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CURRICULUM

OF



FORESTRY, RANGE, WATERSHED AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
FOR

BS/BSc (Hons.)

MS/MSc (Hons)/MPhil


(Revised 2014)




HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION

ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC

Prof. Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Chairman, HEC



Mr. Fida Hussain Director General (Acad)

Ms. Ghayyur Fatima Director (Curri)

Mr. Rizwan Shoukat Deputy Director (Curri)

Mr. Abid Wahab Assistant Director (Curri)

Mr. Riaz-ul-Haque Assistant Director (Curri)

Composed by: Mr. Zulfiqar Ali, HEC, Islamabad



TABLE OF CONTENTS


S. No.

Items

Page No.



Introduction

6



Framework for Scheme of Studies for BSc (Hons) in Agricultural Disciplines

9



Framework/Scheme of Studies for BS Forestry (4 years) Degree

11



Detail of Courses for BS Forestry (Semester I-IV)

16



Common Courses of both BS Forestry & BSc (Hons) Agriculture (Major in Forestry), Semester V-VIII

47



Detail of Courses for BSc (Hons) Agriculture major in Forestry (Semester I-IV)*

69



Forestry Specialization Courses

71



Scheme of Studies for MS/MSc (Hons) Forestry

111



Detail of Courses for MS/MSc (Hons) Forestry

113



Recommendations

146

*From semester V-VIII, scheme of studies is same for both BS Forestry and BSc (Hons) Agriculture major in Forestry


PREFACE
The curriculum, with varying definitions, is said to be a plan of the teaching-learning process that students of an academic programme are required to undergo. It includes objectives & learning outcomes, course contents, scheme of studies, teaching methodologies and methods of assessment of learning. Since knowledge in all disciplines and fields is expanding at a fast pace and new disciplines are also emerging; it is imperative that curricula be developed and revised accordingly.
University Grants Commission (UGC) was designated as the competent authority to develop, review and revise curricula beyond Class-XII vide Section 3, Sub-Section 2 (ii), Act of Parliament No. X of 1976 titled “Supervision of Curricula and Textbooks and Maintenance of Standard of Education”. With the repeal of UGC Act, the same function was assigned to the Higher Education Commission (HEC) under its Ordinance of 2002, Section 10, Sub-Section 1 (v).
In compliance with the above provisions, the Curriculum Division of HEC undertakes the revision of curricula after every three years through respective National Curriculum Revision Committees (NCRCs) which consist of eminent professors and researchers of relevant fields from public and private sector universities, R&D organizations, councils, industry and civil society by seeking nominations from their organizations.
In order to impart quality education which is at par with international standards, HEC NCRCs have developed unified templates as guidelines for the development and revision of curricula in the disciplines of Basic Sciences, Applied Sciences, Social Sciences, Agriculture and Engineering in 2007 and 2009.
It is hoped that this curriculum document, prepared by the respective NCRC’s, would serve the purpose of meeting our national, social and economic needs, and it would also provide the level of competency specified in Pakistan Qualification Framework to make it compatible with international educational standards. The curriculum is also placed on the website of HEC (www.hec.gov.pk).
(Fida Hussain)

Director General (Academics)
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
Canvas 44

INTRODUCTION:
The final meeting of National Curriculum Revision Committee (NCRC) in the discipline of Forestry, Range, Watershed and Wildlife Management was held from April 14-16, 2014 at HEC Regional Centre, Peshawar. The objective of the meeting was to finalize the draft curriculum of BS (Forestry)/BSc. (Hons.) Agriculture major in Forestry and MS (Forestry)/MSc. (Hons.)/MPhil. The objective also included the preparation of scheme of studies for MS/MPhil Forestry with recommendations for the advancement of the discipline. The list of the members who attended the meeting is as under:


Sr. No.

Name & Address

Status




Prof. Dr. Nowshad Khan,

Dean/Chairman,

Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,

Allama Iqbal Open University,

Islamabad.


Convener



Dr. Muhammad Tahir Siddiqui,

Professor,

Department of Forestry, Range Management & Wildlife, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.


Co-Convener /Member



Dr. Mamoona Wali Mohammad,

Assistant Professor,

Forest Education Division,

Pakistan Forest Institute (PFI),

University of Peshawar, Peshawar.


Secretary/Member



Dr. Muhammad Irfan Ashraf

Lecturer, Department of Forestry, Range Management,

PMAS, Arid Agriculture University,

Murree Road, Rawalpindi.




Member



Dr. Irfan Ashraf Manj,

Assistant Professor,

Department of Forestry, Range and Wildlife Management, University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences, BJ Campus, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur.


Member



Mr. Asif Jah,

Director, Forest Research Division,

Pakistan Forest Institute (PFI),

University of Peshawar, Peshawar.




Member



Mr. Maqsood Ahmad,

Director,

Department of Natural Resources Division,

Pakistan Agriculture Research Council (PARC), 20-Attaturk Avenue, Sector G-5/1, P.O. Box 1031, Islamabad.




Member



Mr. Alamgir Khan Gundapur,

Chief Conservator (R),

Government of KPK, Peshawar.


Member



Dr. Shahid Yaqoob,

Associate Professor,

Department of Forestry, Range Management & Wildlife, University of Agriculture,

Faisalabad.




Member



Dr. Muhammad Sajjad Haider,

Assistant Professor,

Department of Forestry,

University College of Agriculture,

University of Sargodha, Sargodha.


Member



Dr. Muhammad Saeed,

Associate Professor, Department of Plant Science, Balochistan University of Information Tech (BUITEMS) Engineering and Management Sciences, Quetta.




Member



Dr. Muhammad Rafay

Assistant Professor

Department of Forestry, Range and Wildlife Management, University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences,

BJ Campus, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur.




Member

13.

Syed Kamran Hussain,

Research Coordinator,

World Wildlife Fund,

2-A Circular Road, University Town, Peshawar




Member

The following members who attended the preliminary meeting but could not attend the final meeting due to other engagements:


  1. Ms. Mehreen Hassan, Member

Lecturer, Institute of Agricultural Science,

Quaid-e-Azam Campus (New Campus),

University of the Punjab, Lahore.


  1. Dr. Muhammad Zubair, Member

Associate Professor,

Department of Forestry,

Faculty of Agriculture,

Bahauddin Zakaria University,

Multan


  1. Mr. Javed Iqbal, Member

Lecturer,

Department of Forestry,

Shaheed BB University,

Sheringal, Dir (Upper)


The meeting started with recitation of the verses from the Holy Quran followed by national anthem. Mr. Zaheer Ahmed Awan, Director RC, Peshawar the inaugurated the session. After brief introduction of participants, Mr. Awan welcomed the participants on the behalf of Executive Director, HEC and thanked them for sparing time for this important exercise. Mr. Awan, also assured all type of support to the members during their stay to make this event a success.
Prof. Dr. Nowshad Khan, Dean/Chairman, Faculty of Sciences, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad being Convener of the meeting opted Dr. Muhammad Tahir Siddiqui, Professor, Department of Forestry, Range Management and Wildlife, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, as Co-Convener, Dr. Mamoona Wali Muhammad, Assistant Professor, Forest Education Division, Pakistan Forest Institute (PFI), University of Peshawar, Peshawar as Secretary. Mr. Riaz-ul-Haque, Assistant Director Curriculum, HEC then requested the Convener of the Committee to conduct proceedings of all technical sessions of the meeting. The convener started proceedings of the meeting in accordance with the agenda.
The Committee thoroughly examined the contents and recommended list of books of all the subjects included in the curriculum semester wise. NCRC members revised and improved the contents of the subjects and recommended few new books which were to be added in this curriculum. After three days’ hard work and scholarly deliberations, the committee unanimously proposed the outlines of Final Draft curriculum of the Forestry for BS/BSc (Hons), MS/MSc (Hons)/MPhil degrees.
The NCRC members were requested to improve the recommended books pertaining to different subjects in the curriculum and submit to Convener/ Secretary for onward transmission to HEC. The committee decided to complete the editing as per proposed outlines and submit to HEC, Islamabad. The Committee agreed that the Recommendations framed during the meeting will be published as Annexure in the final booklet of curriculum circulated by HEC for Adoption/Implementation to universities/institutes of Pakistan.
The Convener thanked the members for their valuable inputs in revising and updating the curriculum keeping in view the national requirements and to make these degrees more practical, competitive and knowledge enriched. The committee appreciated the efforts made by Mr. Riaz-ul-Haque, Assistant Director HEC/Meeting Coordinator for his coordination and appraised the efforts by Mr. Zaheer Ahmed Awan, Director Regional Center, Peshawar for providing local hospitality.
At the end Mr. Riaz-ul-Haque, Assistant Director (Curriculum), HEC thanked the Convener and all the members of the committee for sparing precious time and quality contribution for finalizing curriculum in the discipline of Forestry.
The meeting ended with vote of thanks to and from the chair.
FRAMEWORK FOR BSc (HONS.)

IN AGRICULTURAL DISCIPLINES

Duration:

4 years

Number of semesters:

8

Weeks per semester:

16 - 18 (16 for teaching and 2 for exams)

Total credit hours:

130-140

Credit hours per semester:

15-18

Agriculture Courses:

77%

Non-Agriculture Courses:

23%


NON-AGRICULTURE DOMAIN


Knowledge

Area


Subject

Area


Name of Course

Cr. Hrs.


Total

Courses



Total

Credits


Disciplines %

age Area

Over

all

% age


Humanities

English

English-I (Functional English)

3

2

6

19.35

4.44

English-II (Communication Skills)

3

Culture

Pakistan Studies

2

2

4

12.9

2.96

Islamic Studies/ Ethics

2

Social

Rural Development

3

2

6

19.35

4.44

Sciences

Marketing and Agri Business

3

Computing

IT

Intro to Communication Technology

3

1

3

9.70

2.22

Natural Science

Mathematics

/ Biology



Maths-I / Botany

3

2

6

19.35

4.44

Maths-II / Zoology

3

Statistics

Statistics-I

3

2

6

19.35

4.44

Statistics-II

3







Sub-Total




11

31

100

23



AGRICULTURE DOMAIN

Interdiscipli

nary



Agriculture

Foundation



Basic Agriculture

3

9

27

26.0

20.0

Agronomy

3

Plant Breeding and Genetics

3

Entomology

3

Plant Pathology

3

Food Technology

3

Horticulture

3

Soil Sciences

3

Agricultural Economics

3

Supporting

Courses



Breadth

Courses


Agriculture Extension



3


4-6

12-18

15.0

11.0







Forestry and Range Management

3













Animal Sciences

3

Human Nutrition

3

Agriculture Chemistry

3

Agriculture Engineering

3

Water Management

3

Any other recommended by university

3

Major Courses



Major

Based


Core

(Depth)


Major



3



18-20



56-60



55.0



43.0



Project /

Internship






Project / Internship and study Tours

4

-




4

3







Total

-

31-35

99-109

100

77




Grand-Total

-

42-46

130-140

-



FRAMEWORK/SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS

FORESTRY (4 YEARS) DEGREE


Duration:

4 years

Number of semesters:

8

Weeks per semester:

16 - 18 (16 for teaching and 2 for exams)

Total credit hours:

130-140

Credit hours per semester:

15-18

Forestry Courses:

77%

Non-Forestry

23%


Courses for I-IV Semester for BS Forestry (4 Years) Degree


Semester I

S #

Course

Credit hours

1.

Biology /

Mathematics*



3 (2-1)/

3 (3-0)


2.

Introduction to Information and Communication Technologies

3 (2-1)

3.

Introduction to Forestry (Orientation Tour)

3(2-1)

4.

English-I (Functional English)

3 (3-0)

5.

Pakistan Studies

2(2-0)

6.

Islamic Studies /Ethics**

2(2-0)

7.

Orientation Tour

1(0-1)




Total

17 (13-4)/(14-3)*

*Mathematics (to be offered to the students who have done F.Sc Pre-Medical) and Biology (to be offered to students who have done F.Sc Pre-Engg).

