Comparative Law: The Islamic Legal System The Johns Hopkins University



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Comparative Law: The Islamic Legal System
The Johns Hopkins University

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
Professor Mohamed Mattar

Fall 2011



Course Description:
Unlike the American legal system, which is secular, the Islamic legal system is of a religious nature. Islam is both a religion and a social order. As such, it comprises rules concerning devotional obligations as well as rules regulating civil and commercial relations. According to Islamic beliefs, these two types of rules are of a divine origin. The origins of Islamic law, its sources, and various schools of Islamic jurisprudence will be discussed as an introduction to the course.
The course will explore several substantive areas of Islamic law, including: constitutional law; banking law and insurance; international law; crimes and punishments; marriage, divorce, and child custody; and succession and wills. These areas will be examined through a study of various cases where Islamic law has been debated in American courts. The course will also focus on human rights in the Islamic legal tradition and in the contemporary Islamic world, especially in countries of the Middle East. Concepts of human rights, women’s rights, and minority rights in Islam will be analyzed in light of international human rights standards. Students will participate in debates in which they will approach different problems representing different schools of the Islamic legal thought.
Students will be asked to select five out of the twelve suggested projects. They will prepare a 1-2 page memo to be submitted before class to my teaching assistant Ms. Julia Braunmiller (jcbraunmiller@jhu.edu). Students will also be asked to choose a book on Islam, Muslims, and the West that was published after 9/11 and write a 10-page book review which is due the last day of the exam period.

Suggested Reading Materials for Overall Course:


  1. Coulson, Noel J., A History of Islamic Law, 1964.

  2. Feldman, Noah, The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State, 2010.

  3. A’la Maududi, S. Abul, Islamic Law and Constitution, 1992.

  4. Mayer, Ann Elizabeth, Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics, 1999.

  5. Ramadan, Tariq, Western Muslims and the Future of Islam, 2003.

  6. Schacht, Joseph, Introduction to Islamic Law, 1964.


Syllabus:

1. Introduction (Aug 31)
Basic Concepts:

Overview of syllabus; discussion of reading materials; the general characteristics of Islam as a divine law; the place of the Islamic legal system in the legal family - a comparative analysis.


Assigned Materials:

  • S. Abul A’la Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution (1992), Chapter 6: First Principles of the Islamic State, p. 202 – 252.

  • John J. Donohue and John L. Esposito, Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives (1982). Excerpts:

    • Hasan al Banna, The New Renaissance, p. 78 – 83.

    • Sayyid Qutb, Social Justice in Islam, p. 123 – 128.

    • Najib Mahfuz, Debate on the Application of the Shari’a in Egypt, p. 239 – 240.

    • ‘Abd Al-Halim Mahmud, Debate on the Application of the Shari’a in Egypt, p. 241 – 242.

    • Zaki Najib Mahmud, Debate on the Application of the Shari’a in Egypt, p.243 – 245.

  • Elkhatib v. Dunkin Donuts, 493 F.3d 827 (2007).

  • Nat. Group for Comm. and Computers Ltd. v. Lucent Technologies Int’l Inc., 331 F. Supp. 2d 290 (2004).



2. Nature and Sources of Islamic Law (Sep 7)

Basic Concepts:

Primary and secondary sources of law (Quran, Sunnah, Consensus and Analogy); the process of system-building in Islamic law.


Assigned Materials:

  • Cherif Bassiouni & Gamal M. Badr, The Shari’ah: Sources, Interpretation, and Rule-Making, 1 UCLA J. Islamic & Near E.L. 135 (2002).

  • Ali Khan, Islam as Intellectual Property “My Lord! Increase Me in Knowledge,” 31 Cumb. L. Rev. 631 (2000-2001).



3. Interpretation of the Islamic Text (Sep 14)
Basic Concepts

The theory of interpretation; Islamic jurisprudence; Islamic schools of law (Hanafi, Maliki, Shaif'i and the Hanbali schools).


Assigned Materials:

  • Bernard Weiss, Interpretation in Islamic Law: The Theory of Ijtihad, 26 Am. J. Comp. L. 199 (1978).

  • Salah-Eldin Abdel-Wahhab, Meaning and Structure of Law in Islam, 16 Vand. L. Rev. (1962).

  • Nazeem M. I. Goolam, Ijtihad and Its Significance for Islamic Legal Interpretation, Mich. St. L. Rev. 1443 (2006).


