More than two weeks before you submit your SAP, you have to determine your topic for your Security Policy Paper. (To find out what an SPP is see ‘What is a Security Policy Paper (SPP)?’ below.) Your SPP topic may or may not be different from, and/or related to, your SAP topic.
In some cases, a course sponsor or Service Chief may provide a CM with a topic for their SPP. Please advise the Academic Adviser if this applies to you.
You are welcome to discuss your SPP topic and the scope of this paper with your SD and the Academic Adviser.
Once you have determined your SPP topic, put this information into a signed Minute addressed to the Academic Adviser and your Home Syndicate Director. You will also need to send them electronic copies of this minute. Appendix B provides an example of an SPP Minute. Your Minute must be no more than a page. It must nominate the topic that you will write about and why you have chosen it. The Minute must also include your name and email address. You will not be held rigidly to the title of the topic provided in the Minute, although you must stay in the same subject and/or geographic area. If unsure, see the Academic Adviser. To submit your Minute, see ‘Submission of documents’ below.
In deciding the topic for your SPP, bear in mind that the aim of the paper is to display that you are able to understand and synthesise some of the issues and their implications that you have examined in Block 3, Block 4 and Block 5. The topic for your SPP should therefore be about issues or drivers that you think will come out of the discussion of these more security and defence-related environments and to which you can formulate appropriate, viable and achievable policy responses.
A plan that details how you intend to complete your SPP.
You must submit a plan to your Home SD and Academic Adviser that informs them of how you intend to complete your Security Policy Paper. This must be in the form of a document titled ‘SPP Outline’. It is also a prerequisite to completing your SPP and obtaining your Graduate Certificate (Strategic Studies).
Your SPP Outline needs to provide a research and writing plan that shows how you intend to undertake the completion of your SPP. It must briefly and clearly:
identify the main policy recommendation for your topic,
show the possible sections of your SPP, and,
provide a proposed timetable for writing the various sections of your SPP.
More specifically, your plan must include a synopsis of your SPP’s policy thrust, along with four or five proposed section headings for each topic, each with a (brief) paragraph summarising the contents.
At this stage, it is important to have thought out - or at least to have started to think about - the main points of your proposed policies, how and which bodies will implement these, any likely outcomes and obstacles that they may confront, the financial cost and implications of your proposed policies, etc. However, your plan is a guide only. It is designed to get you focusing on what is needed to complete your SPP. You will not be rigidly held to the details provided in it.
To submit your SPP Outline, see ‘Submission of documents’ below. Your SD will return your plan to you soon after you submit it. It will be marked as ‘satisfactory’ or ‘unsatisfactory’. He/she may also provide some feedback on it and may suggest modifications, additions, etc.
What is a Security Policy Paper (SPP)?
Offers realistic policy; has resource implications statement.
For CMs undertaking the Graduate Certificate (Strategic Studies), the Security Policy Paper is a written piece of 3,000 words. It is also one of the major requirements needed to obtain your Graduate Certificate.
Each SPP must provide full references where appropriate or needed, preferably using footnotes at the bottom of each page. However, some policy that you formulate may be your own original work/ideas and therefore will not need to be referenced. You are free to determine the structure of your SPP, although this would best be done in consultation with your SD or the Academic Adviser.
If your SPP flows from or is related to your SAP, you will need to acknowledge this via a footnote early on in your SPP. The text for both documents will also need to be totally different, i.e. you cannot ‘cut and paste’ text from your SAP into your SPP. This is totally unacceptable. The two papers must be ‘stand alone’ documents.
Your SPP must discuss and provide appropriate, viable and achievable policy responses to a security- and/or defence-related issue. The paper may be written from the perspective of Australia or another nation in the Asia-Pacific region. You must make it clear from which national government perspective you are writing (e.g. Australia, China, PNG, etc.).
