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Eva Mira

Westland Hialeah Senior High School

Advanced Placement European History

This is an in-depth review of major developments in modern European history. Special emphases are placed upon the political-diplomatic, social-economic, and intellectual-cultural histories of the European countries. Students are expected to demonstrate relevant factual knowledge of chronology and major events from the Renaissance (around 1450) to the present. The goals of this class are to develop (a) an understanding of some of the principal themes in modern European history, (b) an ability to analyze historical evidence, and (c) an ability to analyze and express historical understanding in writing. The content of the course follows advanced Placement guidelines of the College Entrance Examination Board; consequently, instruction is given at the college level.


Home Learning

Homework will most often fall into the following categories:

  • Daily reading from textbook (expect quizzes!)

  • Two-column notetaking for each chapter section

  • Essential Question responses

  • Extended writing assignments

  • Preparation for class discussion or debate

Class Activities

  • Source reading (primary documents, scholarly articles, historiographies)

  • DBQ or FRQ practice

  • Unit projects

  • Chapter quizzes and unit exams

Primary Source Critiques

In every unit students will complete several primary source critiques that will help them gain a deeper understanding of a historical time period and point of view and will also build their skills in analyzing a primary source. Primary source critiques are also intended as practice for the skills needed in the FRQ and DBQ.

  • DOC and MAPS: answer analysis questions and using SOAPS strategy

  • VIS and ART: analyze using POSERS strategy

Class Discussion/Debates

In-depth class discussions and debates will be done frequently in A.P. European History

Class Discussion

The purpose of these discussions is to engage students in dialogue regarding the events, issues, and ideologies being studied in class. After each discussion, students will complete a sef-assessment of their preparation and participation in the discussion. The teacher will consider the self-assessment when assigning the final grade. The teacher will be looking for quality of contribution in particular.


The purpose of debates is to encourage student to form opinions on issues presented or formulate an argument supporting a given opinion or side of an issue. Students will be graded on the quality of their contribution to the debate.

A.P. Exam Preparation

The A.P. European History exam is given worldwide that corresponds with the curriculum of the A.P. European History course. The exam contains a multiple choice section and free-response section and is administered in May. Preparing students for success on the A.P. exam is a major goal of this course.
Document Based Questions (DBQS)

Document Based Questions are an important part of the A.P. European exam. DBQs are not meant to test a students’ knowledge of a historical time-period, but rather his/her ability to formulate and support an answer from documentary evidence. This is something that takes practice, so we will complete several DBQs in class as part of preparation for the A.P. exam. A.P. exam grading rubrics will be used to assess students’ work on DBQs.

Free Response Questions/Thematic Essays (FRQS)

Thematic Essays are another important part of the A.P. European exam. These essays are free-response and will focus on either the intellectual-cultural history, political-diplomatic history, or social-economic history. In these essays, students will be required to use historical evidence from a given time period to support a thesis statement that answers a question. Writing good thematic essays take practice, so we will complete several thematic essays in preparation for the A.P. exam.

Unit I: Renaissance


Recovery & Rebirth: The Age of the Renaissance

EQ: How did Renaissance art and the humanist movement reflect the political, economic, and social development of the period?

  • Spielvogel Chapter 12, pages 337-370

  1. Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian Renaissance

EQ: What characteristics distinguish the Renaissance from the Middle Ages?

  • VIS: Michelangelo, Creation of Adam

  1. The Making of Renaissance Society

EQ: What major social changes occurred in the Renaissance?

  • DOC: A Renaissance Banquet

  • VIS: Botticelli, Wedding Banquet

  • DOC: Marriage Negotiations

  1. The Italian States in the Renaissance

EQ: How did Machiavelli’s works reflect the political realities of Renaissance Italy?

  • MAP: Renaissance Italy

  • DOC: The Letters of Isabella D’Este

  • DOC: Opposing Viewpoints: Machiavelli & Erasmus

  1. The Intellectual Renaissance in Italy

EQ: What was humanism, and what effect did it have on the philosophy, education, attitudes toward politics, and the writing of history?

  • DOC: Petrarch: Mountain Climbing and the Search for Spiritual Contentment

  • DOC: Pico Della Mirandola and the Dignity of Man

  • DOC: A Woman’s Defense of Learning

  1. The Artistic Renaissance

EQ: What were the chief characteristics of Renaissance art and how did it differ in Italy and northern Europe?