Project 1:

Prepare an analysis of a fatwa issued by an Islamic scholar on the Islamic view of a contemporary social, political, or economic issue examining its sources and reasoning.



4. Islamic Constitutional Law (Sep 21)
Basic Concepts:

The principle of non-separation of state and religion in the Islamic legal system (the establishment clause); the relationship between Islamic Shari’a and the constitutional provisions (the supremacy clause); the independence of the judicial authority and the relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of government; does Islamic law recognize the theory of separation of powers?


Assigned Materials:

  • Mohamed Y. Mattar, Unresolved Questions in the Bill of Rights of the New Iraqi Constitution: How Will the Clash Between “Human Rights” and “Islamic Law” be Reconciled in Future Legislative Enactments and Judicial Interpretations? 30 Fordham Int’l L. J. 126 (2006).

  • Clark B. Lombardi & Nathan J. Brown, Do Constitutions Requiring Adherence to Shari’a Threaten Human Rights? How Egypt’s Constitutional Court Reconciles Islamic Law with the Liberal Rule of Law, 21 Am. U. Int’l L. Rev. 379 (2006).

  • S. Abul A’la Maududi, Islamic Law and Constitution (1992), Chapter 7: Fundamentals of Islamic Constitution, p. 253 – 271.

  • A. Michael Tarazi, Saudi Arabia’s New Basic Laws: The Struggle for Participatory Islamic Government, 34 Harv. Int’l L. J. 258 (1993).

  • A Text of the 1979 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.


Project 2:

Present a memorandum on comparative constitutionalism explaining the influence of Islamic law on a constitution of your choice.



5. Islamic Law in American Courts: Rights of Muslim Inmates to Religious Freedom (Sep 28)
Basic Concepts:

The bill of rights in Islamic law; rights of Muslim prison inmates and the constitutional freedom of religion.




  • Abdulhaseeb v. Calbone, 600 F.3d 1301 (2010).

  • Brown v. Ray, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 17363 (2010).

  • Lewis v. Ollison, 571 F. Supp. 2d 1162 (2008).

  • Leonard v. State of Louisiana, 2010 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 64333 (2008).

  • Azuzallah v. Dipaolo, 138 F. Supp. 2d 99 (2001).

  • Mack v. O’Leary, 80 F. 3d 1175 (1996).

  • Lewis v. Scott, 910 F. Supp. 282 (1995).

  • Darab v. U.S., 623 A.2d 127 (1993).

  • Petition for Kassas, 788 F. Supp. 993 (1992).

  • Equal Opportunity Employment Commission v. Reads, 759 F. Supp 1150 (1991).

  • O’Lone v. Estate of Shabazz, 482 U.S. 342 (1987).

  • Abdullah v. Kinnison, 769 F. 2d 345 (1985).

  • Al Shakir v. Carlson, 605 F. Supp. 374 (1984).

  • Rivera v. Smith, 63 N.Y. 2d 501, 472 N.E. 2d 1015 (1984).

  • Wilson v. Beame, 380 F. Supp 1232 (1974).


Project 3:

Submit a summary of one of the cases mentioned above explaining the facts of the case and the balancing test adopted by the court in reaching its conclusions.



6. Islamic Theory of Crimes and Punishment (Oct 5)
Basic Concepts:

Categories of criminal acts (Hudud offenses, Quesas crimes, and Taazir); classification of Hudud offenses (theft, adultery and fornication, defamation, highway robbery, use of alcohol, apostasy and rebellion); Al-Quesas (death penalty); the conditions of implementation; honor killings; mercy killing and the right to die; destruction of the unborn child; trafficking in persons, especially women and children.


Assigned Materials:

  • Mohamed Y. Mattar, Combating Trafficking in Persons in Accordance with the Principles of Islamic Law, UNODC (2009).

  • Anthony Chase, Legal Guardians: Islamic Law, International Law, Human Rights Law and the Salman Rushdie Affair, 11 Am. U. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y (1996).

  • Hossein Esmaeili & Jeremy Gansast, Islamic Law Across Cultural Borders: The Involvement of Western Nationals In Saudi Murder Trials, 28 Denv. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 145 (2000).

  • Kathryn Christine Arnold, Are the Perpetrators of Honor Killings Getting Away with Murder? Article 340 of the Jordan Penal Code Analyzed Under the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 16 Am. U. Int’l L. Rev. 1343 (2001).

