It involves talking about a member of the target group in negative and stereotypical terms.
People avoid and/or withdraw from contact with the disliked group.
The prejudiced person will attempt to exclude all members of the group in question from access to certain types of employment, residential housing, political rights, educational and recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals, or other social institutions.
Physical acts occur when minorities are the targets of this level of prejudicial activity.
It leads to acts of physical violence with the objective of removing or eliminating all or major segments of the target group community.
+ Causes of prejudice:
Social organizations produce norms, rules, regulations, and laws that give rise to societal prejudice and help “maintain the power of the dominant groups over subordinate ones.”
Maintaining social identity:
Anything that threatens the bond binding people and culture together, such as out-group members, can become a target of prejudice.
A particular group of people, usually a minority, is singled out to bear the blame for certain events or circumstances, such as economic or social hardships, that adversely affect the dominant group.
+ Avoiding prejudice:
The greater the frequency of positive contacts between in-group and out-group individuals, the lower the level of perceived prejudice. the contact needs to meet certain conditions to be successful, the most important being “equal status between groups” and cooperation “toward common goals.”
There are two types of educational programs that psychologists have used to help reduce prejudice. The first type centers on what are called multicultural education curricula, which Stephan and Stephan describe as “usually [consisting] of materials on the history and cultural practices of a wide array of racial and ethnic groups.” The second type program, cultural diversity training, is used mainly in business and organizational settings and consists of programs designed “to teach managers and employees to value group differences, increase understanding between groups, and help individuals recognize that their own behavior is affected by their background.”
+ Racism occurs when people believe their race is inherently superior to another race. Racist individuals will often engage in discrimination against people of another group.
+ Expressions of racism:
In general, these forms can be categorized as either personal or institutional. “Personal racismconsists of racist acts, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors on the part of the individual persons.” “Institutional racism refers to racial inferiorizing or antipathy perpetrated by specific social institutions such as schools, corporations, hospitals, or the criminal justice system as a totality.”
+ Avoiding racism:
First, try to be honest with yourself when deciding if you hold any racist views. Second, object to racist jokes and insults whenever you hear them. Third, as straightforward as it sounds, respect freedom. Fourth, examine the historical roots of racism.
+ Ethnocentrism is the notion that one’s own culture is superior to any other. It is the idea that other cultures should be measured by the degree to which they live up to our cultural standards. We are ethnocentric when we view other cultures through the narrow lens of our own culture or social position.
+ Levels of ethnocentrism:
Ethnocentrism can be viewed as having three levels: positive, negative, and extremely negative. The first, positive, is the belief that one’s own culture is preferred over all others. At the negative level, ethnocentrism is demonstrated in the belief that one’s own culture is the center of everything, and all other cultures should be measured and rated by its standards. Finally, in the extremely negative form, the person or group believes their values and customs should be adopted by other cultures.
+ Characteristics of ethnocentrism: