Village manager states that new policy is not to borrow unless expenditure is
building and other long-lasting items
This means paying out of current budget (to be covered by current taxes and income)
Claim: this and other policies contributes to the village Moody's bond rating being A1
Measurements are limited to accuracy.
I am 62 inches tall (probably 61.5)
Ruler has markings. Meters have limits. Timers are limited (though getting better and better: a particular timer has a limit in precision.)
Computations with measurements must/should avoid reporting more digits than appropriate.
Measure height of several people with ruler with inch and tenth of inch markings
Report: 61.4, 64.0, 72.5, 73.8 (64.0 rather than 64 because you can distinguish between 64.0 and 64.1)
Computed average is 67.925. Report 67.9 because more would imply more precision than you can guarantee.
Set of rules for reporting, including report computed answer with no more significant digits than the least number in the operands
Must distinguish between measured quantities and 'pure numbers'—numbers with unlimited precision
Important to not round off too early: keep intermediate results at greater precision, do computation, and then round off.
Good sources found using google.
What should be reported as average for
Iraqi Dead May Total 600,000, Study Says
“It is the second study by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. It uses samples of casualties from Iraqi households to extrapolate an overall figure of 601,027 Iraqis dead from violence between March 2003 and July 2006.”
“But it is an estimate and not a precise count, and researchers acknowledged a margin of error that ranged from 426,369 to 793,663 deaths.”
Note: The headline: “Study estimates a minimum of 400,000 deaths” would have been newsworthy
Good headline by NYTimes
Nature of scales:
interval (measured, meaning to differences)
category (no order)
Tendency to report amounts to certain granularity: whole numbers, round off to 5 or 10, etc.
100m Men's World Record
Traditionally 'the world's fastest…'
The precision possible in testing has improved from hand-held clocks to sensors for start and finish.
False start determination
False start has official definition: within some set amount of starting gun