  • Nicholas Garces, Islam, Till Death Do You Part? Rethinking Apostasy Laws under Islamic Law and International Legal Obligations, 16 Sw. J. Int’l L. 229 (2010).


Project 4:

Present a list of recommendations on how the general principles of the Islamic religion may be used to combat the crime of human trafficking.



7. Islamic Banking and Insurance (Oct 12)
Basic Concepts:

Freedom of contract; formation of contract; frustration of contracts; economic hardship; termination of contract; the Islamic economic order; Riba (unlawful advantage by way of excess or deferment); the financial system based on Islamic ethics (Musharaka, Murabaha, Ijara, Qard hasan, Mudaraba); the prospects for success of an Islamic Banking system; insurance: is it a valid contract under Islamic Law?


Assigned Materials:

  • Bilal Khan & Emir Aly Crowne-Mohammed, The Value of Islamic Banking in the Current Financial Crisis, 29 Rev. Banking & Fin. L. 441 (2010).

  • Barbara L. Seniwski, Riba Today: Social Equality, the Economy and Doing Business Under Islamic Law, 39 Colum. J. Transnat’l L. 701 (2001).

  • Appendix 1—Federal Law No. 6-1985 on Islamic Banks, Financial Institutions and Investment Companies; Appendix 2—Dubai Islamic Bank Promises to Purchase Contract.

  • Chafic Nehme, Credit Cards and Islamic Law, Middle East Executive Reports (July 1995).

  • Hossein Mahdavi Najmabadi, “Proposal for a Modified Model of Musharakh Financing, with Emphasis on Iran,” Arab Law Quarterly 282 (1999).

  • Ahmed A. Al-Ghadyan, “Insurance: The Islamic Perspective and its Development in Saudi Arabia,” Arab Law Quarterly 332 (1999).


Project 5:

Choose an example of an Islamic bank and write a description of the forms of Islamic banking used by this bank.



8. Islamic Family Law: Marriage (Oct 19)
Basic Concepts:

Marriage; dowry agreements; polygamy; problems of reforming the personal status law in contemporary Middle Eastern legal systems.


Assigned Materials:

  • Text of The United Arab Draft Law for Personal Status.

  • Tamilla F. Ghodsi, Tying a Slipknot: Temporary Marriages in Iran, 15 Mich. J. Int’l L. 645 (1994).

  • Emily L. Thompson & F. Soniya Yunus, Choice of Laws or Choice of Culture: How Western Nations Treat the Islamic Marriage Contract in Domestic Courts, 25 Wis. Int’l L. J. 361 (2007).

  • Rahman v. Hossain, LEXIS 1326 (2010).

  • Dajani v. Dajani, 207 Cal. App. 3d 1387 (1988).

  • Aziz v. Aziz, 488 N.Y. S. 2d 123 (1985).


Project 6:

Explain the concepts of early marriage, arranged marriage, and temporary marriage in light of the various schools of Islamic jurisprudence.



9. Islamic Family Law: Divorce and Child Custody (Oct 26)
Basic Concepts:

Judicial and non-judicial divorce; parental rights and the issue of adoption; community property; child custody rules in Islamic law: are they applicable in American courts?


Assigned Materials:

  • Alan Reed, Transnational Non-Judicial Divorces: A Comparative Analysis of Recognition Under English and U.S. Jurisprudence, 18 Loy. L.A. Int’l and Comp. L. J. 311 (1996).

  • Monica E. Henderson, U.S. State Court Review of Islamic Law Custody Decrees-When Islamic Custody Decrees in the Child’s Best Interest? 36 J. Fam. L. 423 (1997-98).

  • In the Mattar of Sonia Ramadan and Samer Ramadan, 891 A.2d 1186 (2006).

  • Hosain v. Malik, 108 Md. App. 284, 671 A. 2d 988 (1996).

  • Ali v. Ali, 279 N.J. Super 154, 652 A.d 253 (1994).


Project 7:

Write a brief on the reasons given by American judges on American courts refusing the recognition of Islamic child custody rules.



10. Islamic Law and Human Rights: Women’s Rights (Nov 2)
Basic Concepts:

Women as Equals in Islam; personal status laws in contemporary Islamic Codes; the Quranic view of gender relations; marital consent and the right of women to contract her own marriage; dowry; marriage; polygamy; the right of the wife to initiate divorce; maintenance; the right to education; right to employment; right to inheritance.