Your SPP must then identify and discuss the significant security or defence issue, defect/shortcoming or need that you have identified to be the problem. It must discuss and analyse why this issue is important and/or why it is a current (or future) security problem. As a rough rule, use about 20 per cent of your paper to engage in this contextualising process. That is, about 600 words.
The rest of your SPP—the bulk of it: about 80 per cent—must then provide appropriate, viable and achievable policies that address how to deal with this issue that you have raised. In other words, you must propose or recommend possible suggestions, solutions or policy options that will overcome or remedy the problem that you have identified and argue why and how these policies would/will successfully work to solve or overcome the problem. You may propose various economic, military, diplomatic, environmental and other policies as you see fit - and can reasonably argue. These of course may be original ideas and/or policies never before envisaged or espoused, in which case you probably will not be able to support them with references. It is fine to be original.
Your SPP should therefore seek to argue that ‘a’ or ‘a and b’ or ‘a, b and c’, etc., are the problem and that ‘x, y and z’ policies, etc., should be implemented - and why and how these policies will work. These must be specific policy prescriptions, not broad and sweeping generalisations. Your SPP must also detail how and which bodies should/would implement your policies, and argue why and how these policies would work. You may also need to consider how you may overcome any potential opposition to the policies that you propose.
Your SPP therefore gives you the chance to be creative and formulate imaginative policy responses to the significant issue/defect/need that you have raised. However, the options and suggestions that you make in your SPP must be realistic.
To avoid creating expensive policy ‘wish lists’, it is a requirement that you must include a resource implications statement in your SPP.This must take into account the current budgetary parameters of ‘your’ government and/or otherwise fully justify any change in national spending priorities. In other words, if you don’t believe that what you are proposing will cost any more money, then you must say so - although you may also need to discuss where you will get/move the money from to implement your policies. Equally, if you are proposing something that would radically alter the current budgetary position of ‘your’ nation, you need to discuss and/or justify where the new revenue will come from, e.g. from increased taxation, a reallocation of resources, a re-ordering of capability development priorities, a ‘fire sale’ of national assets, etc.
The resource implications statement does not need to be long or detailed - a paragraph or two will be sufficient. But somewhere in your SPP, your assessor will be looking for some words on the issue of how you will finance the policies that you have recommended.
To submit your SPP, see ‘Submission of documents’ below.
Academic supervision, research and writing
It may be some time since you have researched, written and produced any academic-type documents. This section deals with these matters and offers suggestions about the type of prose and documents that the CDSS expects you to provide in order to obtain your Graduate Certificate. It also discusses the role of supervision.
With the exception of Assignment 1, one useful way to focus your research and writing is to determine, then answer, one ‘big question’. Once you have formulated this question, it is easier to collect relevant information and write a focused paper that mounts and sustains an argument that seeks to answer your question. Don’t be afraid to mount an argument that puts your point of view - supported by relevant evidence, of course. This is good academic ‘form’.
Academic help available
You are not alone as you research and write your assignments, SAP and SPP. Apart from other CMs, the CDSS’s SDs can also offer you guidance, instruction and help, they can act as a sounding board for your ideas and plans, and they may review a draft of your written material (see Defence and Strategic Studies Course Deliverable Submission Details for any constraints on certain SDs who may be involved as a marker). Apart from your SD, contact the CDSS’s Academic Adviser, particularly if you have any questions about what comprises suitable academic practice, standards and requirements.
Past experience suggests that, if you are having any difficulties with your written work, it is better to contact someone sooner rather than later.
If you require specific help with your English expression and/or for someone to edit your paper before you submit it for assessment, the CDSS employs an English-language consultant, Ms. Rouna MacNiven, to help with such matters. Rouna can be contacted on email@example.com. Her services are available to all OCMs. Rouna will brief all CMs early in the Course.
Ultimately, your final ‘product’ will depend on what you write and how it is written, with CDSS staff only really able to help with structure, in the development of your style and with a critique of your content, argument and academic practices. Hence, it is your written work for which you are responsible and with which you must be happy and satisfied - regardless of what others say or do.