  • VIS: Masaccio, Tribute Money

  • VIS: Botticelli, Primavera

  • VIS: Donatello, David

  • ARCH: Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of the Duomo

  • ARCH: Filippo Brunelleschi, Interior of San Lorenzo

  • VIS: Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper

  • VIS: Raphael, School of Athens

  • VIS: Michelangelo, David

  • DOC: The Genius of Leonardo da Vinci.

  • ARCH: Donato, Tempietto

  • VIS: Van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride

  • VIS: Dürer, Adoration of the Magi

  1. The European State in the Renaissance

EQ: Why do historians sometimes refer to the monarchies of the late fifteenth century as “new monarchies” or “Renaissance states?

  • MAP: Europe in the Second Half of the Fifteenth Century

  • MAP: The Iberian Peninsula

  • MAP: The Ottoman Empire and Southeastern Europe

  1. The Church in the Renaissance

EQ: What were the policies of the Renaissance popes, and what impact did those policies have on the Catholic Church?
Unit II: Reformation and Religious Wars


Reformation & Religious Warfare in the Sixteenth Century

EQ: Where and how did the reform movements take hold, and how did the emergence of these reform movements affect the political and social realms where they were adopted?

  • Spielvogel Chapter 13, pages 337-370

  1. Prelude to the Reformation

EQ: What were the chief ideas of the Christian humanists, and how did they differ from the ideas of the Protestant Reformers?

  • VIS: Hans Holbein the Younger, Erasmus

  • DOC: Erasmus: In Praise of Folly

  1. Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany

EQ: What were Martin Luther’s main disagreements with the Roman Catholic Church, and what political, economic, and social conditions help explain why the movement he began to spread quietly across Europe?

  • DOC: Luther and the Ninety-Five Theses

  • VIS: Woodcut: Luther Versus the Pope

  • DOC: Luther and the “Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants”

  • MAP: The Empire of Charles V

  1. The Spread of the Protestant Reformation

EQ: Why do historians sometimes refer to the monarchies of the late fifteenth century as “new monarchies” or “Renaissance states?

  • DOC: Opposing Viewpoints: A Reformation Debate: The Marburg Colloquy

  • VIS: Artist unknown, Henry VIII and His Children

  • DOC: The Role of Discipline in the “Most Perfect School of Christ on Earth”

  1. The Social Impact of the Protestant Reformation

EQ: What was the social impact of the Protestant Reformation have on society in the sixteenth


  • DOC: A Protestant Woman

  • VIS: Ambrosius Holbein, A Sixteenth-Century Classroom

  1. The Catholic Reformation

EQ: What measures did the Roman Catholic church take to reform itself and to combat Protestantism is the sixteenth century.

  • MAP: Catholics and Protestants in Europe by 1560

  • DOC: Loyola and Obedience to “Our Holy Mother, the Hierarchical Church”

  • VIS: Artist unknown, Ignatius of Loyola

  1. Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century

EQ: What role did politics, education, social conditions, and religion play in the European Wars of the sixteenth century?

  • VIS: François Dubois, The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

  • VIS: Titian, Philip of Spain

  • MAP: The Height of Spanish Power under Phillip II

  • VIS: Robert Peake the Elder, Procession of Queen Elizabeth I

  • DOC: Queen Elizabeth Addresses Parliament (1601)

Unit III: New Encounters and State Building


Europe and the World: New Encounters, 1500-1800

EQ: What was the relationship between European overseas expansion and political, economic, and social developments in Europe?

  • Spielvogel Chapter 14, pages 410-441

  1. On the Brink of a New World

EQ: Why did Europeans begin to embark on voyages of discovery and expansion at the end of the fifteenth century?

    • DOC: Ptolemy’s World Map

  1. New Horizons: The Portuguese and Spanish Empires

EQ: How did Portugal and Spain acquire their overseas empires, and how did their empires differ?

  • VIS: Theodore de Bry, The Port of Lisbon

  • MAP: Discoveries and Possessions in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

  • DOC: The Portuguese Conquest of Malacca

  • DOC: Columbus Lands in the New World

  • DOC: The Spanish Conquistador: Cortés and the Conquest of Mexico

  • VIS: Artist unknown, Slaughter of the Natives

  1. New Rivals on the World Stage

EQ: How did the arrival of the Dutch, British, and French on the world scene in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries affect Africa, India, Southeast Asia, China, and Japan? What were the main features of the African slave trade, and what effects did it have on Africa?

