Descriptive writing: Extract from



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Descriptive writing:

Extract from Jamaica Inn by Daphne du Maurier

It was a cold grey day in late November. The weather had changed overnight, when a backing wind brought a granite sky and a mizzling rain with it, and although it was now only a little after two o'clock in the afternoon the pallor of a winter evening seemed to have closed upon the hills, cloaking them in mist. It would be dark by four. The air was clammy cold, and for all the tightly closed windows it penetrated the interior of the coach. The leather seats felt damp to the hands, and there must have beena small crack in the roof, because now and again little drips of rain fell softly through, smudging the leather and leaving a dark-blue stain like a splodge of ink. The wind came in gusts, at times shaking the coach as it travelled round the bend of the road, and in the exposed places on the high ground it blew with such force that the whole body of the coach trembled and swayed, rocking between the high wheels like a drunken man.

The driver, muffled in a greatcoat to his ears, bent almost double in his seat in a faint endeavour to gain shelter from his own shoulders, while the dispirited horses plodded sullenly to his command, too broken by the wind and the rain to feel the whip that now and again cracked above their heads, while it swung between the numb fingers of the driver.


Personal narrative:

A Mind's Journey

What made me different from my siblings as I was growing up, was that I preferred to have a carefree and very often, quite reckless attitude towards life. While my elder sister and my little brother did their homework at home, I was out chasing the stray dogs and getting myself all messed up, with the neighborhood kids. My father always said I was a waste of life, but my mother always defended me saying I would make the whole family proud one day. When you're 9, you don't really think about making the family proud. All I could think of was when I'd get to go out and play again. But suddenly, in the summer of '96, I came home to a rude shock. My father had decided to leave us and settle down with another woman, who he claimed he loved. My mother refused to hand us over to him and he looked visibly relieved. You see, by now, I was well past my 'always out in the sun phase'. I had begun to look at people, and begun observing their facial expressions and begun to formulate stories and situations that they were in. More often than not, I was right about what they were thinking as well.


expository writing: making a cake

Chocolate cake with vanilla/almond frosting provides a tasty treat for any occasion. Follow the directions for making any flavor of chocolate cake. While the cake bakes in the oven, prepare a box of vanilla frosting mix added with roasted and buttered almond slivers. Evenly coated in melted butter the almond slivers toast in a hot skillet for approximately ten minutes. Thoroughly toast the slivers without turning them crispy. Cool the toasted almonds and set aside a handful for the final touch. Fold the almonds into the vanilla frosting, and after covering the cake, sprinkle a handful of toasted almonds on the top. After serving this desert to your guests they generally ask for the recipe of your chocolate/vanilla/almond cake. Now you have the opportunity to smile and...

Persuasive Writing:

Summer: 15 Days or 2 1/2 Months?

The final bell rings. It’s the last day of school, and summer has finally come! Students don’t have to think about school for at least another 2 1/2 months. That is the way it should always be. Schools should continue using the traditional calendar and not a year-round schedule. There are numerous downsides to year-round schooling. It has no positive effects on education, it adds to costs, and it disrupts the long-awaited summer vacation.

Contrary to the well-accepted belief, year-round schooling has no constructive impact on education. Most year-round schedules use the 45-15 method: 45 days of school followed by 15 days off. Because of this, there are many first and last days of school. All those transitions disrupt the learning process. Also, there is no evidence of higher test scores. Due to that, many schools that change to year-round schedules end up switching back. For example, since 1980, 95 percent of schools that tried the year-round schedule changed back to a traditional calendar. It is obvious that changing to year-round schooling does not help students; therefore, why is the change necessary?

Like any other facility, keeping a school open requires a great deal of money. When a school changes to a year-round schedule, the costs skyrocket. Keeping school open in the middle of summer requires air conditioning, and that adds significantly to the school’s expenses. The usual utility bills grow because of the additional open-school time. Finally, teachers must be paid for all the weeks they are working. With all these factors, the cost of keeping schools open becomes immensely high. For example, a high school in Arizona had a cost increase of $157,000 when they switched to year-round schooling. Some schools may not be able to handle such increases, and other schools that can handle these expenses could be doing better things with the money. Is year-round school really where the money should go?

An important part of a child’s life is summertime. With year-round schedules, students would hardly have any time to relax. During the 15-day breaks, they would be thinking about their quick return to school. It would also be difficult to coordinate family vacations with parents’ work schedules. Similarly, children would not be able to go to most summer camps. One expert, Dr. Peter Scales, says, “The biggest plus of camp is that camps help young people discover and explore their talents, interests, and values. Most schools don’t satisfy all these needs. Kids who have these kinds of [camp] experiences end up being healthier and have fewer problems.” Obviously, the summer is crucial to a child’s learning and development. Why should this invaluable part of a young person’s life be taken away?

It is evident that year-round schooling is not the best option for the school calendar. There is absolutely nothing wrong with the traditional school year. Why change something that works so well? The final bell rings. Let’s make sure this bell means that the “real” summer vacation has come.


Poetic:

Sonnet 130

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips' red ;
If snow be white, why then her skin is dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damask, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.

William Shakespeare

Technical writing:


Interest and Penalties

Interest. The IRS will charge you interest on taxes not paid by their due date, even if you had an extension of time to file. We will also charge you interest on penalties imposed for failure to file, negligence, fraud, substantial valuation misstatements, substantial understatements of tax, and reportable transaction understatements. Interest is charged on the penalty from the due date of the return (including extensions).

Penalty for late payment of tax. If you do not pay the additional tax due on Form 1040X within 21 calendar days from the date of notice and demand for payment (10 business days from that date if the amount of tax is $100,000 or more), the penalty is usually 1/2 of 1% of the unpaid amount for each month or part of a month the tax is not paid. The penalty can be as much as 25% of the unpaid amount and applies to any unpaid tax on the return. This penalty is in addition to interest charges on late payments. You will not have to pay the penalty if you can show reasonable cause for not paying your tax on time. Penalty for erroneous refund claim or credit. If you file a claim for refund or credit in excess of the amount allowable, you may have to pay a penalty equal to 20% of the disallowed amount, unless you can show a reasonable basis for the way you treated an item. The penalty will not be figured on any part of the disallowed amount of the claim that relates to the earned income credit or on which accuracy-related or fraud penalties are charged. Penalty for frivolous return. In addition to any other penalties, the law imposes a penalty of $5,000 for filing a frivolous return. A frivolous return is one that does not contain information needed to figure the correct tax or shows a substantially incorrect tax because you take a frivolous position or desire to delay or interfere with the tax laws. This includes altering or striking out the preprinted language above the space where you sign. For a list of positions identified as frivolous, see Notice 2010-33, 2010-17 I.R.B. 609, available at www.irs.gov/ irb/2010-17_IRB/ar13.html.

Other penalties. Other penalties can be imposed for negligence, substantial understatement of tax, reportable transaction understatements, and fraud. See Pub. 17, Your Federal Income Tax, for more information.
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