College of Business: Guidelines for referencing and presentation in written reports and essays



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College of Business:

Guidelines for referencing and presentation



in written reports and essays


Version: 4
Approved: April 2010
Review date: Not later than December 2011
Contents


3

1. Introduction 4

2. Referencing 6

2.2.1 Paraphrasing 6

2.2.2 Direct quotes 6

2.3.1 Referencing internet sources 8

2.4.1 Printed material and multimedia 13

2.4.2 Electronic journal articles 23

2.4.5 Order of entries in a reference list 25

3. Plagiarism 28

3.1.1 What constitutes plagiarism? 28

3.1.2 What is the penalty for plagiarism? 28

4. Essay writing 31

A Step By Step Guide to Essay Writing 31

Step 1 Choose your topic 31

Step 2 Read the instructions, relating to your assessments as set down in your Course Guide 31

Step 3 Analyse the topic 31

Step 5 Starting your research 33

Step 6 Mind mapping 33

Step 7 Focus your research 33

Step 8 Draw up a detailed plan 35

Step 9 Writing the Essay 35

Step 10 Writing the first draft 37

Step 11 Editing your final draft 37



5. Report Writing 39

A step by step guide to report writing 40

Step 1 Choose your topic 40

Step 2 Read the instructions relating to your assessments as set down in your Course Guide 40

Step 3 Analyse the topic 40

Step 4 Brain storm – what do you already know about the issue? 40

Step 5 Starting your research 40

Step 6 Mind mapping 40

Step 7 Focus your research 41

Step 8 Draw up a detailed plan 42

Step 9 Writing the report 43

Step 10 Using your plan to start writing 46

Step 11 Writing the first draft 46

Step 12 Formatting your report 47



Reference list 53

Bibliography 53

Glossary 54

Acknowledgements 55


Tables
Table Title Page

Table 1 Referencing styles – type of author 6

Table 2 Referencing styles – no author 6

Table 3 Referencing styles – books 7

Tables 4a-d Referencing styles 10

Table 5 Order of entries in a reference list 22

Table 6 Other referencing systems 23

Table 7 Commonly used abbreviations in referencing 24

Table 8 Direct use of another person's work without citation 26

Table 9 Paraphrasing without citation 26

Table 10 Piecing together texts and linking them 26

Table 11 Integrating ideas from multiple sources 27

Table 12 How to avoid accusations of plagiarism 27

Table 13 Action/instruction words used in assessment tasks 29

Table 14 Mind mapping for essays 30

Table 15 Checklist for essays 34

Table 16 Mind mapping for reports 38

Table 17 Sections of a report 40

Table 18 Examples of the language used in the different sections of a report 45

Table 19 Formal versus informal language 45

Table 20 Report writing checklist 47

Table 21 Glossary 49






1. Introduction

The written word is the basis of business communication today, whether in a formal business report, a letter, informal memo or email. As a business professional, you will be judged by how well and how clearly you use words to communicate.


As well as teaching technical business skills in a broad range of disciplines, RMIT Business is also committed to help you develop appropriate business writing skills for the University assessments you will be required to submit.
This document is intended for RMIT Business TAFE and undergraduate students, although postgraduate students are encouraged to use it as a starting point. It details how to format your written work and demonstrates:

  • the differences between academic essays and business reports;

  • guidelines for their preparation;

  • how to ensure you meet the technical requirements;

  • how to cite references;

  • how to avoid plagiarism.

You will find a set of broad guidelines to help overcome common problems with grammar, formatting, and use of abbreviations. This document is intended as an integral reference on matters of style and method. It will also help you further develop your written communication skills.


The RMIT Business Guidelines are based on the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002), referred to here as Style manual (2002) which is published on behalf of the Commonwealth of Australia, and is the Commonwealth Government’s preferred style. The Style manual (2002) can be used to provide guidance on areas which are not covered in the RMIT Business document, but if there is any inconsistency you should follow the RMIT Business document.
There may be certain other style requirements published in a course guide or indicated by the lecturer in charge.
Examples used in this guide are presented in text boxes to make them easy to follow.


Example of correct in-text reference using quotes


‘Whilst this work has been developing in the USA it had very different beginnings in Britain ‘ (Wright 1982, p. 51).

Additional support and assistance with essay writing, writing style, and referencing can be found by viewing the Learning Lab <www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu>.



1.1 Getting started

Do not leave the task until the last minute. You are urged to consider the following advice in relation to written assessments:

  • Start thinking about the topic as soon as it has been selected and list the questions you believe you should try to answer.

  • Do background reading, but keep checking the set topic to ensure that you stay focused.

  • Place the topic of your answer within the appropriate context. For example, an essay question on the macroeconomic policies of a particular country will require you to define ‘macroeconomic’ before you can write about policies in different countries. So you may need to complete background reading before commencing the specific reading related to your written task.

  • What do you need to fully answer the question? Do you need to collect data, source more reading materials, analyse new or existing data? Where will you source this information?

  • Allow time to secure essential references, remembering most libraries often do not have sufficient multiple copies of references. Learn quickly to get the relevant information for your assignment, using the table of contents, chapter summaries, indexes and reviews. Always record the details of the publications in full for inclusion in your notes or plan in case you decide to refer to a source in your essay.

