Claude Monet Waterloo Bridge, Sunlight Effect, ca. 1900 (dated 1903). Oil on canvas. Milwaukee Art Museum, Bequest of Mrs. Albert T. Friedmann.
Claude Monet Water Lilies 1900 Oil on canvas.
The Farm at Les Collettes, Cagnes, 1908–14 Pierre-Auguste Renoir (French, 1841–1919)
Portrait of the Artist, 1878
gouache on wove laid paper down to buff-colored wood pulp paper, 23 5/8 x 16 3/16 inches (60.1 x 41.2 cm)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY
Mother about to Wash Her Sleepy Baby
1880 oil on canvas 39 3/8 x 25 7/8 inches (100 x 65.7 cm),
Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Renoir, Pierre-AugusteA Girl With a Watering
Can 1876 Oil on canvas 39 1/2 x 28 3/4 in.
(100 x 73 cm) The National Gallery of
oil on canvas, 1881
Art Institute of Chicago
Cypresses, 1889 Vincent van Gogh (Dutch, 1853–1890)
Vincent van Gogh.
The Starry Night. 1889. Oil on canvas, 29 x 36 1/4" (73.7 x 92.1 cm).
(The view from his barred window in the asylum.)
Vincent Van Gogh 1853-1890
Born (1853) on the day of his brother’s death one year prior—given his brother’s name
1877 begins studying to become a minister. After becoming a minister, he gives away all of his belongings due to his overly-caring nature for the down-and-out and needy, and he ends up homeless; when the elders of his church find him dirty, unkempt, etc. they fire him.
1880 becomes aware of his love of art and pursues it.
Van Gogh’s personality: in addition to being extremely caring, he was high-strung, manic, extremely intelligent, and multilingual; he was also addicted to Absinth, an extremely hallucinogenic drug in the liquor people drank at the time w/ sugar cubes and water.
Vincent Van Gogh 1853-1890
“Ear Story”: yes, his ear was cut off—latest theory is that his friend Gauguin cut it off with an epee sword during an argument (old story was that he cut off his own ear during a psychotic episode). Either way, he put his ear in an envelope and gave it to Rachel, an extremely down and out prostitute whom he took in and cared for.
Self Portrait with Bandaged Ear, 1889 by Vincent van Gogh (1853-90)
Vincent Van Gogh 1853-1890
Gauguin, who influenced Van Gogh to paint from his imagination instead of solely from a model, was at first accused of killing VG since they had been drinking together all day; the two friends never saw each other again.
Van Gogh signed his works with first name only because he wanted people to be his friend—loneliness marks his life, due in large part to his mental illness, depression and mania.
Yellow, representing love, family, life, etc. becomes his “hallmark” color because he used it so often.
Vincent Van Gogh 1853-1890
1889 mental illness causes him to enter an asylum, where he desperately tries to get the staff to help the other 10 inmates.
Highly addicted to Absinth upon entering the asylum, VG suffers tremendously; he is not allowed to paint, or even to smoke.
Eventually he’s allowed to paint again, so he self-medicates by eating his own paint to ease his withdrawal. He paints Starry Night while in the asylum a year before his suicide.
1890: while affected by Absinth, he shoots himself and dies (at age 37) in his brother Theo’s arms. His brother never recovers from the loss and dies six months later.
Only one of his paintings sold in his life time for $10.00. His sister-in-law found all he had given away and sold them.
Analytical and Synthetic Cubism are phases of a painting style created by Pablo Picasso and George Braque. Throughout their time together, Braque and Picasso were searching for themselves, a reaction to the culture of the day. There were questions about God, the subconscious, and life on the planet that all played a role in creating this new art.
Analytical broke refers to the “analysis” or “breaking down” of form and space. Surfaces are broken down into sharply defined planes but are not complexly fragmented. Forms still retain an illusion of volume, and perspective, and though dramatically shortened, is not obliterated. Analytical Cubism visually laid out what the artist thought was important about the subject rather then just mimicking it. Body parts and objects within the picture were broken down into geometric shape. At its inception, cubists employed only a limited range of colors, such as ochres, browns, greens, grays and blacks.
