Classroom Assessment Strategies



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Classroom Assessment Strategies

  • Chapter Fifteen
  • Educational Psychology: Developing Learners
  • 6th edition
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod

Assessment as Tools

  • Assessment is the process of observing a sample of a student’s behavior and drawing inferences about the student’s knowledge and abilities.
    • When we are looking at students’ behavior, we typically only use a sample of classroom behavior.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Assessment as Tools

  • Assessment instruments do not dictate the decisions to be made.
  • Teachers, administrators, government officials, parents, and even students interpret assessment results and make decisions based on the results.
  • Assessments are tools.
    • Allow us to make informed decisions about how best to help our students learn and achieve
  • Assessment interpretation can be abused.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition
  • ASSESSMENT
  • Informal assessment
  • vs.
  • Formal assessment
  • Paper-pencil assessment
  • vs.
  • Performance assessment
  • Traditional assessment
  • vs.
  • Authentic assessment
  • Informal assessment
  • vs.
  • Formal assessment
  • Standardized test
  • vs.
  • Teacher-developed assessment
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Using Assessment for Different Purposes

  • Two basic types of assessment
    • Some assessments are formative and assess students’ knowledge before or during instruction.
      • Homework assignments, in-class assignments, quizzes
    • Some assessments are summative and assess students’ achievement after instruction.
      • Exams
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Other Purposes of Assessment

  • To promote learning
  • In order for assessment to promote students’ learning and achievement, it should:
    • Provide specific & concrete feedback
    • Act as a learning experience, letting students know what they have and have not mastered
    • Act as a motivator—students should know what to study and when
    • Act as a review mechanism
    • Influence cognitive processing
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Other Purposes of Assessment

  • To guide instructional decision making
  • To assist in the diagnosis of learning and performance problems
  • To promote self-regulation
  • To determine what students have learned
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Important Qualities of Good Assessment

  • Remember RSVP
  • Reliability
    • The results of our assessments should be consistent no matter when we give it.
  • Standardization
    • The assessment should have a similar format, content, and procedure for all students.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Important Qualities of Good Assessment

  • Validity
    • The assessment should measure what it is intended to measure.
  • Practicality
    • The assessment and its procedures should be fairly simple to use and take only a small amount of time to administer and score.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Reliability

  • There may be slight variation from time to time.
    • Students change from day to day.
    • The physical environment may change.
    • Sometimes teachers are more clear in their instructions than others.
    • There is always subjectivity in scoring.
      • More likely when responses are scored on the basis of vague, imprecise criteria
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Enhancing Reliability

  • Include several tasks in each instrument and look for consistency in students’ performance
  • Define each task clearly so students know exactly what they are being asked to do
  • Identify specific, concrete criteria for evaluation
  • Try not to let expectations for students’ performance influence judgments
  • Avoid assessing students when they are obviously tired, ill, etc.
  • Administer assessments in similar ways and under similar conditions for all students
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Validity

  • Content Validity
    • This is the extent to which an assessment includes a representative sample of tasks within the domain being assessed.
    • It assures that what we are testing truly represents what we have taught (the instructional objectives).
      • High content validity is essential in summative evaluations.
    • Teachers can use a table of specifications to enhance content validity.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Validity

  • Predictive Validity
    • Extent to which the results of an assessment predict future performance
      • Often take the form of aptitude tests
  • Construct Validity
    • Extent to which an assessment accurately measures general, abstract characteristics
      • E.g., motivation, self-esteem, or intelligence
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Informal Assessment

  • Informal assessment occurs in our day-to-day interactions with students.
  • Advantages:
    • It provides continuing feedback about the effectiveness of instructional tasks and activities.
    • It helps determine the appropriateness and success of our formal assessments.
    • It is easily adjusted.
    • It provides valuable clues about social, emotional, and motivational factors affecting classroom performance.
  • Disadvantages:
    • It is not very reliable or valid.
      • We sometimes see the halo effect.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Paper-Pencil Assessment

  • Paper-pencil assessment is often the first choice for formal assessment because of its practicality.
  • It may use recognition or recall tasks.
    • Recognition: Multiple choice, true-false, matching
    • Recall: Short-answer, essay, word problems
  • It often only measures lower-level skills.
    • However, they can be used to measure higher-level skills, but these questions take more time to write.
    • Essays are more often used to measure higher-level skills.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments

  • Alternative-Response Items
    • Rephrase ideas presented in class or the textbook
    • Make statements that clearly reflect one alternative or the other
    • Avoid excessive use of negatives
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments

  • Matching Items
    • Keep the items in each column homogeneous
    • Have more items in one column than the other
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments

  • Multiple-Choice Items
    • Present distractors that are clearly wrong to students who know the material but plausible to students who haven’t mastered it
    • Avoid putting negatives in both the stem and the alternative
    • Use “all of the above” or “none of the above” seldom if at all
    • Avoid giving logical clues about the correct answer
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments

  • Short-Answer and Completion Items
    • Indicate the type of response required
    • For completion items, include only one or two blanks per item
  • Problems and Interpretive Exercises
    • Use new examples and situations
    • Include irrelevant information
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments

  • Essay Tasks
    • Ask for several essays requiring short responses rather than one essay requiring a lengthy response
    • Give students a structure for responding
    • Ask questions that can clearly be scored as correct or incorrect
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

General Guidelines for Constructing Paper-Pencil Assessments

  • Define tasks clearly and unambiguously
  • Decide whether students should have access to reference materials
  • Specify scoring criteria in advance
  • Place easier and shorter items at the beginning of the instrument
  • Set parameters for students’ responses
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Administering the Assessment

  • Provide a quiet and comfortable environment
  • Encourage students to ask questions when tasks are not clear
  • Take steps to discourage cheating
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Strategies for Scoring Students’ Responses

  • Specify scoring criteria in concrete terms
  • Unless specifically assessing grammar skills, score grammar and spelling separately from the content of students’ responses
  • Skim a sample of students’ responses ahead of time
  • Score item by item rather than paper by paper
  • Try not to let prior expectations of students’ performance influence judgments of their actual performance
  • Keep students’ scores confidential
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Performance Assessment

  • Performance assessment can be used for measuring mastery of:
    • Playing a musical instrument
    • Performing a workplace routine
    • Engaging in a debate
  • Ideal for the assessment of complex achievements
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks

  • Four distinctions to help choose tasks most appropriate for the purpose
  • Decide whether to look at the products, the processes, or both
    • Is what you are assessing tangible (product) or a behavior (process)?
  • Determine if you need an individual or group performance
    • Dependent upon WHAT you are assessing
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Choosing Appropriate Performance Tasks

  • Restricted vs. extended performance
    • E.g., is the student playing a few notes or an entire piano piece?
  • Should you use static or dynamic assessment?
    • Dynamic assessment applies the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Planning and Administering Performance Assessments

  • Consider incorporating the assessment into normal instructional activities
  • Provide an appropriate amount of structure
  • Plan classroom management strategies for the assessment activity
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Strategies for Scoring Student Performance

  • Consider using checklists, rating scales, or both in your rubric
  • Decide whether analytic or holistic scoring better serves your purpose(s)
    • Analytic: Scoring a student’s performance by evaluating various aspects of it separately
    • Holistic: Summarizing a student’s performance with a single score
  • Limit the criteria to the most important aspects of the desired response
  • Describe the criteria as explicitly and concretely as possible
  • Make note of other significant aspects of a student’s performance that the rubric doesn’t address
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Including Students in the Assessment Process

  • Including students in the process encourages them to self-assess.
  • Teachers should:
    • Provide examples of “good” and “poor” products
    • Make evaluation criteria explicit
    • Allow students to compare self-ratings with teacher-ratings
    • Encourage self-reflection via the use of daily journal entries
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Evaluating Assessment Tools

  • An item analysis can be done to determine if certain items are measuring the knowledge or skill we intended to measure:
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

Taking Student Diversity into Account

  • Some things to keep in mind:
    • Students often suffer from test anxiety.
    • Gender and ethnic differences may impact assessment performance independently of their actual learning and achievement.
    • Assessment instruments must comply with the federal mandates regarding students with special needs.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition

The “Big Picture” of Assessment

  • Our assessments will indirectly affect students’ learning and achievement.
  • Our instruments and practices should match our instructional goals and objectives.
  • Remember RSVP.
  • Our scoring criteria should be as explicit as possible.
  • Students’ errors provide valuable information about where their difficulties lie.
  • We should continually evaluate our instruments.
  • Copyright © 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  • Jeanne Ellis Ormrod Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, sixth edition


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