  • You should use all available research resources including the Internet and other electronic sources, to both save time and allow you to conduct international research and data gathering from home or work. However, in using these new technologies you must ensure that database resources, web pages, email, electronic discussion lists, etc. are properly acknowledged (see chapter 3 for electronic document referencing).


1.2 Editing

Do not leave editing until the last minute, but leave sufficient time to rewrite work to improve your expression. Remove irrelevant or redundant material. Refine arguments to be more concise and forceful, and to remedy any other deficiencies.
Hint:

Often, the best way to ensure your writing flows systematically is to read your work aloud. Your natural pauses become your punctuation and paragraph breaks, and sometimes, while reading aloud, it becomes obvious what needs to be deleted and what is missing from your analysis.
1.3 Confidentiality

If you include confidential and/or controversial material and do not wish your essay or report to be viewed by people other than RMIT staff, you should discuss this with your lecturer or course coordinator.
1.4 Referencing

What is referencing?

  • Referencing means acknowledging someone else’s work or ideas. It is sometimes called ‘citing’ or ‘documenting’ another person’s work.

  • Referencing is a basic University requirement.


As an RMIT Business student, you are required to use the Harvard referencing system as outlined in the following pages. This author date system is based on the Australian Government 2000, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.
Note: The Harvard system has many variations. You must use this version known as the AGPS style.
We have created an interactive website to assist you in the pursuit of referencing to the required standard. The site contains examples you can read as well as self help exercise with the information presented in a just in time format. It would be beneficial fore you to bookmark the RMIT Business online referencing resource.
Why reference?

  • To draw on the ideas, language, data, and/or facts of others. (You are expected to read and research widely.)

  • To provide depth and support to academic work through citation of theories or key writers whose work supports your answer, argument, or contention.

  • To demonstrate knowledge of current thinking in the field.

  • To support academic writing, essays, business reports, and oral presentations.

  • To demonstrate your ability to synthesis and analyse ideas sourced through your research.

  • To acknowledge work from others that you have quoted, summarised, paraphrased, synthesised, discussed or mentioned in your assignments.

  • To provide a list of the publication details so that your readers can locate the source if necessary.

  • To demonstrate the level and breadth of research undertaken by a student. References used correctly will benefit your work and may add to your final grade.


Note:

  • Without appropriate referencing students are in effect “stealing” the work of others- this is tantamount to academic fraud and is called plagiarism.

  • Failure to reference your work means that you may be found guilty of plagiarism which incurs academic penalties. Further information can be found at RMIT Regulations 6.1.1 – Student Discipline.

  • Failure to use the correct referencing format may affect the grading of your academic work.

2. Referencing

2. 1 Introduction



Whenever you rely on someone else’s work you must acknowledge that by providing details of the source. Harvard Referencing has been developed to provide standard, compact ways of conveying this necessary information.
In this system, each reference is indicated in two areas of your work:

  • in the text (in-text citation) by using the name of the author(s) and the date of publication of the work.

  • In the reference list, where the full details of each reference, including the title and publishing details are given


2.2 In-text citations

There are two ways of referencing in-text:

  • Paraphrasing

  • Direct quotes


2.2.1 Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, the ideas of the author(s) are expressed in your own words.
Paraphrasing is used to indicate to the reader:

  • your understanding of the content in the reference you are using.

  • your ability to relevantly and appropriately use ideas and information to support an argument or an opinion.



2.2.1.1 How to reference in-text

There are two options for in-text referencing



  • Adding the citation at the end of the sentence.

  • Using the author’s name as part of your sentence.

  • When paraphrasing include the author’s name and date of publication.

e.g.

Lack of variability in a product is an important measure of its quality (Shannon 2003).

OR

Shannon (2003) describes the role of statistics in minimising product variability.


2.2.2 Direct quotes

When quoting, the exact words of the author(s) are used. Direct quotes should be kept to a minimum.
2.2.2.1 How to reference in-text

There are two options for in-text referencing



  • Adding the citation at the end of the sentence

  • Using the author’s name as part of your sentence

  • When using direct quotes include the author’s name, date of publication and page number

e.g.

Statistical thinking can be defined as a ‘set of thought processes and value systems that focus on understanding, managing and reducing variation in the output of the firm’ (Shannon 2003, p. 5).



OR

Shannon defines statistical thinking as a ‘set of thought processes and value systems that focus on understanding, managing and reducing variation in the output of the firm’ (2003, p. 5).




2.3 A reference list

  • The publication details of every item cited / used in your writing need to be included in the reference list at the end of your paper. Any websites used must also be documented in full. This enables the reader to locate the source if they wish.

  • Each reference list entry requires a specific format depending on the reference type i.e. whether it is a book, book chapter, journal article, website, etc. This is indicated in the following tables (page 6 onwards).

  • You must use a variety of sources in your written work e.g. books, journals and websites etc. This indicates that you have researched widely.


What is the difference between a reference list and a bibliography?

