Contributors ix Acknowledgements xviii Editor’s note xix Acronyms and abbreviations xxi

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Contributors ix Acknowledgements xviii Editor’s note xix Acronyms and abbreviations xxi

Introducing the Global Corruption Report Peter Eigen 1 Eva Joly, Preventing corruption: empowering the judiciary 2 Ron Noble, Policing corruption 4

Part one: Access to information

Access to information: whose right and whose information?

Jeremy Pope 8 Ann Florini, Campaigning for access to information 10 Richard Calland, Whistleblowing in South Africa 17

E-government and access to information

Subhash Bhatnagar 24 Valeria Merino Dirani, Ecuador’s first steps towards e-procurement 29

Corporate transparency in the fight against corruption

Harriet Fletcher 33 Nicholas Shaxson, Company disclosure in the oil industry 36 Ian Byrne, Surveying transparency and disclosure in business 40

The media’s role: covering or covering up corruption?

Bettina Peters 44 Mark Whitehouse, Media sustainability in Southeast Europe and Eurasia 46 Josias de Souza, Caught on camera:

regional Brazilian media moguls discredited 50 Alasdair Sutherland, Cash for editorial: unethical media practices revealed 53

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Freedom of information legislation: progress, concerns and standards

Toby Mendel 57 Edetaen Ojo, Facing obstacles in Nigeria:

the ongoing struggle for access to information 58 Yukiko Miki, Revealing corruption through Japan’s Information Disclosure Law 60

Part two: Regional reports

Western Europe

Véronique Pujas 64 Catherine Courtney, Confronting cash for contracts in Britain 66 Björn Rohde-Liebenau, Blacklisting in Germany 71

North America

Phyllis Dininio with Frank Anechiarico 77 Jermyn Brooks, A large dose of Enronitis: the need for global reform 80

Central America, Mexico and the Caribbean

Pablo Rodas-Martini 90 Roxana Salazar, Election campaign monitoring in Costa Rica 93 Mary K. King, Trinidad and Tobago:

from airport corruption to the collapse of government 97

South America

Eduardo Wills Herrera and Nubia Urueña Cortés with Nick Rosen 103 Roberto Cosso, Channelling money abroad?

Jersey versus Brazil in the case of Paulo Maluf 107

The Pacific

Mark Findlay 115 Peter Rooke, Police corruption thriving in Australia 117 Rachael Keaeke, Papua New Guinea media declare war on corruption 120

East Asia

Xiaobo Lu 128 Liam McMillan, Floodgates of corruption: China’s Three Gorges dam 131 Andrew Jennings, Goodbye Mr Clean 134

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Southeast Asia

Emil Bolongaita 140 Stefanie Teggemann, The poor speak up: corruption stories from Indonesia 143 The Center for Social Development, Teaching integrity in Cambodia’s schools 146

South Asia

Gurharpal Singh 153 Gopakumar Krishnan, Paying to see your own baby 157

Commonwealth of Independent States

Alena Ledeneva 165 Robert Templer, Tough lines in Central Asia 166 Larysa Denysenko, Censorship by death: Ukraine silences critics 168

Central and Eastern Europe and the Baltic states

Martin Brusis, Iris Kempe and Wim van Meurs 177 Inese Voika, Political party funding in Latvia 180 Emília Sic ̆áková, Pursuing conflict of interest legislation in Slovakia 183

Southeast Europe

Dejan Jovic 190 Zsolt-Istvan Mato, Romania’s anti-corruption body: more than a political tool? 195

Middle East and North Africa

Reinoud Leenders and John Sfakianakis 203 Charles D. Adwan and Mina Zapatero, Cutting through red tape in Lebanon 206

West Africa

Niyi Alabi 215 Charles Diplo, Corruption and distrust in the Ivorian police:

a deep-rooted problem 218 Nassirou Bako Arifari, Formal and informal customs in Benin 221

Central Africa

Claude Kabemba 227 Samuel Nguiffo, Corruption in Cameroon’s forests 230

East Africa

Andrew Mwenda 237 Mwalimu Mati and Wanjiru Mwangi, Measuring the burden of bribery 242

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Southern Africa

Tom Lodge 248 Christine Munalula, Corruption in Zambia’s electoral process 254

Part three: Data and research

Johann Graf Lambsdorff, 2002 Corruption Perceptions Index 262 Fredrik Galtung, 2002 Bribe Payers Index 266 Marie Wolkers, National surveys on corruption in francophone Africa 269 Volkhart Finn Heinrich, Transparency and corruption within civil

society organisations 271 Juan Pablo Guerrero and Helena Hofbauer, Budget transparency in

Latin America 274 Richard Rose, Corruption and trust in the New Europe and

New Russia Barometers 278 Marta Lagos, Public opinion of corruption in Latin America 282 Martin Dimov, Corruption in Balkan countries 285 Rafael Di Tella and Ernesto Schargrodsky, Controlling corruption

through high wages 289 Mireille Razafindrakoto and François Roubaud, Wages and corruption:

the case of Madagascar 292 Stephen Knack and Omar Azfar, Gender and corruption 295 Karina Litvack and Robert Barrington, The governance of corruption:

a survey of current business practice 298 Daniel Kaufmann and Aart Kraay, Governance and growth in the

very long run: updated indicators, new results 302 Stephen Knack, Mark Kugler and Nick Manning, ‘Second generation’

governance indicators 306 Julius Court and Goran Hyden, World Governance Survey:

a new approach to assessing governance 310 John van Kesteren, The International Crime against Businesses Survey 314 Ugo Panizza, Electoral rules and corruption 317 János Bertók, Managing conflicts of interest in OECD countries 320

Index 323

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Charles D. Adwan is the executive director and a founding member of the Lebanese Transparency Association, TI’s chapter-in-formation in Lebanon.

Niyi Alabi has published several books on the media and on parliamentary democ- racy in West Africa. He consults on media and governance for a number of interna- tional organisations.

Frank Anechiarico is the Maynard-Knox professor of government and law at Hamilton College, New York. He is the author of numerous articles on corruption control in the United States, and is co-author of The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996).

Omar Azfar is a research associate at the Center for Institutional Reform and the Informal Sector, University of Maryland. His recent research has focused on the determinants of corruption, and the effects of decentralisation on the quality of health and education services.

Nassirou Bako Arifari teaches at the universities of Abomey and Cologne. He is a member of LASDEL (Laboratoire de recherche sur les dynamiques sociales et le développement local), Benin and Niger.

Robert Barrington is the director of the Governance and Socially Responsible Investment department of ISIS Asset Management plc (formerly Friends Ivory & Sime), an asset management company based in London.

János Bertók is principal administrator for the OECD Public Governance and Ter- ritorial Development Directorate. He authored ‘Trust in Government’, a review of the implementation of the OECD recommendation on improving ethical conduct in public service.

Subhash Bhatnagar is professor of information technology at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He was recently with the World Bank on a two-year assignment, leading an initiative on e-government.

Emil Bolongaita is a senior public sector governance specialist with Development Alternatives, Inc. Previously he was assistant professor at the National University of


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Singapore and manager of the World Bank Global Distance Learning Programme on Combating Corruption in Asia-Pacific.

Jermyn Brooks is the acting managing director of TI and a professional accountant. His main focus is on corporate governance and the role of the private sector. He was previously global managing partner of PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Martin Brusis is a senior research fellow at the Center for Applied Policy Research, Munich University. He specialises in comparative government with a focus on Eastern Europe.

Ian Byrne is the business development director of the global governance services group of Standard and Poor’s. He has spoken and written on corporate governance in Europe, Asia and the Americas.

Richard Calland is executive chair of the Open Democracy Advice Centre and head of the Institute for Democracy’s governance programme, both in South Africa. He is co-editor of The Right to Know, the Right to Live: Access to Information and Socio- economic Justice (Cape Town: Open Democracy Advice Centre, 2002).