  • DOC: Las Casas and the Spanish Treatment of the American Natives

  • MAP: Triangular Trade Route in the Atlantic Economy

  • DOC: The Atlantic Slave Trade

  • VIS: Artist unknown, The Sale of Slaves

  • DOC: West Meets East: An Exchange of Royal Letters

  • DOC: An Imperial Edict to the King of England

  • VIS: Artist unknown, The Portuguese Arriving at Nagasaki

  • VIS: French School, A Sugar Mill in the West Indies

  1. The Impact of European Expansion

EQ: How did European expansion affect both the conquerors and the conquered?

  • DOC: The Mission

  • MAP: The Columbian Exchange

  1. Toward a World Economy

EQ: What was mercantilism, and what was its relationship to colonial empires?

  • VIS: Matthaus Schwartz, Jacob Fugger the Rich

State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century

EQ: What theories of government were proposed by Jacques Bossuet, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke, and how did their respective theories reflect concerns and problems of the seventeenth century?

  • Spielvogel Chapter 15, pages 443-481

  1. Social Crises, War, and Rebellions

EQ: What economic, social, and political crises did Europe experience in the first falf of the seventeeth century?

  • VIS: Hyacinth Rigaud, Louis XIV

  • DOC: A Witchcraft Trial in France

  • MAP: The Thirty Year’s War

  • DOC: The Face of War in the Seventeenth Century

  • VIS: Sebastian Vrancx, Soldiers Pillaging a Farm

  • VIS: Philippe de Champagne, Cardinal Richelieu

  • DOC: Louis XIV: Kingly Advice

  • VIS: Eighteenth-Century Engraving, The Palace of Versailles

  • ARCH: The Hall of Mirrors, Interior View

  • DOC: Travels with the King

  • MAP: The Wars of Louis XIV

  1. Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe

EQ: What developments enabled Brandenburg-Prussia, Austria, and Russia to emerge as major powers in the seventeenth century?

  • MAP: The Growth of Brandenberg-Prussia

  • MAP: The Growth of the Austrian Empire

  • DOC: Peter the Great Deals with a Rebellion

  • MAP: Russia: From Principality to Nation-State

  • MAP: The Ottoman Empire

  1. Limited Monarch and Republics

EQ: What were the main issues in the struggle between king and Parliament in seventeenth-century England, and how were they resolved?

  • VIS: Pieter de Hooch, The Mother

  • VIS: Robert Walker, Oliver Cromwell

  • DOC: The Bill of Rights

  1. The Flourishing of European Culture

EQ: How did the artistic and literary achievements of this era reflect the political and economic developments of the period?

  • VIS: El Greco, Laocoön

  • VIS: Peter Paul Rubens, The Landing of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles

  • VIS: Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Ecstasy of Saint Theresa

  • VIS: Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Beheading Holofernes

  • VIS: Judith Leyster, Self-Portrait

  • VIS: Rembrandt van Rijn, Syndics of the Cloth Guild

  • DOC: William Shakespeare: In Praise of England

Unit IV: The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment


Toward A New Heaven and A New Earth: The Scientific Revolution

EQ: In what ways were the intellectual, political, social, and religious developments of the seventeenth century related?

  • Spielvogel Chapter 16, pages 483-507

  1. Background to the Scientific Revolution

EQ: What developments during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance contributed to the Scientific Revolution?

  • DOC: The Trial of Galileo

  1. Toward a New Haven: A Revolution in Astronomy

EQ: What did Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton contribute to a new vision of the universe, and how did it differ from the Ptolemic conception of the universe?

  • DOC: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres

  • DOC: Kepler and the Emerging Scientific Community (check docu page for titles)

  • DOC: The Starry Messenger

  • DOC: Opposing Viewpoints: A New Heaven? Faith Versus Reason

  • DOC: Newton’s Rules of Reasoning

  1. Advances in Medicine and Chemistry

EQ: What did Paracelsus, Vesalius, and Harvey contribute to a scientific view of medicine?

  1. Women in Modern Science

EQ: What role did women play in the Scientific Revolution?

    • DOC: The “Natural” Inferiority of Woman

  1. Toward A New Earth: Descartes, Rationalism, and a New View of Humankind

EQ: Why is Descartes considered the “founder of modern rationalism”?