  • A reference list details in alphabetical order by author family name, all the works/articles/journals/ monographs/web pages and data sources you have cited in your written work.

  • A bibliography lists, in alphabetical order by author family name, all the works/articles/journals/ monographs/web pages and data sources you have used or accessed to create your written work.


Note: RMIT Business requires all students to use a reference list in assessment tasks unless otherwise instructed by your lecturers.
2.3.1 Referencing internet sources

Referencing of web resources follows the same principles as for printed material. Often it is difficult to decide how to reference a web site, especially when it originates from a corporate or government body.
It may not be clear:

  • who or which part of an organisation is responsible for the content. (Check the header, footer or “About” section of the site).

  • when it was created or last updated. (Many sites are continuously updated – check for clues such as references to events which happened in a particular year or look for a copyright date. If it is clear that a site is continuously updated use the current year.)

  • which part to take as the title. (Home pages do not always require a title. For subordinate pages, choose the most obvious heading on the page).

  • who is responsible for publishing it.


The important thing is to make it clear exactly which part of the site you are referring to and provide details of the bodies responsible.
Viewed date

As documents on the web are subject to sudden change, it is essential to include the date on which you accessed the document, especially if no date can be found on the document itself.
Web addresses (URL - Uniform Resource Locator)

Provide the full URL for the site.

If you are accessing information via a Library database, give the name of the database not the URL.
As URLs often change, e.g. when a site is restructured, you need to provide sufficient information such as title and author for the reader to locate the document on the site.
Enclose the URL in angle brackets

e.g. . followed by a full stop.
It is important to use the URL prefix to identify type of access involved e.g. http:// ftp:// gopher://

General rules for in-text referencing where the name(s) of the authors are given

For books, journals, websites, conference papers and newspapers, the general rule is to use the family name and the date.


Table 1

Referencing style – types of author


In-text reference

One author

Family name

Year of publication

Kumar (2007) argued that…

...(Kumar 2007).


Two or three authors

Family name

Year of publication

Brown and Lee (2008) offer the opinion that…

....(Brown & Lee 2008).


Four or more authors

The name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’

Year of publication

Note: Family names of all authors, and initials, to be used in the reference list


Ng et al. (2004) stated that…

…(Ng et al. 2004).



For specific information regarding referencing, refer to pages 8-22 of this Guide or use the online referencing resource <www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/bus/public/referencing/index.html>.
General rules for in-text referencing where the name(s) of the authors are not given


Table 2

Referencing style – no author


In-text reference

Newspapers from a database or hard copy

Name of paper – in italics

Date

Page


Date viewed

Database if applicable



In-Text Reference

As stated in the Financial Review (1 August 2007, p. 62, viewed 27 August 2007, Factiva Database)…..

…. (Financial Review, 1 August 2007, p. 62, viewed 27 August 2007, Factiva Database).


Websites – corporations / institutions

An organisational publication with no individual author e.g.  a corporate website or report, treat the company as the author

Name of authoring body, corporation / institution

Year of publication


Telstra (2007) provided the latest….

...,(Telstra 2007).



For specific information regarding referencing, refer to pages 8-22 of this Guide or use the online referencing resource <www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/bus/public/referencing/index.html>.


2.4 Books

The following table demonstrates how to correctly reference your work both in-text and in the reference list using books.


Table 3

Reference type

Reference list


In-text citation



Book – one author

Family name and initial(s)

Year of publication

Title of book - italicised

Publisher

Place of publication



Shannon, J 2003, ‘A companion to business statistics’, Pearson, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Note the use of upper and lower case in the titles of all books



… (Shannon 2003).

OR

Shannon (2003) argues


Note:

  • for direct quotes enclose the exact words of the writer in

‘single’ inverted commas

  • Include the page number(s)

Shannon (2003, p. 45) defines…

...(Shannon 2003, p. 45).


Book – four or more authors

The name of the first author followed by ‘et al.’ is used for the in-text reference.

In the reference list write the names of all the authors.


Kotler, P, Brown, L, Adam, S & Armstrong, G 2004, Marketing, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, Frenchs Forest, NSW.



… (Kotler et al. 2004).

OR

Kotler et al. (2004) state ...



No clear author

Where there is no clear author, enter under the title of the book.



Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.


The Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) describes …




Edited book

Single editor


Multiple editors


Note:

ed. - editor

eds - editors


Cortada, J (ed.) 1998, Rise of the knowledge worker, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston.
Cope, B & Mason, D (eds) 2001, C-2-C: creator to consumer in a digital age, Common Ground Publishing, Altona, Vic.

…(ed. Cortada 1998).


…(eds Cope & Mason 2001).




Book chapter / article

Author(s) of chapter - family name(s) and initial(s)


Year of publication
‘Title’ of chapter - in single
inverted commas
[in] Editor of book (if different)
Title of book – italicised
Edition
Publisher
Place of publication
Page number(s)


Ahmadjiian, CL 2006, ‘Japanese business groups: continuity in the face of change, in S Chang (ed.) Business groups in East Asia, Oxford university Press, UK, pp.29-52.

Note:


The Initial(s) of editor(s) comes before their family name(s).