The Center for Social Development is a non-profit organisation that seeks to promote democratic values and improve the quality of life of the Cambodian people through practical research, advocacy, awareness-raising and public debate.

Roberto Cosso is a special reporter for the Folha de S. Paulo (Brazil). He won the Folha Journalism Prize 2001 and was a finalist for the Esso Journalism Prize in the same year.

Julius Court is a research officer at the Overseas Development Institute, in London. He previously worked in the Office of the Rector at the United Nations University in Tokyo.

Catherine Courtney is a former researcher with TI United Kingdom.

Larysa Denysenko is the executive director of TI Ukraine. She is an attorney-at-law and former chief of the international legal department of the ministry of justice of Ukraine.

Martin Dimov works at the Center for the Study of Democracy, in Bulgaria. His main interests are the empirical study of corruption, the grey economy and percep- tions of democracy in Central and Eastern Europe.

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Phyllis Dininio is a faculty member of the Transnational Crime and Corruption Center at American University, Washington, D.C. She also consults on governance and anti-corruption issues for the World Bank, USAID and other organisations.

Charles Diplo is communications secretary of Transparence et Integrité en Côte d’Ivoire. He is also sales director for FILTISAC JUTE in Abidjan.

Rafael Di Tella teaches at Harvard Business School. His research interests include corruption, the media industry and the determinants of happiness.

Peter Eigen is chairman of TI. He holds teaching positions at Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. Prior to founding TI in 1993, Eigen worked at the World Bank for more than two decades.

Mark Findlay is professor of criminal justice at Sydney University. He recently pub- lished The Globalisation of Crime: Understanding the Transitional Relationships of Crime in a Global Context (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000).

Harriet Fletcher was the operational policy manager at the Prince of Wales Inter- national Business Leaders’ Forum (IBLF) in London. She is currently working as a consultant to the IBLF on a range of issues including corruption and conflict.

Ann Florini is senior fellow in the Governance Studies Program at the Brookings Institution. She is author of a forthcoming book on global governance and editor of The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment, 2000).

Fredrik Galtung is a founding staff member of TI, where he is now head of research. He has published widely on corruption and has been affiliated with Wolfson College, Cambridge, since 1997.

Juan Pablo Guerrero is a professor and researcher at the Center for Research and Teaching in Economics (CIDE), Mexico.

Volkhart Finn Heinrich is project manager of the CIVICUS Civil Society Index. He has published several articles and reports about civil society and the South African transition to democracy.

Helena Hofbauer is executive director of Fundar, Centro de Análisis e Investigación A.C., Mexico.

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Goran Hyden is professor of political science at the University of Florida. He has published extensively on the relation between politics and development.

Andrew Jennings is an experienced investigative journalist and film-maker who has produced several books and many documentaries on corruption in sport, including The Great Olympic Swindle (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2000).

Eva Joly is an investigating magistrate. In 2001 she was awarded a TI Integrity Award for her outstanding work in the Elf-Aquitaine affair. She is currently special adviser to the Norwegian government in the fight against corruption and money laundering.

Dejan Jovic lectures on Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav politics in the Department of Politics at Stirling University. He is a regular contributor to the Economist Intelli- gence Unit.

Claude Kabemba is a senior researcher at the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa. He has written numerous research and consultancy papers on democratisation processes, conflict and economic growth in South and Central Africa.

Daniel Kaufmann is the director of global governance and regional learning at the World Bank Institute. He works on governance and anti-corruption issues, on investment climate and private sector development.

Rachael Keaeke is a press officer for TI Papua New Guinea (PNG). Before joining TI, she was a reporter with The National newspaper in PNG.

Iris Kempe is a senior research fellow at the Center for Applied Policy Research, Munich University. She specialises in EU enlargement, the post-communist transi- tion and regional policy, particularly in Russia and Ukraine.

John van Kesteren is a criminology consultant at the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, specialising in international comparative crime and victimisation surveys.