Developed from 1907-1912
“Synthetic Cubism” Developed from 1912-1914
Later, the “analysis” of objects was abandoned and replaced by “constructing” or “synthesizing” them through the overlapping of larger, more discrete forms that seemed as if they might have been cut and pasted to the canvas. Picasso and Braque replaced parts of the pictures of real things with abstract signs and symbols. Paper would be applied over canvas, pencil and charcoal combined with paint to create yet another way of putting objects in a painting. Fragmentation of the surfaces in the paintings permitted a more thorough exploration of form. This new form of cubism became popular in the ’30s, featured brighter colors, ornamental patterns, undulating lines, and ragged as well as jagged shapes.
Pasted paper, charcoal, ink, and chalk on blue paper, mounted on ragboard, 26 1/8 x 19 1/2" (66.4 x 49.6 cm).
Violin and Candlestick, 1910
Georges Braque, Woman with a Guitar, 1913
Nature Morte au Compotier
May 13, 1882 – August 31, 1963
He began painting while working for his father, a house decorator. He moved to Paris in 1900 to study and later met Picasso, a meeting that marked a huge turning point in Braque's development; together they evolved as leaders of Cubism.
In establishing the principle that a work of art should stand alone and not merely imitate nature, Cubism redefined art in the twentieth century. Braque's large compositions incorporated the Cubist aim of representing the world as seen from a number of different viewpoints. He wanted to convey a feeling of being able to move around within the painting.
He described "objects shattered into fragments… [as] a way of getting closest to the object…Fragmentation helped me to establish space and movement in space”. He adopted a monochromatic and neutral color palette in the belief that such a palette would work simultaneously with the form, instead of interfering with the viewer's conception of space; and would focus, rather than distract, the viewer from the subject matter of the painting.
He described "objects shattered into fragments… [as] a way of getting closest to the object…Fragmentation helped me to establish space and movement in space”.
He adopted a monochromatic and neutral color palette in the belief that such a palette would work simultaneously with the form, instead of the interfering with the viewer's conception of space; and would focus, rather than distract, the viewer from the subject matter of painting.
Braque's loyalty to a Cubist approach of painting long after Cubism ultimately hindered his career as a notable avant-garde artist. In relation to Picasso, who continuously innovated and reinvented his approach to painting to adapt with future avant-garde movements, such as Surrealism, Braque was considered mundane and of the past.
Still Life with Budda 2 - Everett Spruill
Still Life with Budda 2 Painting
Artwork: #11 of 62 by Everett Spruill
Still Life with Budda 2
Painting - Mixed Media On Canvas 2009
Umberto Boccioni (Italian, 1882–1916.)
Dynamism of a Soccer Player [Dinamismo di un footballer]. (1913)
Oil on canvas, 6' 4 1/8" x 6' 7 1/8" (193.2 x 201 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York. The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection
Born: 1881, Campbell County, Virginia, United States of America Died: 1936, New York, New York, United States of America Peinture 1917–18
Oil and graphite on canvas Image: 10 1/16 x 12 5/8 in. (25.6 x 32.1 cm) Frame: 12 3/4 x 15 5/16 in. (32.4 x 38.9 cm)
Terra Foundation for American Art, Daniel J. Terra Collection, 1999.21
Guernica, depicting the bombing of Guernica, Basque Country, during Spanish Civil War, 1937, shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians. This work serves as a reminder of the tragedies of war, an anti-war symbol, and an embodiment of peace.
Surrealism grew out of the despair caused by WWI as artists lost faith in humanity and rational thought. Though born out of Dadaism, Surrealism is a positive expressive art form, rather than art aimed at negation like Dada art.
Surrealists felt that the outside world had failed them, so they turned to the subconscious mind for inspiration. Freud’s theories about the human mind and his writings on the interpretations of dreams strongly influenced their work.