Include the page numbers for the whole chapter.



Ahmadjiian (2006) observes that...

...(Ahmadjiian 2006).



E-book
Author(s) family name(s), Initial(s)

Year of publication



Title of book,

Edition

Publisher

Place of publication

viewed day month year

database name


When the e-book is in a library database as a page image (pdf), cite it as if it were a hard copy book.
To show where the e-book was located online, add the date of viewing and either database name or URL.

If the book is only available on a Library database as HTML or plain text, then you must cite the date of viewing and either the database name or URL.



Zietlow, J, Hankin, JA & Seidner, AG 2007, Financial management for nonprofit organizations : policies and practices, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.


or
Zietlow, J, Hankin, JA & Seidner, AG 2007, Financial management for nonprofit organizations : policies and practices, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, N.J., viewed 7 November 2007, Ebook Library database.

Liu, C & Albitz, P 2006, DNS and BIND, 5th edn, O’Reilly, Sebastopol, CA, viewed 7 November 2007, .



Zietlow, Hankin and Seidner (2007) state...

….Zietlow, Hankin & Seidner 2007).


Alternatively an anonymous article e.g. from an encyclopedia or dictionary can be cited in the text with no entry in the reference list.

No reference needed.





The new Palgrave dictionary of money & finance (1992) defines hedging as …

Several items with same author and year

If you are referring to more than one work written by the same author in the same year, the letters a,b,c etc are added to the date to indicate which one you mean.

In the reference list the works are listed alphabetically according to the title. If the title starts with ‘A’, ‘An’, or ‘The’, the alphabetical order is determined by the second word in the title




Hill, CWL 2004a, Global business today, 3rd edn, McGraw Hill / Irwin, Boston.

Hill, CWL 2004b, Strategic management theory: an integrated approach, 6th edn, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.




Hill (2004a) suggests that...

Hill (2004b) suggests that...

...(Hill 2004b).

...(Hill 2004a).

Several items with same first author and year

When an author publishes more than one work in the same year, but with different co-authors, the name of the second author determines the order in which the works appear in the reference list.


Kotler, P, Brown, L, Adam, S & Armstrong, G 2004, Marketing, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Kotler, P & Lee, N 2004, ‘Best of breed’, Stanford Social Innovation Review , vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 14-23.



Kotler et al. (2004) suggested that...
Kotler and Lee (2004) offer the opinion that...
… (Kotler et al. 2004).

… (Kotler & Lee 2004).


Secondary citation (citation within a citation)

A secondary citation is when you refer to the work of one author cited by another author.

Primary sources are preferred.

If the original source is not available you must include the name of both writers for in-text references.

Only the source you have read appears in the reference list.




Horton, S 2006, Access by design: a guide to universal usability for web designers, New Riders, Berkeley, California.


‘Form ever follows function’ (Sullivan, cited in Horton 2006, p. 1).

In 1896 Louis H. Sullivan observed that ‘form ever follows function’ (cited in Horton 2006, p. 1).






2.4.1 Printed material and multimedia


Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list


In-text citation



Journal articles

Author(s) family name(s), initial(s)

Year of publication,

‘Title of article’, in single inverted commas



Journal name – in italics,

month


volume: vol.

number: no.

issue,

page number(s): p. or pp. – for the whole article



Note:

Some journals or magazines are designated by month and year, rather than by volume and issue.

Note:

For journal and newspaper names only, all major words are in upper case




Lencioni, PM 2002, ‘Make your values mean something’, Harvard Business Review, July, p. 113.

Sloman, SA, Over, D, Slovak, L & Stibel, JM 2003, ‘Frequency illusions and other fallacies’, Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 296-309.

Weber, T 1999, ‘Gandhi, deep ecology, peace research and Buddhist economics’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 349-61.


Lencioni (2002) reported that...

...(Lencioni 2002).





Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Journal articles online

Author(s) of article - family name(s) and initial(s)

Year of publication,

‘Title of article’, in single inverted commas

Journal name, in italics volume: vol.

number: no. .

issue ,

page number(s): p. or pp. viewed day month year, database name or URL.


Note:

Often journal articles come from a variety of different sources. They are cited differently, depending on their format.


If a journal article appears in a library database as a page image (pdf), cite it the same way as the original hard copy format.

If the article was located online, you must add date viewed and either database name or URL.

If the article is only available on a Library database as HTML or plain text, then you must cite the date viewed and either the database name or URL.

If the article has been located on the internet and not on a database, you must cite the date viewed and URL.



Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134.



or

Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134, viewed 11 November 2007, Ebsco database.

Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no.1, p 113, viewed 11 November 2007, Factiva database.
Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol 32, no. 1, viewed 11 November 2007, .

Brewer and Sherriff (2007) suggest…


...(Brewer & Sherriff 2007).




Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Newspaper articles

Author(s) – family name(s) and initial(s),

Year of publication,

'Title of article’ - in single inverted commas

Newspaper name – in italics,

day month,

page number(s): p. or pp.

Kemp, S 2003 ‘Leak pushes AMP to record low’, The Age, 7 August, p. 1 (Business section).




Kemp (2003) reported that ...