Mary K. King is a founding member of the Trinidad and Tobago Transparency Institute, a TI national chapter, and is an independent senator in Trinidad and Tobago’s parliament.

Stephen Knack is a senior research economist at the World Bank. He previously worked at the IRIS Center at the University of Maryland. He has authored numerous studies on the sources of good governance and its consequences for economic performance.

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Aart Kraay is a senior economist in the World Bank’s research department, where he works on governance issues; the links between trade, growth and inequality; inter- national capital movements; and the Chinese economy.

Gopakumar Krishnan is a programme manager at TI’s Secretariat. He works on issues related to public accountability and good governance in Asia.

Mark Kugler is a consultant to the World Bank’s Public Sector Group, and is a PhD candidate in the political science department at George Washington University.

Marta Lagos is founder and director of Latinobarómetro. Since 1994 she has been director of MORI (Chile), a polling company associated with MORI UK.

Johann Graf Lambsdorff is associate professor of economics at Göttingen Univer- sity. Recent publications include ‘Making Corrupt Deals: Contracting in the Shadow of the Law’, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 48, no. 3 (2002), and ‘Corruption and Rent-Seeking’, Public Choice 113, no. 1/2 (2002).

Alena Ledeneva lectures on Russian politics and society at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London. She is author of Russia’s Economy of Favours (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

Reinoud Leenders is doing research into corruption in Lebanon at London Univer- sity’s School of Oriental and African Studies, where he has also taught courses on the politics of the Middle East and development.

Karina Litvack heads the Governance and Socially Responsible Investment depart- ment of ISIS Asset Management plc (formerly Friends Ivory & Sime), an asset man- agement company based in London.

Tom Lodge is professor of political studies at the University of the Witwatersrand. He is the author of Politics in South Africa from Mandela to Mbeki (Oxford: James Currey, 2002).

Xiaobo Lu is director of the East Asian Institute and assistant professor of political science, both at Columbia University. He is author of Cadres and Corruption: the Organizational Involution of the Chinese Communist Party (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000).

Nick Manning is lead public sector management specialist for South Asia at the World Bank. He previously served in the bank’s Public Sector Group, with responsi- bility for knowledge management in administrative and civil service reform.

Contributors xiii

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Mwalimu Mati is deputy executive director of TI Kenya. Previously he worked for the Public Law Institute, the Centre for Governance and Development and the International Commission of Jurists (Kenya section).

Zsolt-Istvan Mato is the Romania correspondent for Transitions Online. He cur- rently also freelances for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty’s Newsline.

Toby Mendel is head of the law programme at ARTICLE 19, a leading international human rights NGO based in London. He is the author of Public Service Broadcast- ing: A Comparative Legal Survey (Kuala Lumpur: UNESCO and AIBD, 2000) and A Model Freedom of Information Law (London: ARTICLE 19, 2001).

Valeria Merino Dirani is executive director of the Latin American Corporation for Development, the Ecuadorian Chapter of TI.

Wim van Meurs is a senior research fellow at the Center for Applied Policy Research, Munich University. His research interests include European Balkan poli- cies, nation and state building, ethnic conflicts, EU enlargement and the post- communist transition.

Yukiko Miki is executive director of Information Clearinghouse Japan, a Tokyo- based NGO promoting access to public information.

Christine Munalula is president of the Foundation for Democratic Process, TI’s chapter-in-formation in Zambia.

Wanjiru Mwangi is head of communications at TI Kenya. Her experience as a jour- nalist and communications specialist has included work for Population Services International, the Intermediate Technology Development Group East Africa and The People newspaper.

Andrew Mwenda is a senior reporter with the investigations desk of The Monitor, Uganda’s only independent daily.

Samuel Nguiffo is director of the Centre for Environment and Development, an NGO based in Cameroon. He won the Goldman Environmental Prize for Africa in 1999.

Ron Noble is secretary general of Interpol. His law enforcement career includes service at the U.S. Departments of the Treasury and Justice and as president of the Financial Action Task Force. He is also faculty director at the New York University School of Law.