**for non-Muslims



Semester II



Elementary Statistics

3 (3-0)



English-II (Communication Skills)

3 (3-0)



Introduction to Environment

3(2-1)



Geology and Soil Science

3 (2-1)



Forest Pathology

3(2-1)



Principles of Economics

3(3-0)




Total

18(15-3)




Semester III



Sociology

2 (2-0)



Public Policy and Administration

2 (2-0)



Forest Genetics

3(2-1)



Forest Ecology

3 (3-0)



Forest Entomology

3 (2-1)



Forest Taxonomy

3 (2-1)



Forest Accounts and Procedure

2(2-0)




Total

18 (15-3)

Semester IV



Forest Engineering I

3 (2-1)



Biodiversity and Climate Change

3 (2-1)



Participatory Forestry

3 (2-1)



Introduction to GIS Remote Sensing

3 (2-1)



Integrated Land Use Management Systems

3 (2-1)



Forestry Extension

3 (3-0)




Total

18 (13-5)


Courses for Semester V-VII the courses for BS Forestry (4 years) and BSc (Hons) and Agriculture (Major in Forestry)*



Semester V



Energy Plantations

3 (2-1)



Forest Policy and Law

3 (3-0)



Wood Science and Technology

3 (2-1)



Forest Survey and Leveling

3 (2-1)



Silviculture-I

2 (2-0)



Forest Engineering II

2 (1-1)



Study Tour (Forest Types)

2(0-2)




Total

18(12-6)




Semester VI

1

Forest Management

3 (3-0)

2

Watershed Management

3 (2-1)

3

Range Management

3 (2-1)

4

Wildlife Management

3 (2-1)

5

Forest Biometrics

3 (2-1)

6.

Non-Wood Forest Products

2 (2-0)

7.

Study Tour (Forest Management)

1 (0-1)




Total

18 (13-5)

Semester VII



Ecotourism and Park Management

2(2-0)



Forest Resource Economics

2(2-0)



Silviculture-II

3 (2-1)



03 Elective Courses

9 credit hours




Total

16 (15-1)

* From Semester V_ VII the courses for BS Forestry (4 years) and BSc (Hons.)

Agriculture (Major in Forestry) will be same.
Courses for VIII semester for BS Forestry (4 Years) Degree




Forest Management Plan – I

3(3-0)



Forest Management Plan – II

4(0-4)



Research Methods and Scientific Writing

4(4-0)



Research Project / Internship & Study Tour

4(0-4)




Total

15 (7-8)




Grand Total

138 (104-34)


List of Specialization Courses
One of the following specializations may be opted for, subject to approval of concerned forestry institution/university:




Forest Management

  1. Forest Inventory & Analysis

  2. Conservation Forest Management

  3. Production Forest Management

9 (6-3)

3 (2-1)


3 (2-1)

3 (2-1)




Watershed Management

  1. Soil Conservation Techniques

  2. Forest Meteorology

  3. Forest and Range Hydrology

9 (6-3)

3 (2-1)


3 (2-1)

3 (2-1)




Range Management

  1. Range Vegetation Analysis

  2. Livestock Nutrition and Grazing Management

  3. Drought Management in Rangelands

9 (7-2)

3 (2-1)


3 (2-1)

3 (3-0)




GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques

  1. Digital Cartography

  2. Land Use Planning

  3. Forest / Range Assessment and Monitoring

9 (3-6)

3 (1-2)


3 (1-2)

3 (1-2)





Participatory Forest Management

  1. Community Based Forestry

  2. Participatory Forest Management Planning

  3. Participatory Forest Assessment

9 (7-2)

3 (3-0)


3 (2-1)

3 (2-1)




Sericulture

  1. Silkworm Rearing

  2. Silk Seed and Cocoon Technology

  3. Moriculture

9 (5-4)

3 (2-1)


4 (2-2)

2 (1-1)




Wood Science and Technology

  1. Wood Harvesting Techniques

  2. Wood Structure and Identification

  3. Wood Testing and Processing

  4. Wood Based Products

9 (5-4)

2 (1-1)


2 (1-1)

2 (1-1)


3 (2-1)



Wildlife Management

  1. Wildlife Biology and Ecology

  2. Wildlife Management and Research

  3. Wildlife Policies, Laws and Administration




9 (9-0)

3(3-0)


3(3-0)

3(3-0)





Agro Forestry

  1. Agro Forestry Systems

  2. Farm Forestry Management

  3. Marketing of Agro Forestry Products

9 (7-2)

3 (3-0)


3 (2-1)

3 (2-1)


10.