...(Kemp 2003).


Note: if the newspaper article does NOT have an author then provide details in in-text citation only, NOT in the reference list or bibliography

Not required.




As stated in The Age (17 August 2007, p. 12) …

...(The Age 17 August 2007, p. 12).


Newspaper articles online

Author(s) – family name(s) and initial(s)

Year of publication

‘Title of article’ - in single inverted commas



Newspaper name – in italics

day month

page number(s) p. or pp.

viewed day month year



or .

See instructions as for journal articles where citing PDF or HTML formats of newspaper articles



Khadem, N 2007, ‘Lid stays on wages growth’, The Age, 15 November, p. 1 (Business section), viewed 16 November 2007, .


Khadem (2007) reported that...

...(Khadem 2007).




Published conference papers

Author(s) – family name(s) and initial(s),

Year of publication,

'Title of paper’ - in single inverted commas'

in Editor (if applicable), Title of published conference proceedings, including place held and date(s) – in italics, Publisher,

place of publication,

page number(s).

Note: The initials of the editors go in front of the family name(s)



Dong, Y 2001, ‘The Chinese experience’, in P Drysdale, (ed.), The new economy in East Asia and the Pacific: Proceedings of the 27th Pacific Trade and Development Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, 20- 22 August, 2001, Routledge Curzon, London and New York. pp. 130-139.



Dong (2001) analysed ...


...(Dong 2001).





Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Online conference papers

Author(s) – family/surname(s) and initial(s)

Year of publication

'Title of paper’ - in single inverted commas

Editor (if applicable)

Title of published conference proceedings, including place held and date(s) – in italics

Publisher

Place of publication

viewed day month year

database name or .

Note:


The initials of the editors go in front of the family name(s)

Jakubowicz, A. 2002, 'Race vilification and communal leadership', in W. Jonas (ed.), Beyond Tolerance: National Conference on Racism, Sydney, 12-13 March 2002, Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, Sydney, viewed 17 June 2002, .


Jakubowicz (2002) argued that…


… (Jakubowicz 2002).

Unpublished conference papers or presentations

Author(s) Family name(s), Initial(s)

Year of publication

‘Title of paper’ – use single inverted commas

Paper presented to

Title of conference/forum

Location of conference/forum

Date of conference/forum

Page(s)


Pannan, L, van der Craats, C & McGovern, J 2002, 'Multi-level stepwise approach to engaging all academic staff in on-line delivery', paper presented to 2nd RMIT Teaching and Learning Forum, Melbourne, 24 October 2002.


Pannam, van der Craats and McGovern (2002) described ...

... (Pannam, van der Craats & McGovern 2002).



Theses

Author – family/surname and initials Year of preparation of thesis

‘Title of thesis’ in single inverted commas

Award,


Institution

Baxter, JS 2001, 'Rural land use and value in Northern Victoria 1880-1960', PhD thesis, RMIT University.



Baxter (2001) investigated…..


…(Baxter 2001).




Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Theses online

Author – family/surname and initials

Year of preparation of thesis,

‘Title of thesis’,

Award, Institution,

viewed day month year,



or .

Khanh, VL 2006. ‘Customer Loyalty in Web-based Retailing’, PhD thesis, RMIT University, 14 November 2007, .


Khanh (2006) explored...


...(Khanh 2006).

Government publications

These include departmental reports, reports of commissions of inquiry, committees of review and committees of parliament.

Author or organisation name

Year of publication,



Title of report,

catalogue. no.,

Publisher,

Place of publication,

viewed day month year,

Government publications can be reported in a variety of ways. See the Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, pp. 220 – 223 for further examples.



Australia, Parliament 2003, Fraud control arrangements in the Australian Customs Service, Parliamentary Paper 32, Canberra.



(Australia, Parliament 2003).




Government publications online

Author or organisation name


Year of publication,
Title of report,
cat. no.,

Publisher,


Place of publication,
viewed day month year,
.
Many government publications are available on the Internet. The way you access a document affects your citation.

Australian National Audit Office 2003, Fraud control arrangements in the Australian Customs Service, viewed 4 August 2003, WebSite.nsf Publications/
2F8FE1D39613A8B8CA256CF300709A62>.

Note: Enclose the URL address with < >.

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004, Mental Health in Australia: A Snapshot, cat. no. 4824.0.55.001. ABS, Canberra, viewed 18 August 2005, .


… (Australian National Audit Office 2003).

...(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004).





Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Company or Industry Information

Company name

Year of publication

Title of report in italics

Publisher,
Place of publication


Coles Myer Ltd 2005, Corporate social responsibility report 2005, Coles Myer, Tooronga, Vic.





...(Coles Myer Ltd 2005).




Company or industry information online

Company name

Year of publication

Title of report in italics

Publisher,

Place of publication,

viewed day month year,

.


IBISWorld 2005, Wine Manufacturing in Australia (C2183), IBISWorld Pty Ltd, viewed 28 November 2005, .


Datamonitor 2005, Westfield Group (Australia): company profile, Datamonitor, viewed 23 January 2006, Business Searching Interface (EBSCO) database.





