Give rewards/badges

5 To make money

6 To gain qualifications

7 To get involved in an activity even though you may not be a very good

practitioner

8 Show them role models

9 To try at low level at first/have a go to see whether you enjoy it/set goals

10 Opportunities to make friends/join with others

11 Good for enjoyment/fun

12 Help to be active/get exercise/be more healthy show how it might help health/fitness

13 Show how it might help you become a better performer/better at your sport

14 To help others/give something back to the activity (if ex-player)

15 As a career route/chance to participate in high level events/Olympics

16 Make it a rota of responsibility/all have to officiate at some time/

fairness/leadership opportunities/want to be a role model


24) Research indicates that most people have good intentions to exercise and to keep healthy and often start on a healthy programme, but as with New Year’s resolutions, they soon give up.
Explain how you might help a young person stick to their exercise and

healthy lifestyle programme and not give up too readily.


Five marks max. One mark for each correct response
1 Set goals

2 Encourage/praise/motivate

3 Educate about the benefits of the programme

4 Join others/friends to do the programme/join a club

5 Show others who have stuck to it and benefitted/role models

6 Show previous success/recognition of past success/recognising success

7 Give reward for progress/extrinsic reward

8 Give goals that are specific/short term goals/a little at a time

9 Measure/record their progress/let them know how they are doing

10 Make goals achievable/realistic/within their reach/don’t be too ambitious

11 Ensure there is time available/good time management

12 Make the activity/healthy eating enjoyable/exciting/their favourite

activities/foods/vary the activities/foods

13 Show negative consequences of not following the programme

14 Punish by withdrawal of privileges

25) Explain how you might motivate someone to follow an active, healthy lifestyle (6)


1 Use of intrinsic and extrinsic methods

2 Give rewards/badges/accolades/praise

3 Make it fun/enjoyable/varied/interesting/exciting/competition

4 Set goals (SMART)/a plan of action

5 Encourage/persuade/educate/enthuse/inspire

6 Show the positive effects/show progress made

7 Give success/feeling of success

8 Show role models/lead by example

9 Show or educate about the detrimental effects of a poor lifestyle/poor health

10 Measure fitness/health to show need to change

11 Punish unhealthy/inactive behaviour

12 More information about healthy meals/eating well

13 Get them to join a club/get with others who may exercise/follow a healthy lifestyle/get them a personal trainer
MAY, 2011
Explain the SMART principle of goal setting and describe why goal setting is important for an active, healthy lifestyle.
6 marks max

SMART – (must be explain rather than just i/d sub max of 1 if i/d only) 5 Marks Max

  1. S – Specific activity to your needs

  2. M – Measurable – goals need to be assessed to see how well you are doing

  3. A – Achievable/agreed – goals must be within your reach/capabilities or they can be agreed with your teacher/coach

  4. R – Realistic/recorded – goals must not be too challenging or you will fail or they should be recorded so that you can refer back to them to see how you are getting on

  5. T – Time (phased) – because goals should be planned over a period of time


Why

3 marks max

  1. To get better/increase/optimise performance/ to keep fit

  2. To ensure participation continues/keep exercising/training/ensure exercise adherence

  3. To control anxiety/stress

  4. To motivate/enthuse / gain satisfaction / enjoyment / raises confidence / something to aim for.


Describe the effects of mental preparation on the performance of physical activities.
4 marks for 4 from:

  1. Improves performance / enables tactical or strategic decision- making / fewer mistakes

  2. Helps to prevent injury

  3. Helps to control emotions / motivates you / psyches you up / thinks positively / not afraid

  4. Helps to relax/cope with stress / controls arousal

  5. Helps to focus/selective attention / concentrate

  6. Able to visualise/use imagery

  7. Quicker reactions /responses / quicker decision making

  8. Helps to raise confidence / self esteem

  9. Enables fair play


Physical activity skills can be learned by using a variety of methods.

Describe, using practical examples, methods that assist in the learning of physical activity skills.