Assigned Materials:

  • Adamantia Pollis and Peter Scwab, editors. Human Rights – New Perspectives, New Realitites (2000), Chapter 4: by Zehra F. Arat, Women’s Rights in Islam: Revisiting Quranic Rights, p. 69 – 93.

  • Christie S. Warren, Lifting the Veil: Women and Islamic Law, 15 Cardozo J. L. & Gender 33 (2008).

  • Azizah al-Hibri, Islam, Law and Custom: Redefining Muslim Women’s Rights, 12 Am. U. J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 1 (1997).

  • Zainab Chaudhry, The Myth of Misogyny: A Reanalysis of Women’s Inheritance in Islamic Law, 61 Alb. L. Rev. 511 (1997).

  • Bharathi Anandhi Venktraman, Islamic States and the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women: Are the Shari’a and the Convention Compatible?, 44 Am. U. L. Rev. 1949 (1995).


Project 8:

Write a memorandum on the extent of compliance of Islamic family law with international family law.



11. Islamic Law and Human Rights: International Human Rights (Nov 9)
Basic Concepts:

International Human Rights Standards; the concept of Human Rights in Islamic Law; relativism v. universalism; is international human rights law compatible with Islamic law?; the right to political asylum on the basis of fear of persecution; conversion from Islam to Christianity.


Assigned Materials:

  • Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics (1999), Chapter 8: Freedom of Religion in Islamic Human Rights Schemes.

  • Isha Khan, Islamic Human Rights: Islamic Law and International Human Rights Standards, 5 Appeal 74 (1999).

  • Janem v. Mukasey, 295 Fed. Appx. 89 (2008).

  • Syed v. Mukasy, 288 Fed. Appx. 273 (2008).

  • Izquierdo v. Crawford, 2007 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 71608 (2007).

  • Rehman v. Gonzalez, 243 Fed. Appx. 647 (2007).

  • Suherwanto v. Attorney General of the United States, 230 Fed. Appx. 211 (2007).

  • Bandari v. INS, 227 F. 3d 1160 (2000).

  • Cheaib v. INS, U.S. App (1999).

  • El Hadi v. INS, U.S. App (1999).

  • Fisher v. INS, 79 F. 3d 955 (1996).

  • Abedini v. INS, 971 F. 2d 188 (1992).

  • Bastaniour v. INS, 980 F. 2d 1129 (1992).

  • Saleh v. U.S., 962 F. 2d 234 (1992).

  • Elnager v. INS, 930 F. 2d 784 (1991).


Project 9:

Write a memo explaining arguments that may be made by a Muslim filing a law suit asking for political asylum in the United States.



12. Islamic Law and Human Rights: Minority Rights (Nov 16)
Basic Concepts:

Religious dissidents under Islamic law; religious discrimination and the rights of non-Muslims; foreign workers in Saudi Arabia: does the American law apply?; the rights of Coptics in Egypt.


Assigned Materials:

  • Ann Elizabeth Mayer, Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics (1999), Chapter 7: Islamic Human Rights Schemes and Non-Muslims.

  • Donna E. Arzt, Heroes or Heretics: Religious Dissidents Under Islamic Law, 14 Wis. Int’l L. J. 349 (1996)

  • James David Phipps, Kiss of Death: Application of Title VII’s Prohibition Against Religious Discrimination in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, BYU L. R. 399 (1994).

  • Scott Kent Brown II, The Coptic Church in Egypt: A Comment on Protecting Religious Minorities from Non-State Discrimination, BYU L. R. 1049 (2000).

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. ARMCO, 499 U.S. 244 (1991).

  • Abrams v. Baylor College of Medicine, 805 F. 2d 588 (1986).

  • Kern v. Dynalectron Corporation, 577 F. Supp. 1196 (1983).

  • American Jewish Congress v. Carter, 213 N.Y.S. 2d 60 (1961).


Project 10:

Discuss a country report issued by the U.S. State Department in accordance with the International Religious Freedom Act.



13. Islamic International Law (Nov 30)
Basic Concepts:

Siyar and the classic Islamic law of nations; modern sources of international law, particularly treaties, customary international law, and the general principles of law recognized by civilized nations; international humanitarian law and Islamic law of war; ius ad bellum, Jihad, and the concept of just war.