Although the domestic wine market is expected to be stagnant from 2006-2010, wine exports will continue to grow, although at a lower rate than previously (IBISWorld 2005).


The Westfield Group has interests in 129 shopping centres in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and USA (Datamonitor 2005).


CD-ROM

Author(s)/editor(s) name(s), Initial(s)

Year

Title (in italics)

Edition


CD-ROM

Publisher

Place of publication
No author or editor

Note: the in-text reference would be to the title of the CD in italics.





DeBolt, V. 2007, Mastering integrated HTML and CSS, CD-ROM, Wiley Publishing, Indianapolis, USA.

Best practice in sport and recreation for tourism development within APEC economies 2001, CD-ROM, APEC Secretariat, Singapore.



Debolt (2007) suggested that….


…(Debolt 2007).

APEC has provided guidelines for developing sports facilities in the region (Best practice in sport and recreation for tourism development within APEC economies 2001).






Table 4a

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Videorecordings and television programs

Title of program – italicised –(if part of an ongoing series, list the episode title first, then the series name)

year of recording

format

publisher/distributor



place of recording

date of recording (if applicable)

viewed day month year (if applicable)

database name or (if applicable)

Note: the in-text reference would be to the title of the program, also in italics.





Accounting for the environment 1994, videorecording, Educational Media Australia, South Melbourne.
Economy records strongest growth and shows no sign of slowing, another rate rise predicted: Lateline Business 2007, television program, ABC Television, Melbourne, 4 September, viewed 11 January 2008, TVNews Database.
7.30 Report 2005, television program, ABC, 20 November.

Business Sunday 2005, television program, Nine Network, 20 November, viewed 2 December 2005, .

Accounting techniques are increasingly being applied to problems of pollution and land use (Accounting for the environment 1994).



Lateline Business (2007)
On Lateline Business (2007) it was stated that Australian economic growth….
When interviewed on 7.30 Report (2005) the Treasurer said …
Several businesses are sponsoring environmental research on Heron Island (Business Sunday 2005) …

Personal communications including email, SMS, conversations, interviews

Personal communications should be cited in the text, but do not need to appear in the list of references




Not required.


This was confirmed in an email from C. Costa on 5 November 2007.


Further details of this may be given in the list of references if you wish the reader to be able to follow up the reference. To avoid breaching privacy you should obtain permission of the person before doing this.

Sender’s name, year, email, date month, .




Costa, C 2007, email, 5 November 2007, .







Table 4b

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Home pages

These do not always have a title. They should follow the format:

Name of the organisation

date


Title (if any, written in italics)

name of organisation responsible for publishing site (often the same) place of publication (usually the location of the registered office) viewed date



.


Telstra 2005, Telstra, Melbourne, viewed 2 December 2005, .

business.gov.au 2005, Department of Industry, Tourism and Resources, Canberra, viewed 2 December 2005, .
Note that there is no single correct method of referencing the above site. It is important to be consistent. One of several acceptable alternatives would be:
Business Entry Point 2005, business.gov.au, viewed 2 December 2005, .


Many corporate web sites provide information to a variety of user groups (e.g. Telstra 2005, Vodaphone 2005).

The Australian Government’s business gateway (business.gov.au, 2005) provides information on starting or running a small business.



OPTIONAL

Home page addresses can be provided directly in the text without appearing in the reference list.


However pages which are part of a larger site should be referenced as below


The Australian Government’s business gateway (2005) provides information on starting or running a small business.





Table 4b

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Document on a web site

Author(s) /editor(s)

Year of document,

Title of document – in italics

name of the sponsor of the source date of viewing



.

If a document is available as a PDF (page image) file, this is often easier to cite as it is closer to a printed format. It also allows you to specify particular page numbers



Australian National Audit Office 2005, The management and processing of leave, viewed 2 December 2005,
60CA2570BB0037B103/$file/Audit+Report+16.pdf>.

Telstra n.d., Audit governance and financial reporting, Telstra, viewed 1 December 2005.


.

Many government departments do not manage their employees’ leave within the terms of their Enterprise Agreements (Australian National Audit Office 2005, p. 10).


OR
The Australian National Audit Office reports that many government departments do not manage their employees’ leave within the terms of their Enterprise Agreements (2005, p. 10).

Although the Telstra Act makes the Auditor-General of Australia responsible for auditing Telstra, certain functions are carried out by an agent (Telstra n.d.).



Company or industry information on a website or database

If this information is sourced from a library database it is better to include the database name rather than the URL

IBISWorld 2005, Wine Manufacturing in Australia (C2183), IBISWorld Pty Ltd, viewed 28 November 2005, .

Datamonitor 2005, Westfield Group (Australia): company profile, Datamonitor, viewed 23 January 2006, Business Searching Interface (EBSCO) database.


Although the domestic wine market is expected to be stagnant from 2006-2010, wine exports will continue to grow, although at a lower rate than previously (IBISWorld 2005).

The Westfield Group has interests in 129 shopping centres in Australia, New Zealand, the UK and USA (Datamonitor 2005).



Wiki entry

As wikis are a collaborative source, usually there is no named author.