Forest Engineering and Logging

  1. Forest Machinery

  2. Forest Logging

  3. Applied Mechanics of Forestry

9 (7-2)

3 (3-0)


3 (2-1)

3 (2-1)


11.

Environmental Forestry

  1. Environment and Forestry

  2. Environmental Pollution and Mitigation

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment

  4. Environmental Policies and Laws

9 (7-2)

2 (2-0)


3 (3-0)

2 (1-1)


2 (1-1)

12.

Forestry and Climate Change

  1. Forest, Carbon and Climate Change

  2. Trends in Forestry and Climate Change

  3. Tree Eco-Physiology

9 (7-2)

3 (2-1)


3 (3-0)

3 (2-1)


13.

Non Wood Forest Products

  1. Production Technology of Medicinal Plants/Pharmacognocy

  2. Sericulture and Apiculture Techniques

  3. Minor Forest Products

  4. Economics of Non Wood Forest Products

9 (7-2)

3 (3-0)


3 (2-1)

2 (1-1)


1 (1-0)


Scheme of Studies for BSc (Hons.) Major in Forestry
Semester I-IV


S #

Course

Credit hours

1.

Introduction to Forestry and Watershed Management

3 (2-1)

2.

Introduction to Rangeland and Wildlife Management

3 (2-1)

3.

Other Compulsory courses, Interdisciplinary foundation courses and supporting courses

64-70




Total

70-76


DETAIL OF Courses for bs FORESTRY (4 Years)

Semester I-IV
SEMESTER- I
1. BIOLOGY 3 (2-1)
Course Objectives:
To impart knowledge and comprehension regarding description of morphology and physiology of plants and animals.
Theory:
Botany

1. Definition and Branches of Botany

2. Morphology

Parts of a typical plant

Structure of monocot and dicot seeds

Germination of seed; Epigieal and Hypogeal

Stem; description of different kinds of stem

Leaf; description of various kinds of leaves

Inflorescence; description of different kinds of inflorescence

Flower; description of flower and its parts and pollination

Fruit; description of fruits and mode of dispersal of seed

3. Reproduction

Reproduction in flowering plants (sexual), description of various methods of vegetative propagation (asexual)

4. Histology; description of internal structure of root, stem and leaf

5. Physiology

Description of mechanism of absorption of water and mineral salts and ascent of sap

Photosynthesis; necessary conditions, biochemistry and its economic importance

Respiration: Aerobic and an aerobic, limiting factors, comparison with photosynthesis and metabolism

Growth and developments; development of roots and shoots, factors affecting the development of plant organs

Movement and storage of materials in green plants


Zoology

  1. Differences between plants and animals

  2. Protoplasm and its chemical composition

  3. Structure of animal’s cell

  4. Animal’s cell division (Mitosis and Meiosis)

  5. Classification of animal kingdom with characteristics of important phyla

  6. Digestive system of animals and mechanism of digestion in animals

  7. Blood vascular system or circulatory system of animals

  8. The blood and its composition

  9. Methods of respiration of animals

  10. Methods of excretion of animals

  11. Patterns of reproduction in animals. Hormonal control of female reproductive cycle

  12. Nervous system of animals

  13. Methods of locomotion in animals

  14. Organic evolution- Evidences of evolution

  15. Theories of evolution;




    1. Lamarck’s theory

    2. Darwin’s theory

    3. Mutation theory




  1. Animal’s behaviors- Instinct behavior, Learning behavior, Social behavior


Practical (Botany):