Dreams, fantasy and the element of chance played an important role in their work. The main themes underlying much of surrealist work include eroticism, socialism, dreams and the subconscious, atheism and symbolism.
Joan Miró. The Beautiful Bird Revealing the Unknown to a Pair of Lovers. 1941
Gouache, pencil, and oil wash on paper, 18 x 15" (46 x 38 cm).
René Magritte, The Future of Statues, 1937
Painted plaster relief, 33.0 x 16.5 x 20.3 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Yves Tanguy (French-American, 1900-1955), Reply to Red, 1943
Oil on Canvas, Minneapolis Institute of Arts
Yves Tanguy Through Birds, through Fire, but Not through Glass, 1943
oil on canvas 40 x 35 in.
Minneapolis Institute of Arts
Peter Blume (American, born Russia, 1906-1992), South of Scranton, 1931,
Oil on canvas,
56 x 66 inches (142.2 x 167 cm),
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Nude (Study), Sad Young Man on a Train
1911–12. Oil on cardboard, 100 x 73 cm.
The Persistence of Memory. 1931.
Oil on canvas, 9 1/2 x 13" (24.1 x 33 cm).
Salvador Dalí Spanish (1904 - 1989)
24 1/8 in. x 19 3/4 in. (61.28 cm x 50.17 cm)pastel on paperCollection
1931 The Dream
René Magritte, The Reckless Sleeper, 1928, Oil on Canva, 116.0 x 81.0 x 2.0 cm, Tate Gallery, London.
Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War
1936 Oil on canvas 39 3/8 x 39 in. Philadelphia Museum of Art
Marc Chagall (French, born Belarus. 1887–1985.
Over Vitebsk [Au dessus de Vitebsk]. 1915–20 (after a painting of 1914)
Oil on canvas, 26 3/8 x 36 1/2" (67 x 92.7 cm) The Museum of Modern Art, New York.
“Drip painting” technique. In this piece, thinned paint was applied to unprimed canvas that lay flat on the floor (not propped on an easel). Paint was poured, dribbled, dripped, flicked, and splattered onto the canvas. Pollock also used trowels , sticks, knives—anything to build up the dense, lyrical composition. He worked with the canvas on the floor and continually moved around it, applying paint from all sides.
Pollack, Jackson Greyed Rainbow, 1953
Oil on canvas
182.9 x 244.2 cm
Gift of the Society for Contemporary American Art, 1955.494
Jackson Pollock, Number 1, 1950
(Lavender Mist),1950, National Gallery of Art, Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund, 1976.37.1
"It is impossible to make a forgery of Jackson Pollock's work," Time magazine critic Robert Hughes claimed in 1982. “Pollock used the patterns caused by the separation and marbling of one enamel wet in another, the tiny black striations in the dusty pink, to produce an infinity of tones."
It is what his imitators could never do, and why there are no successful Pollock forgeries: they always end up looking like...spaghetti, whereas Pollock--in his best work--had an almost preternatural control over the total effect of those skeins and receding depths of paint. In them, the light is always right. Nor are they absolutely spontaneous; he would often retouch the drip with a brush.
In all of his works, layered skeins of paint generate beauty out of seemingly random gestures. Pollock's daring abstract work legitimized the convergence and mastery of chance, intuition, and control.
Toward the end of his life (he died in a car accident in 1956), Pollock said, “I’m very representational some of the time, and a little all of the time. But when you’re working out of your unconscious, figures are bound to emerge…Painting is a state of being…Painting is self-discovery. Every good artist paints what he is.”
Willem de Kooning,
Willem De Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Oil, enamel, and charcoal on canvas
79 1/8 x 69 1/8 inches. Foundation/ Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York.
Hans Hofmann, American (born in Germany), 1880–1966
Integration (about 1944)
Mixed media on gessoed plywood. 76.2 x 60.96 cm (30 x 24 in.)
Note: Hans Hofmann was actually one of the first to develop the “drip” painting technique that Pollock made famous after his first creation in 1947.