  • James Cockayne, Islam and International Humanitarian Law: From a Clash to a Conversation Between Civilizations, 84 Int’l. Rev. Red Cross 597 (2002).

  • Christopher A. Ford, Siyar-ization and its Discontents: International Law and Islam’s Constitutional Crisis, 30 Tex. Int’l L. J. 499 (1995).

  • Clark B. Lombardi, Islamic Law in the Jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice: An Analysis, 8 Chi. J. Int'l L. 85 (2007).

  • Shaheen Sardar Ali & Javaid Rehman, The Concept of Jihad in Islamic International law, 10 J. Conflict & Security L. 321 (2005).

  • David A. Westbrook, Islamic International Law and Public International Law: Separate Expressions of World Order, 33 Va. J. Int'l L. 819 (1993).


Project 11:

Discuss the meaning of Jihad as interpreted by contemporary Muslim movements today.


Books on Islam, Muslims, and the West Published After 9/11

  1. Abdo, Genevieve (2007) Mecca and Main Street: Muslim Life in America after 9/11 Oxford University Press



  1. Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2005) The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists San Fransisco, CA, Harper



  1. Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2004) Islam and the Challenge of Democracy Princeton: Princeton University Press



  1. Akbar, Ahmed (2008) Journey into Islam: the Crisis of Globalization Brookings Institution Press



  1. Ali, Hirsi (2008) Infidel, Free Press



  1. Ali, Hirsi (2010) Nomad: From Islam to America: A Personal Journey Through the Clash of Civilizations Free Press



  1. Allawi, Ali L. (2010) The Crisis of Islamic Civilizatio, Yale University Press



  1. Ayoob, Mohammed (2007) The Many Faces of Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Muslim World University of Michigan Press



  1. Ayoub, Mahmoud, Omar, Irfan A. A Muslim View Of Christianity: Essays on Dialogue Orbis Books



  1. Barrett, Paul M. (2007) American Islam: The Struggle for the Soul of a Religion Picador



  1. Bawer, Bruce (2006) Surrender: Appeasing Islam, Sacrificing Freedom Anchor



  1. Bawer, Bruce (2007) While Europe Slept: How Radical Islam is Destroying the West from Within Anchor



  1. Benjamin, Daniel (2003) The Age of Sacred Terror: Radical Islam's War Against America Random House Trade Paperbacks



  1. Blankely, Tony (2006) The West's Last Chance: Will We Win the Clash of Civilizations? Regnery Press



  1. Bonner, Michael (2008) Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice Princeton University Press



  1. Bonney, Richard (2008) False Prophets: The "Clash of Civilizations" and the Global War on Terror Peter Lang Oxford



  1. Booker, Richard (2008) Radical Islam's War Against Israel, Christianity and the West Destiny Image



  1. Bostom, Andrew G. (2008) The Legacy of Jihad: Islamic Holy War and the Fate of Non-Muslims Prometheus Books



  1. Caldwell, Christopher (2010) Reflections on the Revolution In Europe: Immigration, Islam and the West Anchor



  1. Carroll, Jill (2007) A Dialogue of Civilizations Tughra Books



  1. Cesari, Jocelyn (2010) Muslims in the West after 9/11: Religion, Politics and Law (Routledge Studies in Liberty and Security), Routledge



  1. Cesari, Jocelyn (2006) When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States Palgrave Macmillan



  1. Cherif, Mustapha, Fagan, Teresa Lavender, Borradori, Giovanna (2008) Islam and the West: A Conversation with Jacques Derrida (Religion and Postmodernism Series) University Of Chicago Press



  1. Cole, Juan (2010) Engaging the Muslim World Palgrave Macmillan



  1. Cook, David (2009) Understanding Jihad, California University Press



  1. Cox, Caroline, Marks, Jon (2006) West, Islam & Islamism: Is Ideological Islam Compatible With Liberal Democracy? Civitas