  1. Demonstration, drawing and labeling of various parts of dicot seeds.

  2. Phylotaxy of leaves, simple and compound leaves and modification of leaves to scales, thorns, tendrils etc.

  3. Aerial and underground stem; stem modification to thorn and tendril, Rhizomes, corns, tubers, bulbs.

  4. Roots; forms of roots

  5. Racemos and Cymose inflorescence

  6. Study of parts of flowers and fruits


Practical (Zoology):
Identification and sketching of labeled diagrams and classification of the following animal specimen:

      1. Amoeba, Paramecium

      2. Hydra, Red coral

      3. Roundworm, Earthworm

      4. Cray fish, cuttle fish, Snail

      5. Star fish, Sea Urchin, Sea Cucumber

      6. Rahu fish, Frog

      7. Lizard, Snake, Rat, Bat


Recommended Books:

Botany:

  1. A text book of Botany by Ahmad S.S. 1990. Sheikh and Sons Publishers, 42 Urdu Bazar, Lahore.

  2. A class book of Botany by Dutta A.C. 1950. Oxford University, Press

  3. Text Book of Botany by Lawson and Sahni 1954. University Tutorial Press, London.

  4. A text book of general botany Vol. II. Angiosperms by Nawaz M. 1980. Academic Publisher, Talimi Markaz Ltd, 3 Kabir Street, Urdu Bazar, Lahore.


Zoology:

  1. A text Book of Intermediate Zoology by Ahmad, S.S. 1966.

  2. Biological Sciences - An Enquiry into life. Punjab Text Book Board-Lahore

  3. Text book of biology class XI and XII, Published by Idara-i-Farogh-i-Taleem, Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Text book Board, Peshawar.


1. MATHEMATICS 3 (3-0)
Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level
Objectives:

To prepare the students, with the essential tools of algebra and geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines.


Algebra:

Preliminaries: Real-number system, complex numbers, introduction to sets, set operations, functions, types of functions.
Matrices: Introduction to matrices, types, matrix inverse, determinants, system of linear equations, Cramer’s rule.
Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations, qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations, equations reducible to quadratic equations, cube roots of unity, relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations.
Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression, geometric progression, harmonic progression.
Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction, binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices.
Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry, trigonometric identities.
Geometry:

Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh, slope of a line, equation of a line, parallel and perpendicular lines, various forms of equation of a line, intersection of two lines, angle between two lines, distance between two points, distance between a point and a line.
Recommended Books:

  1. Algebra and Trigonometry by Dolciani M. P., W. Wooton W, E.F. Beckenback, S. Sharron. 1978. Houghton and Mifflin, Boston (suggested text)

  2. College Algebra and Trigonometry by Kaufmann J. E. 1987. PWS-Kent Company, Boston

  3. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry by Swokowski E. W. 1986. Sixth edition. PWS-Kent Company, Boston. Analytic Geometry by Abraham S. 1969. Scott, Freshman and Company.

  4. Analytic Geometry by Abraham S. 1969. Scott, Freshman and Company



2. INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION

TECHNOLOGIES 3 (2-1)
Objectives:

To acquaint the students to understand the basic of Information and Communication Technologies.


Theory:

Topics include ICT terminologies, hardware and software components, the internet and World Wide Web, and ICT based applications.


After completing this course, a student will be able to:

  • Terms associated with ICT

  • Various components of a computer system

  • Various categories of software and their usage

  • Basic terms associated with communications and networking

  • Terms associated with the Internet and World Wide Web.

  • Various web tools including Web Browsers, E-mail clients and search utilities.

  • Text processing, spreadsheets and presentation tools

  • Enabling/pervasive features of ICT

Practical:

Basic Definitions and Concepts

Hardware: Computer Systems and Components

Storage Devices, Number Systems

Software: Operating Systems, Programming and Application Software

Introduction to Programming, Databases and Information Systems

Networks

Data Communication

The Internet, Browsers and Search Engines

The Internet: Email, Collaborative Computing and Social Networking

The Internet: E-Commerce

IT Security and other issues

Project Week

Review Week


Recommended Books:

  1. Introduction to Computers by Norton P. 6th International Edition .McGraw-Hill.

  2. Using Information Technology: A Practical Introduction to Computer and Communications by Williams Sawyer, 6th Edition (McGraw-Hill)

  3. Computers, Communications and information: A user's introduction by Sarah E. H. and S. C. Swayer.

  4. Fundamentals of Information Technology by Leon A. Mathewsleon Leon Press.


3. INTRODUCTION TO FORESTRY 3 (2-1)
Objectives:

To orientate the students with forests, their importance and issues concerning forest protection.