Undertaking research: libraries
It is essential to read both widely and intensively on the topics that you have chosen for your written work, particularly your SAP and SPP. When taking notes and/or photocopies of research items, it is better to take more notes rather than less. This invariably will save you time in the long run. Always be sure to note the full publication details of the item you are reading, including: the name of the author/s or editor/s; its full title; place of publication; publisher; date of publication; edition (first, second, fifth, etc.) or volume number; and, most importantly, the page number/s from which you have taken any notes or quotes. It is also handy to note the publication’s location and call number in case you need to check on something at a later date, e.g. the wording or page number of a quote.
The first place to begin your research is in the Vane Green Library at Weston Creek. All DSSC CMs have access to this library, the qualified staff of which are very helpful and can assist you greatly with your research. You can also borrow items from this library and photocopy (free of charge) relevant articles that you find there. The Vane Green Library also has access to other libraries in Australia and overseas, as well as to the Department of Defence’s library system.
Canberra also has a number of world-class libraries that you can access via the Internet and that may have information of use to your research. These include the Australian National Library and libraries at the Australian National University, the University of Canberra and the Australian Defence Force Academy. There is also an array of good local public libraries.
CMs should also keep up to date in their area of interest—and with international relations/strategic policy/news in general - by accessing on a daily basis a ‘quality’ newspaper, such as The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age, The Australian or The Australian Financial Review. The ADC Library has copies of such newspapers, other current affairs-type magazines and a range of interesting academic journals that would be useful for your research. These may also offer further ‘leads’ in your area of interest.
The Internet is another source of information, although you must be realistic about using websites as references, chiefly as you cannot always be sure of a site’s veracity. Many websites lack balance and objectivity; some are plain bogus or propaganda tools. Website material also has another major flaw: material from it often disappears as websites come and go and/or are altered or reorganised from time to time. Therefore, if you use Internet material, keep a hard copy of any key material that you decide to use in your written work as your assessor may ask to see it if he/she cannot find it elsewhere.
Academic writing and the argument
Academic writing is different from government report writing or journalism. Generally speaking, a government report may operate inside a taken-for-granted set of conceptual and political assumptions. It usually describes the situation and analyses possible policy options and their consequences, often from the perspective of those who are inside the prevailing political, administrative and ‘in’ group. On the other hand, academic writing assumes far less about its audience and their knowledge—or lack of it—about a certain subject.
The audience for your written work is your assessors. You should assume that these people are fellow security practitioners or strategic studies expert. You have to convince him/her of the worth of your piece’s argument, evidence, referencing, presentation, etc.
Academic writing defines its terms and mounts an ‘argument’.1 Instead of just describing a situation or problem, academic writing provides a line of reasoning or a point of view that proposes why the situation or problem is the way that it is. It supports or justifies this proposition with compelling and supportive reasoning and/or factual evidence.
Academic writing is therefore somewhat similar to mounting a law suit:
it must be to the point, interesting and avoid using jargon and acronyms as your judge and jury either may have limited or no knowledge of areas related to your expertise, or, if they do have knowledge and expertise (as your assessor almost certainly will have), they will want to be sure that you know what you are talking about;
it must prove—or substantiate—every topical or contestable point by providing relevant evidence, preferably from a primary source (see next section);
it must acknowledge where its ideas and/or evidence came from (in your case, via references and a bibliography);
the assessors must be able to procure copies of the evidence advanced, or, if they can’t, then the person mounting the case must have copies of the evidence that he/she can make available to the assessor.
What is evidence?
Evidence is a vital academic tool that scholars - of which you are one while doing writing work at the CDSS - use to substantiate or support their argument. They insert this into their written work by using references, usually in the form of footnotes. These comprise pieces of supporting information - usually references to published works and/or to other sources - which other scholars (especially your assessor) can also access in order to verify this information and thereby help to confirm your argument, and/or to further their knowledge of a subject.