  1. Crimp, Susan, Richardson, Joel (2008) Why We Left Islam: Former Muslims Speak Out WND Books



  1. Darwish, Nonie (2009) Cruel and Usual Punishment: The Terrifying Global Implications of Islamic Law, Thomas Nelson



  1. Davis, Gregory M. (2006) Religion of Peace?: Islam's War Against the World World Ahead Publishing



  1. Deliso, Christopher (2007) The Coming Balkan Caliphate: The Threat of Radical Islam to Europe and the West Praeger



  1. Donner, Fred M. (2010) Muhammad and the Believers: At the Origins of Islam Belknap Press of Harvard University Press



  1. Donohue, John J., Esposito John L. (2006) Islam in Transition: Muslim Perspectives Oxford University Press, USA



  1. Dreyfuss, Robert (2006) Devil's Game: How the United States Helped Unleash Fundamentalist Islam Metropolitan Books



  1. Esposito, John (2010) The Future of Islam, Oxford University Press



  1. Esposito, John (2003) The Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam, Oxford University Press



  1. Esposito, John (2002) What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam, Oxford University Press



  1. Esposito, John, Mogahed, Dalia (2008) Who Speaks for Islam? What a Billion Muslims Really Think, Gallup Press



  1. Ewing, Katherine Pratt (2008) Being and Belonging: Muslims in the United States Since 9/11 Russell Sage Foundation Publications



  1. Federer, William (2007) What Every American Needs to Know About the Qur'an - A History of Islam & the United States Amerisearch, Inc.



  1. Feldman, Noah (2010) The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State Princeton University Press



  1. Fetzer, Joel S., Soper, J. Christopher (2004) Muslims and the State in Britain, France, and Germany (Cambridge Studies in Social Theory, Religion and Politics) Cambridge University Press



  1. Fuller, Graham E. (2010) A World Without Islam, Little, Brown, and Co.



  1. Gabriel, Theodore, Haddad, Yvonne, Geaves, Ron , Yvonne Haddad (2004) Islam And The West Post-September 11th Ashgate Publishing



  1. Gerges A. Fawaz (2007) Journey of the Jihadist: Inside Muslim Militancy Mariner Books



  1. Griswold, Eliza (2010) The Tenth Parallel: Dispatches from the Fault Line Between Christianity and Islam Farrar, Straus and Giroux



  1. Hamid, Tawfik (2008) Inside Jihad: Understanding and Confronting Radical Islam Abdelhamid



  1. Hardy, Roger (2010) The Muslim Revolt: A Journey Through Political Islam Columbia University Press



  1. Harris, Lee (2008) The Suicide of Reason: Radical Islam's Threat to the West, Basic Books



  1. Hillenbrand, Carole (2008) The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives Edinburgh University Press



  1. Hunter, Shereen, Malik, Huma (2005) Islam and Human Rights: Advancing a U.S. -Muslim Dialogue Center for Strategic & International Studies



  1. Ismael, Tareq (2010) Islam in the Eyes of the West: Images and Realities in an Age of Terror (Durham Modern Middle East and Islamic World Series) Routledge



  1. Johnson, Ross (2008) Communicating With the World of Islam Hoover Institution Press



  1. Kepel, Gillis (2006) The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press



  1. Kepnes, Steven, Koshul, Basit Bilal (2007) Scripture, Reason, and the Contemporary Islam-West Encounter: Studying the "Other," Understanding the "Self" Palgrave Macmillan



  1. Khan, Arshad (2003) Islam, Muslims and America: Understanding the Basis of Their Conflict Agathon Press



  1. Kidd, Thomas (2008) American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism Princeton University Press



  1. Klausen, Jytte (2005) The Islamic Challenge: Politics and Religion in Western Europe Oxford University Press, USA



  1. Lewis, Bernard (2008) Islam: The Religion and the People, Wharton School Publishing



  1. Litvak, Meir (2007) Middle Eastern Societies and the West: Accommodation or Clash of Civilizations? Moshe Dayan Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies, Tel Aviv University



  1. Majid, Anouar (2009) A Call for Heresy: Why Dissent Is Vital to Islam and America Univ Of Minnesota Press



  1. Malik, Iftikhar (2003) Islam and Modernity: Muslims in Europe and the United States Pluto Press



  1. Mamdani, Mahmood (2005) Good Muslim, Bad Muslim: America, the Cold War, and the Roots of Terror Three Leaves



  1. Mattson, Ingrid (2007) The Story of the Qur'an: Its History and Place in Muslim Life Wiley-Blackwell



  1. Mazarr, Michael (2007) Unmodern Men in the Modern World: Radical Islam, Terrorism, and the War on Modernity Cambridge University Press



  1. Michael, George (2006) The Enemy of My Enemy: The Alarming Convergence of Militant Islam And the Extreme Right University Press of Kansas



  1. Milton-Edwards, Beverly (2005) Islamic Fundamentalism since 1945 Routledge



  1. Murphy, John F. (2002) Sword of Islam: Muslim Extremism from the Arab Conquests to the Attack on America Prometheus Books



  1. Muthuswamy, Moorthy, Emerson, Steven, (2009) Defeating Political Islam: The New Cold War Prometheus Books



  1. Palmer, Princess (2007) At the Heart of Terror: Islam, Jihadists, and America's War on Terrorism Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.