Theory:


  1. Definition of forest and forestry.

  2. Forest resources of Pakistan and their distribution of forests in different ecological zones with species composition.

  3. Economic, social and environmental importance of forests.

  4. Main issues in protections and development of forest resources in Pakistan.

  5. Measures taken for protection and development of forest resources (legal, technical, social and financial).


Practical:
Orientation to various forest of different ecological zones and forest resources. Documentation in the tour journal.
Recommended Books:

  1. Forest Types of Pakistan, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.1965 by Champion, H.G., Seth, S.K. and Khattak, G.M.

  2. The State of Forestry in Pakistan, (annual reports) Forest Economics Branch, Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar.


4. ENGLISH-I (FUNCTIONAL ENGLISH) 3 (3-0)
Objectives:

Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.


Theory:

Basics of Grammar, Parts of speech and use of articles. Sentence structure, active and passive voice. Practice in unified sentence. Analysis of phrase, clause and sentence structure .Transitive and intransitive verbs. Punctuation and spelling
Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text
Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students)
Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers

Translation skills Urdu to English

Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher
Presentation skills Introduction
Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building
Recommended Books:

a) Grammar

1. Practical English Grammar by Thomson A.J. and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 1. 1997. Third edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313492

2. Practical English Grammar by Thomson A.J. and A.V. Martinet. Exercises 2. 1986. Third edition. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0194313506

b) Writing

1. Writing Intermediate by Boutin M.C., S. Brinand and F. Grellet. 1993. Fourth Impression . Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 435405 7. Pages 20-27 and 35-41.


c) Reading/Comprehension

1. Reading Upper Intermediate. Tomlinson B. and R. Ellis. 1992. Third Impression. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.


5. PAKISTAN STUDIES 2 (2-0)

Objectives:
Develop vision of historical perspective, government, politics, contemporary Pakistan, and ideological background of Pakistan.

Theory:

  1. Historical Perspective

    1. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

    2. Factors leading to Muslim separatism

    3. People and Land

      1. Indus Civilization

      2. Muslim advent

      3. Location and geo-physical features.

  2. Government and Politics in Pakistan

Political and constitutional phases:

    1. 1947-58

    2. 1958-71

    3. 1971-77

    4. 1977-88

    5. 1988-99

    6. 1999 onward

  1. Contemporary Pakistan

    1. Economic institutions and issues

    2. Society and social structure

    3. Ethnicity

    4. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges

    5. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan


Recommended Books:

  1. State and Society in Pakistan by Burki, S.J. 1980. The MacMillan Press Ltd.

  2. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy by Akbar S. Z. 2000. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

  3. Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis by Burke S.M. and L. Ziring. 1993. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

  4. Pakistan Political Roots and Development by Mehmood S. 1994. Lahore.

  5. The Emergence of Banglades by Wilcox W. 1972. Washington: American Enterprise, Institute of Public Policy Research

  6. Pakistan Kayyun Toota by Mehmood S. Lahore: Idara-e-Saqafat-e-Islamia, Club Road.

  7. Ethno - National Movement in Pakistan by Amin, T. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad.

  8. Enigma of Political Development. By Ziring L. 1980. Kent England: WmDawson and sons Ltd

  9. History and Culture of Sindh by Zahid A. 1980. Karachi: Royal Book Company

  10. Political Parties in Pakistan, Vol. I, II and III. By Afzal M.R. 1998. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research

  11. The Political System of Pakistan. By Sayeed K. B. 1967. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

  12. Party, Politics in Pakistan by Aziz K.K. 1976. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.

  13. Pakistan Under Martial Law by Waseem M. 1987. Lahore: Vanguard.

  14. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. By Haq N.U. 1993. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.


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