1. Practice / rehearsal / types of practice (whole/part)

2. Through trial and error / having a go / learn by doing

3. Via a demonstration / visual guidance / modelling

4. Watching and copying others / observation learning

5. Watching video’s / reading books

6. More likely if others are significant/role models

7. Being coached / taught/verbal guidance

8. Feedback from others

9. Knowledge of results / performance

10. You understand what you need to learn

11. (Operant) conditioning

12. Being praised / reinforcement / rewards

13. Setting yourself (SMART) goals

14. Mental practice / rehearsal

15. Being determined / well motivated

16. Via mechanical / manual guidance
JANUARY 2012
Describe the SMART principle of goal setting to improve performance in physical activities.(5)
(SMART) 5 marks from:

1. S = Specific - need to make the goal a particular target / to

your sport / you know what you are trying to achieve or eg

beat your personal best time

2. M = Measurable - need to be able to measure the goal or

to know how well you have done/to assess progress

3. A = Achievable - must be within the capabilities of the

individual/or A = Agreed - or eg you can agree your targets

with your coach or peer

4. R = Recorded - goals should be written down

or R = Realistic - must be within the capabilities of the

individual/or attainable

5 = Time-phase/timed / time - goals should have a time given

for completion.
Explain how different types of feedback can motivate people to follow an active, healthy lifestyle. (6)
Types of feedback:

1. Intrinsic will tell you how well you are doing/feeling the right movement

2. Extrinsic will give external feedback

3. Positive feedback is encouraging

4. Negative feedback involves criticism

5. Knowledge of results will give motivation to try harder

6. Knowledge of performance will give info about technique

7. Others - eg terminal feedback/concurrent feedback

etc.
How they can motivate:

6. By giving information to improve

7. Praising

8. Rewarding

9. By reinforcing good actions/performance/participation / want to continue or persist

10. Giving targets/goals to go for

11. Can help you enjoy the activity/have fun

12. Showing others that you have achieved something

13. Give you the drive to improve

14. Raise self-esteem/self-belief / confidence

15. Negative feedback/criticism can spur you on or encourage you to prove yourself or shown then that they are wrong
JUNE 2012
20) A key process in physical education is to learn and develop skills and techniques. Describe three methods that might be used to learn skills and techniques (6)
6 marks from:

1. Copying others/modelling

2. Description or a practical example – watching a netball pass and doing the same

3. Trial and error

4. Description or a practical example – trying to hit the shuttle in badminton and eventually hitting it correctly and then repeating the correct action

5. Being influenced by role models/significant others/those we look up to/experts/ written or video information

6. Description or a practical example – watching a Premiership footballer and using their techniques

7. Trying hard/effort/being (intrinsically or extrinsically ) motivated

8. Description or a practical example - trying really hard to learn to hit the ball in tennis

9. Practise/rehearsal/whole or part learning/other practice methods

10. Description or a practical example – going over and over the skill of shooting in basketball

11. Get feedback/reinforcement/ reward

12. Description or a practical example – coach saying ‘well done’ if skills in netball are performed correctly watching own performance video

JANUARY 2013
18) Using practical examples explain the importance of goal setting when performing physical activities (6)
Six marks for six from:

1. To optimise performance/to play as well as you can/help you improve or be more skilful/work on specific skills

2. Eg goal setting can encourage a netball player to score as many points as possible (because SMART)

3. To work on specific fitness/body areas

4. Eg to develop upper body strength for a rugby player

5. To know what you have achieved/measurable goals/gives satisfaction

6. Eg Timing a sprint run after training

7. Eg The goals encourage you to stick to the weekly exercise class (because the goals are realistic)

8. To control your stress or anxiety or to increase your confidence

9. Eg The goals make you calmer when training for an athletics event (because they are achievable)

10. To focus your attention/ you know what to do or to help concentration/to get in the zone

11. Eg The rugby player concentrates in training (because the goals are specific)

12. To motivate or encourage you

13. Eg You attend a yoga class willingly/regularly
21) Describe how we might control emotions when participating in physical activities. Give one reason why controlling our emotions is so important when performing physical activities (5)
Five marks for five from:

Four marks sub max for how to control emotions

1. Relaxing (mentally) or Practical example, eg controlling anxiety in a tennis game

2. Keeping calm/‘chilled’/deep or slow breathing/lowering arousal/controlling arousal or time-outs eg calming down before performing/getting in the zone

3. positive thinking/self-talk or setting goals or Practical example, eg thinking that you can complete a somersault in trampolining

4. Therefore not getting carried away/overexcited/ controlling anger/channelling emotions or Practical example, eg trying to be less angry when

6. Don’t make inflammatory comments/avoid criticising

others or Practical example, eg no back-chat to ref in

football

7. Be able to see other people’s point of view/weigh

things up more rationally or Practical examples, eg

can see why another player in netball is angry

because you have fouled them

8. Focus/ignore/block out the crowd or Practical

example, eg being focused in basketball will enable you to react quickly to referee decisions