Evidence comprises primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are those written, compiled or produced by people or organisations present when an issue or event took place. Secondary sources are interpretations of primary accounts. Primary sources include original accounts or versions of an event, occurrence or issue, such as: oral statements, personal journals and diaries; letters; newspapers and magazines published at the time; censuses; government reports published at the time; treaty texts; radio broadcasts, television programs and films produced at the time; etc. Secondary sources include: books, journals, and other interpretations of first hand accounts or versions.
Primary sources are important for original academic scholarship. Indeed, wherever possible, these are the best sources to use. Secondary sources play an important role where primary source documents are not readily available.
The Chatham House Rule
An excellent primary source is often public talks, speeches and presentations. However, beware! All presenters at CDSS give their presentations under the Chatham House Rule. It states that:
When a meeting, or part thereof, is held under the Chatham House Rule, participants are free to use the information received, but neither the identity nor the affiliation of the speaker(s), nor that of any other participant, may be revealed.2
The CDSS policy is that anything said by any person who presents at CDSS, and/or any handouts that he/she provides at the CDSS, cannot be included in any written work that you submit (nor, indeed, in any written work that you do after the DSSC). This is to prevent misrepresentation or misquotation of a presenter and his/her stance (as happened a few years ago to a Director of Australia’s Defence Intelligence Organisation whose supposedly confidential speech at a university was reported in a newspaper by a journalist who had been in attendance as a student).
Should a CM wish to quote material from a presentation, the CM should contact the presenter separately and quote the subsequent discussion or correspondence. A copy of the Chatham House Rule is displayed in the Spender Theatre and each Syndicate Room.
Cheating, plagiarism and collusion
Cheating, plagiarism and collusion are forms of academic misconduct that are totally unacceptable to both Deakin University and CDSS.
Whenever you refer to another person’s research or ideas, either by directly quoting or by paraphrasing them, you must acknowledge your source. If you do not do so, this is considered to be plagiarism. It is also totally unacceptable.
It is also totally unacceptable to pass off someone else’s work as your own. In other words, you - and no one else - must write your own assignments, SAP and SPP. Should you submit work written by someone else to the CDSS for assessment, this is either collusion or unauthorised collaboration. This also is totally unacceptable at the CDSS.
The CDSS considers plagiarism and collusion to be extremely serious issues. Indeed, both are academic offences. They are considered forms of cheating, as well as serious breaches of academic standards and ethics. Should you be found to have engaged in plagiarism or collusion, this could lead to your failure of the DSSC and/or your inability to obtain a Graduate Certificate (Strategic Studies).
For the purposes of consistency across both the Master of Arts, Graduate Diploma and the Graduate Certificate programs, the CDSS adheres to Deakin University’s definitions of plagiarism and collusion as follows:
Plagiarism occurs when a student passes off as the student’s own work, or copies without acknowledgment of its authorship, the work of any other person.
Collusion occurs when a student obtains the agreement of another person for a fraudulent purpose with the intent of obtaining an advantage in submitting an assignment or other work.
Unauthorised collaboration is a related form of cheating. It involves working with others with the intention of deceiving your assessors about who actually wrote and completed the written piece. If you have collaborated with anyone else in writing and completing an individual written assessment item and have not had the prior permission of the Director of Studies to do so (see ‘Joint or Small Group Paper’ above), you must disclose this to your SD or to the Academic Adviser.
Should CDSS assessors find that a CM has engaged in an act of academic misconduct such as plagiarism, collusion or unauthorised collaboration, the matter will be immediately reported to PCDSS. One or more of the following actions may be taken:
The CM’s written piece will be deemed ‘to not meet the required standard’.
The CM will be informed by the assessors of the reasons for, or shown the instances of, their academic misconduct in regard to this written piece.
The CM will be counselled by CDSS staff (usually the assessing SD and the Academic Adviser, but also possibly the Director of Studies) about how to avoid or rectify these issues.
PCDSS will consider the following options:
The CM may be allowed to remedy their academic misconduct and then resubmit their piece of written work for further assessment.