    • VIS: Pierre Louis Dumesnil, Descartes with Queen Christina of Sweden

  1. The Scientific Method and the Spread of Scientific Knowledge

EQ: How were the ideas of the Scientific Revolution spread, and what impact did they have on society and religion?

  • DOC: The Father of Modern Rationalism

  • VIS: Henri Testelin, Louis XIV and Colbert Visit the Academy of Sciences

  • DOC: Pascal: “What Is A Man in the Infinite?

The Eighteenth Century: An Age of Enlightenment

EQ: What is relationship between the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?

  • Spielvogel chapter 17, pages 509-536

  1. The Enlightenment

EQ: What intellectual developments led to the emergence of the Enlightenment? Who were the leading figures of the Enlightenment, and what were their main contributions? In what type of social environment did the philosophes thrive, and what role did women play in that environment?

  • VIS: Anicet Charles Gabriel Lemonnier, The Parisian salon of Madame Geoffrin

    • MAP: The Enlightenment in Europe

    • DOC: The Separation of Powers

    • DOC: The Attack of Religious Intolerance

    • VIS: Jean-Honoré Fragonard, Denis Diderot

    • DOC: Diderot Questions Christian Sexual Standards

    • DOC: A Social Contract

    • DOC: The Rights of Women

    • DOC: Opposing Viewpoints: Women in the Age of Enlightenment: Rousseau and Wollenstoncraft

  1. Culture and Society in the Enlightenment

EQ: What innovations in art, music, and literature occurred in the eighteenth century? How did popular culture differ from high culture in the eighteenth century?

  • VIS: Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera

  • ARCH: Balthazar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, Exterior View

  • ARCH: Balthazar Neumann, Vierzehnheiligen, Interior View

  • VIS: Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii

  • VIS: Carmontelle, Mozart as Child Prodigy

    • DOC: Gibbon and the Idea of Progress

    • VIS: Artist unknown, A London Coffeehouse

    • DOC: The Punishment of Crime

    • VIS: Giovanni Signorini, Carnival

  1. Religion and the Churches

EQ: How did popular religion differ from institutional religion in the eighteenth century?

    • MAP: Religious Populations of Eighteenth-Century Europe

    • VIS: Nathaniel Hone, John Wesley

    • DOC: The Conversion Experience in Wesley’s Methodism

Unit V: The Eighteenth Century: Absolutism, Wars, and Social Change


The Eighteenth Century: European States, International Wars, and Social Change

EQ: What was the relationship among political, economic, and social changes in the eighteenth century?

  • Spielvogel Chapter 18, pages 538-569

  1. The European States

EQ: What were the main developments in France, Great Britain, the Dutch Republic, the Mediterranean states, and the Scandinavian monarchies in the eighteenth century? What do historians mean by the term enlightened absolutism, and to what degree did eighteenth-century Prussia, Austria, and Russia exhibit its characteristics?

  • VIS: Virgilius Eriksen, Catherine the Great on horseback

  • DOC: The French King’s Bedtime

  • MAP: Europe in 1763

  • DOC: Frederick the Great and His Father

  • VIS: Frisch, Frederick II at Sans-Souci

  • VIS: Martin van Meyten, Maria Theresa and Her Family

  • DOC: The Childhood of Catherine the Great

  • VIS: Levitsky, Catherine the Great

  1. Wars and Diplomacy

EQ: What were the causes and results of the Seven Years’ War? How did the concepts of “balance of power” and “reason of state” influence international relations in the eighteenth century?

  • MAP: Battlefields of the Seven Years’ War

  • VIS: Francis Hayman, Robert Clive in India

  • DOC: British Victory in India

  1. Economic Expansion and Social Change

EQ: What changes occurred in agriculture, finance, and industry during the eighteenth century?

  • DOC: Martial Arrangements

  • VIS: Arthur Devis, Children of the Upper Classes

  • DOC: Propaganda for the New Agriculture

  • VIS: Artist unknown, Cottage Industry

  • DOC: The Beginnings of Mechanized Industry: The Attack on New Machines

  1. The Social Order of the Eighteenth Century

EQ: Who were the main groups making up the European social order in the eighteenth century, and how did the conditions in which they lived differ both between groups and between different parts of Europe?

  • VIS: Thomas Gainsborough, Conversation in the Park

  • VIS: Graniri, A Market in Turin

  • DOC: Poverty in France

Unit VI: The French Revolution and Napoleon


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