9. Use mental rehearsal/imagery/imagine success/visualisation

10. Practical example a gymnast imagines a successful floor routine.

11. Use music to calm you down or psych you up
One mark for one of: (reason)

12. Show etiquette/sportsmanship/be well mannered or courteous

13. Practical example, eg in golf letting someone through who may be a quicker player

14. So that you do not show your feelings to opponents or put yourself at a disadvantage or so you don’t panic

15. To avoid punishment/sanctions

16. To be more prepared/psyched-up for performance/increase motivation/to increase concentration/confidence

17. To control stress or to relax /to avoid the emotions getting the better of you so we don’t get carried away or so that we can make decisions/quick decisions/to

shorten reaction time
24) Explain what might motivate someone to be an official in a physical activity (4)
Four marks for four from:

1. To try something different/novel/variety in life/let them have a go or experience officiating

2. Show them/teach/coach them how to officiate

3. To gain praise/positive feedback or to raise confidence

4. To gain rewards/badges

5. To make money eg by refereeing

6. To gain qualifications in order to eg umpire

7. To get involved in an activity because you are not a good player or because you enjoy power /authority

8. See role models as officials/see others officiate and want to do the same

9. To try at low level at first/have a go to see whether you enjoy it/set goals

10. Opportunities to make friends/join with others

11. Good for enjoyment/fun

12. Help to be active/get exercise/be more healthy, show how it might help health/fitness

13. Show how it might help you become a better performer/better at your sport

14. To help others/give something back to the activity (if ex-player)

15. As a career route/chance to participate in high level events/Olympics

16. All have to officiate at some time/fairness/leadership opportunities/want to be a role model

17. To make the game fairer or to reduce unfairness
JUNE 2013
18) Using examples for each, describe three ways of using extrinsic motivation to encourage young people to lead an active and healthy lifestyle (6)
1. Badges

2. Eg getting a swimming badge for successfully swimming a particular distance

3. Medals/cups/prizes/trophies/gain a title or recognition or fame

4. Eg gaining a medal/cup for winning a cycle race Eg county champion in tennis

5. Certificates

6. Eg for following a healthy lifestyle programme at school

7. Money/financial reward/gifts/sponsorship

8. Eg if you give up smoking your parents will give you £100

9. Praise

10. Eg Your teacher praises you for taking up exercise

11. Being accepted into a group/making friends

12. Eg you now have friends you gained whilst attending the gym club

13. Role models

14. Eg watching a premier league football player and wanting to be like him

15. Gaining a qualification

16. Eg achieving a GCSE in PE, a coaching award in gymnastics.
21) Explain how the SMART principle of goal setting can help someone stick to an exercise programme (5)
1. S = Specific–need to make the goal a particular target or eg to lose weight by 5 lbs

2. M = Measurable–need to be able to measure the goal or to know how well you have done/to assess progress

3. A = Achievable–must be within the capabilities of the individual/or A = Agreed–or eg you can agree your targets with your coach

4. R = Realistic–must be within the capabilities of the individual/or attainable/or R=Recorded–goals should be written down/able to see your progress

5. T = Time-phase/timed–goals should have a time given for completion

Other valid points:

6. Can motivate/encourage

7. Can help to control stress or anxiety.
DEVELOPING PHYSICAL AND MENTAL CAPACITY
SPECIMEN PAPER
16) How can physical activity keep our joints healthy (2)


  • Strengthening the connective tissue

  • Strengthening muscle

  • Keeping an varied exercise programme

  • Exercising regularly but with capabilities of younger person

17) Name one long term effect of exercise on the heart and the lungs. Describe how this effect enables people to follow an active healthy lifestyle (2)




  • Lower resting heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output

  • Better lung and tidal volumes

  • Prevent heart disease

  • To be able to keep going

  • To recover quicker

  • Be able to exercise without risk of health problems

  • To avoid lung disease / problems



JANUARY 2010
19) Explain, using practical examples, how a healthy, active lifestyle can maintain and develop the health of muscle (5)


  • Elasticity of muscles

  • Build muscle / hypertrophy / more fibres / strengthen muscle

  • Develop a good range of muscle

  • Less likely to get injured

  • Healthy eating

  • Resting muscles

  • Rehabilitation / physiotherapy

  • Increase in speed

  • Increase power

  • More endurance

MUST include practical examples of the above to gain a mark


20) Explain why mental preparation can enable fair play and improve performance in physical activities (4)


  • Helps control emotions / arousal / calms you down

  • Make you more logical / calmer decisions / play fairer

  • Cope better with stress / anxiety

  • Helps concentration / selective attention

  • React quicker

  • Raises confidence

  • Raises motivation / “psychs” you up

23) Explain the function of synovial fluid in joints (3)




  • Lubricates the joint

  • Protects and prevents injury

  • Ensures smooth efficient movement

  • Secreted by synovial membrane

  • Nourishes the cartilage

  • Helps stabilise the joint



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