The CM’s academic misconduct could be deemed to be so blatant and/or unsatisfactory that his/her written work will be failed.
In the event of such a failure, the CM will be withdrawn from the Graduate Certificate program and - and at the discretion of the Principal CDSS - partake in the Certificate of Attendance only.
This section must also be read in conjunction with the section ‘Resubmission Policy’ above.
Tips to avoid plagiarism
To plagiarise is to take someone else’s ideas and present them as your own. Never copy the words used by an author or anyone else and present them as your own. When you use the words of others, make it clear that you are making a direct quotation and cite this source via a reference/footnote. When you use ideas gleaned from other people, acknowledge this source via a footnote.
Paraphrasing is when you summarise someone else’s ideas and/or words and insert these into a document of your own. You should try to avoid such a practice as experience shows that it can very easily lead to plagiarism. That said, should you decide to paraphrase another author’s words and/or ideas (see below), you must make it clear when you are doing so by citing this source via a reference/footnote. Furthermore, when paraphrasing, it is important that you avoid close paraphrasing, i.e. only changing one or two words in a sentence. Such paraphrasing amounts to plagiarism and is totally unacceptable. Should you be found to be engaging in such a practice, your assignment will be deemed to be unsatisfactory. You may - or may not - be given a chance to rectify this issue. This will be decided by the Principal.
You should also avoid paraphrasing your own words that you may have used in another document submitted to the CDSS or any other body/institution, e.g. using/paraphrasing words from your SAP in your SPP. If you really need to use some of your own words, you should quote yourself exactly and/or reference yourself and your relevant document. However, please bear in mind the point mentioned above that your SAP and SPP must be ‘stand alone’ documents in which the text is totally different.
In relation to using someone else’s ideas in your work, you must provide a reference to show where you obtained these. Your reference/s must also show the source of the major arguments of others that you may be using to mount your own argument and/or whose ideas you may be using, or building upon, in your own written work. This is good academic scholarship. Your references must also indicate the sources of all direct quotations.
If you are in any doubt about the meaning of plagiarism, discuss it with the Academic Adviser or with your SD.
Some tips while writing
While research is vital and interesting, it is essential to stop reading and researching at particular points and begin to write up sections of your written work. Even so, your research and writing tasks may be intermingled in the period before your final submission date, after which the emphasis should be on refining your written product rather than engaging in further extensive research or reading. Your aim is not to submit a piece that has the latest, up-to-date information, but a piece that has excellent analysis, argument/s and/or policies. In other words, for your assignments and your SAP, you want a paper that has lots of ‘why’, not lots of ‘what’ or ‘how’. For your SPP, you want lots of ‘here are my policies’ and ‘this is why they will work’.
Some people struggle with writing. However, if you don’t write anything, your assessor will have nothing about which he/she can comment. It is better to get something down on paper, even if it is only a rough draft, rather than nothing at all. If you are having what amounts to ‘writer’s block’, i.e. you feel unable to write anything or are thoroughly confused about how to begin writing your assignments or your SAP or SPP, contact the Academic Adviser immediately. He will give you tips about how to overcome your ‘writer’s block’ – quite a common phenomenon among academics!
Often just before you submit a piece of work, there may be some panic about important academic requirements that seemed trivial at the time when you were writing your prose and expounding your argument. Matters that may arise include things such as: ‘Where did I get that reference from?/Where will I get a reference for that controversial point from?; What are the publication details for that book/article that I used as a reference?; What page was that quote on?’.