‘Title of article’

Year,



Title, - in italics

format,


viewed day month year, .


‘The exponential power of connectedness’ 2007, Connectedintelligence, wiki article, viewed 11 November 2007,

Exponential+Power+of+Connectedness>.

In (Connectedintelligence 2007) …





Table 4b

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation

Weblog site

Author(s) of weblog – Family name(s) and initial(s)


Year,
Weblog name,
format,
viewed day month year, .
Weblog post

Author(s) - family name(s) and initial(s)

Year,

‘Title of post’,



Weblog name, in italics

format,


date of posting day month, viewed day month year, .



Webber. S & Boon, S 2006, Information literacy weblog, weblog, viewed 10 January 2008, .


Webber. S 2008, ‘Events from CILIP’, Information literacy weblog, weblog post, 9 January, viewed 11 January 2008, .

(Webber & Boon 2006).

Webber (2008) posted the following information...


Intranet/course notes

Format:
Author(s) family name(s) and Initial(s)

Year of publication,

Title of workin italics

course notes from (Course Code),

Publisher,

Place of publication,

viewed day month year, Online@RMIT.


Smith, H 2005, Metadata, course notes from ISYS6655, RMIT University, Melbourne, viewed 8 July 2005, Online@RMIT.






2.4.2 Electronic journal articles




Table 4c

Reference type

Reference list


In-text citation



Journal articles online

If a journal article appears in a library database as a page image (pdf), you may cite it the same way as the original hard copy format.


If you wish to show where the article was located online, you may add date of access and either database name or URL.

If the article is only available on a Library database as HTML or plain text, then you will need to cite the date of access and either the database name or URL.


If the article has been located on the internet and not on a database, you will need to cite the date of access and URL.

Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134.

OR

Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 113-134, viewed 11 November 2007, Ebsco database.



Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, p 113, viewed 11 November 2007, Factiva database.
Brewer, P & Sherriff, G 2007, ‘Is there a cultural divide in Australian international trade?’, Australian Journal of Management, vol. 32, no. 1, viewed 11 November 2007, .

Brewer and Sherriff (2007) suggest…


…(Brewer and Sherriff 2007).

2.4.4 Legislation and legal cases

When referring to legislation including Acts, Ordinances and Regulations, the title must be reproduced exactly, without changing the capitalisation or spelling. The words Act and Bill are generally written with a capital letter.
An Act or Ordinance may be cited by the short title, which is usually drafted into modern legislation. The first reference must always include the short title in italics. Subsequent references may refer to it by an undated, descriptive title in Roman type (normal or regular type).
Legislation or legal cases are only included in the reference list if they are important to the understanding of the work. In this case it is best to set the list apart from the main body of the reference list and use the heading Legislation or Legal authorities.

Further guidance is provided in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, pp. 224-8.


Table 4d

Reference type

Reference list

In-text citation
Legislation

An Act or Ordinance may be cited by the given short title. The first reference must always include the short title in italics.

Subsequent references may refer to it by an undated, descriptive title in roman i.e. normal or regular type.



Not generally required.


The Trade Practices Act 1974 (Commonwealth) provides that …

One of the shortcomings of the Trade Practices Act is …




The jurisdiction must be made clear, either by including it in the body of the text or in abbreviated form in brackets after the act title.

Not generally required.

The Fair Trading Act 1999 (Vic) covers …

OR

In Victoria this is covered by the Fair Trading Act 1999


Legal cases

To fully cite legal authorities list name of case in italics (date) or volume number, or both; abbreviated name of report series; and beginning page. No commas are used.


Not generally required.


Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd v. Amadio (1983) 151 CLR 447

This case appeared in 1983 in the Commonwealth Law Reports, volume 151, starting on page 447.



Legal referencing

If you have been instructed by your lecturer to use footnotes in your referencing, refer to the link given.




http://mulr.law.unimelb.edu.au/files/aglcdl.pdf





2.4.5 Order of entries in a reference list



Note: The following provide examples of how to order your reference list. No full stops are used between an author’s initials, and no comma is used after the last author's initials. The dots following the entries’ names indicate the details of the reference that should follow.

Table 5
Reference list order rules

Reference list

The reference list is arranged first alphabetically by author, and if the authors are the same then by date.

A reference with multiple authors follows single author entries beginning with the same author name.


Where an item has no author it is listed by its title.

Where several works have the same author and year of publication, add the letters a, b, ... etc according to the alphabetical order of the titles in the reference list, ignoring the initial articles A, An or The.

Jones, AB 2000, ...


Origin Energy 2005, …

Smith, AK 1990, ...

Smith, AK 1999, …

Smith, AK 2004, …

Stein, B 2003, …(single author entry)

Stein, B, Lee, HK, Yin, CX & Singh, GS 2000, … (plural and alphabetical author entry, that is, Lee comes before Reynolds in the English alphabet.)

Stein, B & Reynolds, JS 1995, …
Stein, B & Reynolds, JS 2000, … (This reference is sorted by its date, it has the same authors as the reference before it but was written at a later date)…

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, ...