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Edetaen Ojo is executive director of Media Rights Agenda, an NGO that has led the campaign for access to information in Nigeria. He is also vice-chair of the board of directors of the Media Foundation for West Africa.

Ugo Panizza is an economist in the research department of the Inter-American Development Bank. He has held academic positions at the University of Turin and the American University of Beirut.

Bettina Peters worked at the International Federation of Journalists for 10 years, during which time she explored corruption in the media and corporate media own- ership. She recently moved to the Maastricht-based European Journalism Centre, where she is director of programmes.

Jeremy Pope, a lawyer, served as TI’s first managing director and is now director of TI’s Centre for Innovation and Research. He is the author of the TI Source Book – Confronting Corruption: The Elements of a National Integrity System (Berlin: Transparency International, 2000).

Véronique Pujas is a research fellow for the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) and teaches at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques in Grenoble. She has written numerous papers and books, including Scandales et démocratie en Europe du Sud (Paris: L’Harmattan, forthcoming).

Mireille Razafindrakoto is an economist at Développement et insertion interna- tionale (DIAL) in Paris. She has published articles on the monitoring and evaluation of poverty, the voice of the poor, redistribution and the role of the state.

Pablo Rodas-Martini has consulted for the International Development Research Centre, Asociación de Investigación y Estudios Sociales, Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, and the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. He was on the United Nations Development Programme panel of con- sultants for the Human Development Report in 1999, 2000 and 2001.

Björn Rohde-Liebenau is a member of the executive board of TI Germany. He has worked as a lawyer and mediator for 12 years, six of them with the German Privati- sation Agency for East Germany (Treuhandanstalt).

Peter Rooke was the co-founder of TI Australia in 1995 and is on its board of direc- tors, as well as that of TI.

Richard Rose is director of the Centre for the Study of Public Policy at the Uni- versity of Strathclyde. His latest book, with Neil Munro, is Elections without

Contributors xv

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Order: Russia’s Challenge to Vladimir Putin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

Nick Rosen is a New York-based freelance journalist specialising in Latin America. His work has covered a wide range of issues, including international finance and economics and the civil war in Colombia.

François Roubaud is an economist at Développement et insertion internationale (DIAL), Paris, and director of the CIPRE/Institut de recherche pour le développe- ment (IRD) Research Unit. He has written on the informal sector in Mexico and macroeconomic perspectives in Cameroon and Madagascar.

Roxana Salazar, a prominent environmental lawyer with extensive experience in civil society participation, has been president of TI Costa Rica since its inception in 1997.

Ernesto Schargrodsky is a professor at Universidad Torcuato Di Tella in Buenos Aires. His areas of interest include the study of corruption and crime.

John Sfakianakis is a research and teaching fellow at the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard University. He is associate researcher at the Interna- tional Institute for Strategic Studies, London, and has worked as a consultant for the World Bank.

Nicholas Shaxson is the author of country reports on Angola and Gabon for the Economist Intelligence Unit and a regular contributor to the Financial Times, Financial Times Energy, Business Day and Reuters.

Emília Sic ̆áková has been running TI Slovakia since 1998 and is a member of the TI board of directors. She is currently finishing her doctoral studies, focusing on issues of transparency and accountability.

Gurharpal Singh is a professor at the University of Birmingham, holding the Nadir Dinshaw Chair in Inter-Religious Relations. He has a special interest in South Asia and has published on political corruption in Indian politics.

Josias de Souza is director of the Brasilia office of Folha de S. Paulo (Brazil), a leading Brazilian newspaper.

Alasdair Sutherland is an executive vice-president of the global public relations firm Manning Selvage & Lee. He founded the Campaign for Media Transparency in 2001, during his year as president of the International Public Relations Association.

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Stefanie Teggemann is working for the World Bank on anti-corruption and gover- nance reform. She is co-author, with Ratih Hardjono, of The Poor Speak Up: 17 Stories of Corruption (Jakarta: Partnership for Governance Reform, 2002).

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