To save some time with such matters—that comprise vital aspects of excellent academic scholarship but which assessors love to detect mistakes in—the following may help:
insert in full in the footnote the details, including the relevant page number/s, about an issue that you are writing about at the time that you are writing about it;
insert the full title and publication details for your reference with each footnote. This avoids mistakes when cutting and pasting text that may have short forms of titles or terms such as ‘ibid.’ or ‘op cit.’ embedded in it;
as one of the last tasks that you do (probably the final thing before creating a Contents page), edit these long titles down to short titles (which are preferable to using ‘ibid.’ and ‘op cit.’ - see ‘Later References with Oxford’ below);
be careful when inserting quotes: quotes must be exactly as per the original, including with any errors (in which case, insert [sic] after the error);
always insert the full title for a website and the date that you accessed it. Try to cut and paste these titles into your document as a single mistake in a URL makes it impossible to retrieve a website. It also makes your scholarship look sloppy - and makes assessors very wary!
The key to good writing is to be consistent. Choose a particular style guide and stay with it. With the world becoming an increasingly globalised/globalized place, it is now acceptable to spell this word, and other such words that use either an ‘s’ (the British and Australian traditions) or a ‘z’ (the United States tradition), either way. This applies to other such words like internationalise, recognize, materialise, democratize, etc. Just be consistent.
The reasonable use of acronyms and abbreviations is acceptable and the meaning need only be stated with its first use. Hence, write out the full title of the abbreviation the first time you mention it in your text, followed by its abbreviation in parentheses: thus the first reference to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) reads as such.
Avoid jargon. The overuse of acronyms is sometimes a form of defence jargon known in the United States as ‘Pentagonese’. ‘NATO’ is fine but ‘MRE’ for ‘Meals Ready to Eat’ is certainly not. It may therefore be useful to provide a list of all the acronyms you have used in a glossary (like the one at the end of this document). This is not included in the word count. Also, be aware that your supervisors and examiners may not be familiar with the technical specifications and capabilities of particular weapons systems.
The last two pages of CDSS’s Style Guide (included in your orientation pack) provide a few stylistic points to assist you with this issue.
Part IVReferencing and your bibliography
Referencing and bibliographies are important scholarly disciplines that mark one of the big differences between academic writing and journalese and/or official/secret report writing: the writer must substantiate his/her case or argument by providing references to open-source, public material that supports this case or argument. This is done via specific footnotes in the text of the essay/paper or endnotes at the end of it and by the inclusion of a bibliography or a list of references at the end of the essay/paper that shows the various sources and documents that the author consulted.
You must include a bibliography of works cited, accessed or used at the end of your document. It must include all sources that you have used as references, as well as any other sources that influenced your thinking on the issue about which you have been writing. List these in alphabetical order based on author’s name or, if there is no author, on the name of the organisation responsible for compiling the papers, report or document.
At CDSS we use the Oxford referencing system. In order to assist you, CDSS has provided a separate Style Guide which was included in your orientation pack.
Every scholarly piece of writing needs references to confirm and/or enhance the argument. Indeed, references strengthen an argument. And it is better to over reference than to under reference. However, if a paragraph is based on one reference, it is more helpful to the reader or assessor to put the footnote at the end of the paragraph’s first sentence and then to put some words in the footnote like ‘This paragraph is based on (then list the document/s and its/their details)’. Hence, if in doubt, put in a supporting reference. These can be shortened later if needs be. Good references and good referencing only strengthen your argument.
Hence, you use referencing systems for citing references to quotations and to sources of information and argument. One also uses it if you wish to direct the reader to further reading on an issue dealt with in the body of the essay/paper.
In the Oxford system, references entail small numbers inserted (after the punctuation) in the body of the text either after a relevant point that needs a reference or after a quotation. A footnote at the bottom of the page (or an endnote, starting on a new page, located near the end of the document) is then used to provide the details of the reference or to expand on the point being made.
It is acceptable to use Internet references, although academic assessors are still quite wary of the excessive use of Internet sources in an essay, as they suggest laziness and a lack of solid or substantial research. The excessive use of such sources also sometimes makes academic assessors wary of plagiarism. Beware of electronic material that you cite as it may disappear from the Internet. Therefore, it is a good idea to save copies of key Internet material in case it has been removed from the Internet and/or your assessor wishes to see it. In your reference to Internet material, cite the author or the organisation that owns the website, the title of the piece within the website, the website’s URL inside < > brackets and the date that you accessed this material.