Young, JC 1988a, Economic indicators


Young, JC 1988b, A quick guide … (Economic comes before quick in the English alphabet)

Young, JC & Smith, AK 1988, …




2.5 Other referencing systems

Although you are normally required to use the style described above, you will come across many other methods of referencing. These include other versions of the Author-date or Harvard system as well as Note systems. Further details of some of these styles are available via the Library website at www.rmit.edu.au/library/reference/manuals or in style manuals in the Library.

Table 6
Referencing system


Examples
Other author-date styles

There are many other versions of the Author-date or Harvard style apart from that described above. The main similarity is that they use in-text citations and a reference list. However they may differ in their use of punctuation, brackets, italics, underlined or bold formatting, method of designating volume, issue and pages numbers, etc.

Only use a different author-date style if your lecturer specifically requests it, and make sure you follow the required style closely.

Reword to include exceptions eg Law.


APA style, as described in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 2001, 5th edn, APA, Washington, DC. This style is widely used internationally in the social sciences.

Many academic journals have their own author-date style.

Many style manuals e.g. Chicago, MLA and Turabian include an author-date style.

Note systems

While it is not RMIT Business style, you may at some stage be asked to use the Note system of referencing, either footnotes or endnotes. This system is commonly used in law, as well as sciences and humanities. Examples of styles using a Note system are shown opposite.

Only use a Note style if your lecturer specifically requests it, and make sure you follow the required style closely.



Australian Legal Citation Style, as described in Australian guide to legal citation 2002, 2nd edn, Melbourne University Law Review Association and at


http://mulr.law.unimelb.edu.au/files/aglcdl.pdf

Documentary note style as described in Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia, pp. 208-15.

Vancouver style as described in Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia, pp. 215-8 or other sources.



2.6 Commonly used abbreviations in referencing
The abbreviations listed below may appear in other bibliographies, lists of references, footnotes and endnotes:


Table 7

Abbreviation


art.

app.


c. (Latin circa) e.g. c. 1835

cf.


ch., chs

col., cols

edn (note: no full stop)

ed., eds

e.g.

et al.


f., ff.

fig., figs

id.

i.e.


n.d.

no., nos

p., pp.

para., paras

rev.

2nd (note: no full stop – see ch.8.2 on numbering)



sec., s., ss.

vol., vols




article

appendix


approximately, about

compare


chapter(s)

column(s)

edition

editor(s)



for example

and others

and the following pages

figure(s)

the same

that is


no date

number(s)

page(s)

paragraph(s)



revised

second (edition)

section (s. for section, ss. for subsection of legislation)

volume(s)




2.7 Using EndNote with RMIT Business style



EndNote is a software program that helps you keep track of the details of books, articles, websites or other information sources which you may need to refer to in your assignments or thesis. It is particularly recommended for use by staff and postgraduate students.
EndNote allows you to

  • create, store and manage references to books, journal articles, web sites, conference papers, multimedia and other sources of information

  • insert selected references directly into a word processed document and automatically create and format bibliographies in a chosen style

  • search and retrieve records from remote catalogues and databases


RMIT has a site licence for EndNote, which allows you to use it at RMIT and on your own computer. Further details are available on the Library's EndNote tutorial at www.rmit.edu.au/library/endnote. This site also has an output style available for download, labelled "Harvard ed6" which follows Style manual (2002) as used at RMIT Business.
3. Plagiarism

3.1 RMIT University definition of plagiarism



RMIT has an assessment charter, which elaborates key responsibilities common to all staff and students in relation to assessment and defines the University’s policy on plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined (RMIT University 2003a) as stealing somebody’s intellectual property (IP) by presenting their work, thoughts or ideas as though they are your own. It is cheating. It is a serious academic offence and can lead to expulsion from RMIT.
Plagiarism can take many forms - written, graphic and visual forms, and includes use of electronic data and material used in oral presentations. Plagiarism may even occur unintentionally, such as when the origin of the material used is not properly cited.

3.1.1 What constitutes plagiarism?

Under the charter, you may be accused of plagiarism if you do any of the following:

  • Copy sentences or paragraphs word-for-word from any source, whether published or unpublished (including, but not limited to books, journals, reports, theses, websites, conference papers, course notes, etc.) without proper citation.

  • Closely paraphrase sentences, paragraphs, ideas or themes without proper citation.

  • Piece together text from one or more sources and add only linking sentences without proper citation.

  • Copy or submit whole or parts of computer files without acknowledging their source.

  • Copy designs or works of art and submit them as your original work.

  • Copy a whole or any part of another student’s work.

  • Submit work as your own that someone else has done for you.


Enabling Plagiarism is ‘the act of assisting or allowing another person to plagiarise or to copy your own work’ (RMIT 2003a). It is also a serious academic offence. More detail on what constitutes plagiarism is found in the January 2003 Policy on Plagiarism
3.1.2 What is the penalty for plagiarism?

Plagiarism is not permitted in RMIT University. Any use of another person’s work or ideas must be acknowledged. If you fail to do this, you may be charged with academic misconduct and face a penalty under RMIT Regulations 6.1.1 – Student Discipline. This may be viewed at http://mams.rmit.edu.au/7w2uew7i6v2.pdf


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