  1. Parphrey, Adam, Gardell, Matthias (2002) Extreme Islam: Anti-American Propaganda of Muslim Fundamentalism Feral House



  1. Patel, Eboo (2010) Acts of Faith: The Story of an American Muslim, in the Struggle for the Soul of a Generation Beacon Press



  1. Phillips, Melanie (2007) Londonistan, Encounter Books



  1. Pintak, Lawrence (2006) Reflections in a Bloodshot Lens: America, Islam, and the War of Ideas



  1. Ramadan, Tariq (2009) Islam, the West and the Challenges of Modernity, The Islamic Foundation



  1. Ramadan, Tariq (2008) Radical Reform: Islamic Ethics and Liberation Oxford University Press



  1. Ramadan, Tariq (2003) Western Muslims and the Future of Islam, Oxford University Press



  1. Ratzinger, Joseph (Pope Benedict XVI) (2007), Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam, Basic Books



  1. Rauf, Abdul Fesal (2005), What’s Right with Islam: A New Vision for Muslims and the West, HarperOne



  1. Rehman, Javaid (2005) Islamic State Practices, International Law And The Threat From Terrorism: A Critique Of The 'clash Of Civilizations' In The New World Order, Hart Publishing (UK)



  1. Reilly, Robert R. (2010) The Closing of the Muslim Mind: How Intellectual Suicide Created the Modern Islamist Intercollegiate Studies Institute



  1. Rosen, Nir (2010) Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World Nation Books



  1. Ruthven, Malise (2004) A Fury for God: The Islamist Attack on America Granta UK



  1. Sachedina, Abdulaziz (2007) The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism Oxford University Press, USA



  1. Scheuer, Michael (2009) Marching Toward Hell: America and Islam After Iraq Free Press



  1. Schmidt, Alvin (2004) Great Divide: Failure of Islam and Triumph of the West Regina Orthodox Press



  1. Shore, Zachary (2009) Breeding Bin Ladens: America, Islam, and the Future of Europe The Johns Hopkins University Press



  1. Smith, Jane (2007) Muslims, Christians, and the Challenge of Interfaith Dialogue Oxford University Press, USA



  1. Spencer, Robert (2005) The Myth of Islamic Tolerance: How Islamic Law Treats Non-Muslims Prometheus Books



  1. Spencer, Robert (2007) Religion of Peace? Why Christianity Is and Islam Isn’t Regnery Press



  1. Spencer, Robert (2008) Stealth Jihad: How Radical Islam is Subverting America without Guns or Bombs Regnery Press



  1. Steyn, Mark (2009) Lights Out: Islam, Free Speech And The Twilight Of The West Stockade Books



  1. Timmerman, Kenneth R. Preachers of Hate: Islam and the War on America Three Rivers Press (2004)



  1. Tripathi, Deepak, Falk, Richardm (2010) Breeding Ground: Afghanistan and the Origins of Islamist Terrorism Potomac Books Inc.



  1. Trofimov, Yaroslav (2006) Faith at War: A Journey on the Frontlines of Islam, from Baghdad to Timbuktu Picador



  1. Tugal, Cihan (2009) Passive Revolution: Absorbing the Islamic Challenge to Capitalism Stanford University Press



  1. Tyler, Aaron (2008) Islam, the West, and Tolerance: Conceiving Coexistence Palgrave Macmillan



  1. Volpi, Frederic (2010)Political Islam Observed Columbia University Press



  1. Warraq, Ibn (2003) Why I Am Not a Muslim Prometheus Books



  1. Whitaker, Brian (2010) What's Really Wrong With The Middle East Saqi Books



  1. Williams, Paul L. (2007) The Day of Islam: The Annihilation of America and the Western World Prometheus Books







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