Databases are an excellent resource that can provide you with a wide range of scholarly and analytical materials as well as news items. Databases include the Jane’s online materials, as well as Proquest, CIAONet and Emerald, which are accessible through the Vane Green or Deakin libraries. Unlike the Internet, a database resource should not be cited by the search string that appears in your browser address. It should be cited by author, name, date, publication and other information as if it is a hard copy. Basically, you need to give a citation as information that helps another reader to find it in conducting their own search. For Jane’s online materials, the citation to the title, author where known, and referenced to Jane’s online, and date accessed is acceptable.
Bibliographies; list of references
You must include a bibliography of works cited, retrieved or used at the end of your document. It must include all sources that you have used as references, as well as any other sources that influenced your thinking on the issue about which you have been writing. List these in alphabetical order based on author’s family name or, if there is no author, on the name of the organisation responsible for compiling the papers, reports or documents.
Appendix A: Example of SAP Minute
To: (Home SD)
From: GPCAPT Billy Bloggs
Subject: Topic for Strategic Assessment Paper (SAP)
Topic: ANZUS obligations in the event of a military confrontation between China, Taiwan and the US ANZUS is the pre-eminent treaty in regard to Australia’s National Security Strategy. It (supposedly) ties Australia closely to the United States on defence and security issues. With recent tensions between China and Taiwan over Taiwanese aspirations for independence, questions have arisen as to what Australia’s actions would—and should—be in the event of a military conflict between China, Taiwan and the US. This paper will examine the perceived and explicit obligations of each party under the various articles of the ANZUS Treaty. It will use current theories on International Relations to assess the influences of national policy drivers such as interests, competition, ideals and uncertainty on any decision to commit Australian military forces to such a conflict. It will also examine the likelihood of such a security situation developing and the ramifications of this for Australia and for US-Australia relations.
Name: GPCAPT Billy Bloggs
Email address: Billy.Bloggs@defence.adc.edu.au Billy Bloggs Date: 6 March 2011
Appendix B: Example of SPP Minute
To: (Home SD)
From: GPCAPT Billy Bloggs
Subject: Topic for Security Policy Paper (SPP)
Topic: How Australia should deal with the rise of India and its growing military and maritime capabilities Australia currently faces an array of actual and potential security challenges of both a conventional and non-conventional nature. One of the least considered of these challenges is the rise of India. Its development of a substantial military and maritime capability is significant. This will extend India’s strategic reach, give it a greater ability to project power, and enable it to have a greater influence on events in the South Asian, South-East Asian and Indian Ocean regions. India and Australia are both littoral Indian Ocean states. But will—or should—Australia and India compete or cooperate? This SPP will propose policies about Australia should deal with the rise of India and its growing military and maritime capabilities.
Name: GPCAPT Billy Bloggs
Email address: Billy.Bloggs@defence.adc.edu.au Billy Bloggs Date: 3 July 2011
Appendix C: Statement of Authorship
AUSTRALIAN DEFENCE COLLEGE
DEFENCE AND STRATEGIC STUDIES COURSE
STATEMENT OF AUTHORSHIP:
I certify that this material is the result of my own research and writing, except where otherwise acknowledged, and that this work in whole or in part has not been submitted to the Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies as part of any other written work, nor has it been submitted to any other university or institution as part of any academic unit or program for any reward.
APPROVAL TO PUBLISH:
I grant/do not grant* approval for the Centre for Defence and Strategic Studies, or an agent of that organisation, to publish this article and my biography, in whole or in part. I also retain the right to reproduce or publish this article, in whole or in part.
Note - * Delete as applicable.
1 Brown, The New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Volume I (A-M), p. 112, states that an argument is a ‘connected series of statements or reasons intended to establish a position’.
2 For further information on the Chatham House Rule, see http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/about/chathamhouserule/ [accessed 12 November 2008].