Chapter Objectives

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Chapter Objectives

  • 1. The school’s function as a socializing agent. 2. Macrosystem influences on the school affecting its function—educational policy, school choice, diversity, and equity. 3. Chronosystem influences on schools—societal change, technology, health, and safety. 4. Mesosystem influences on schools—linkages between school and child, school and family, school and media, school and community.

Teacher’s Expectations

  • 1) Discuss how teacher expectations influence students’ ability to learn. 2) Discuss educational goals and their importance. ~~You may include the following: (Ch-6:
    • Self efficacy,
    • goals; NCLB; and
    • accountability)  
  • Two Minute Write: Section 1 (D and E)
  • Ecology of the School


  • School’s function in society is:
    • universal, formal, and Prescriptive)
  • School’s Purpose:
    • transmit the culture;
    • transmits values and beliefs; DEMOCRACY
      • the basic political ideology of the U. S.
  • requires citizens to be educated to discuss and compromise on issues pertaining to them


  • School Values: “Philosophical”
    • What ‘s important in Education?
    • What should be taught? How? Why?
    • What are the Expectations?
    • What are the school Goals? discussed
    • What is the schools function?...... discussed
    • What is the school purpose?........ discussed
  • (Think-pair-share-everyone writes)
  • QUIZ

School As A Socializing Agent: the Modern Approach

  • GOALS FOR SCHOOLING in the U.S. by John Goodlad (1984).
    • Academic goals (Cultural area will specify specific classes)
    • Vocational goals
    • Social, Civic, and Cultural Goals
    • Personal Goals

No Child Left Behind (NCLB) DSIB #1

  • Philosophy: Education for All/Expectations
  • School Choice/Accountability
  • Multicultural Education
  • Disabilities:
    • Terms: (IDEA, IEP, Inclusion)
    • Federal Government Expectations


  • Disabilities: (IDEA, IEP, Inclusion)
  • Multicultural Education: (Native Language and culture)
      • Influence….. teacher/child interactions
      • Affects…….. children's performances
  • THUS
  • Teacher-directed v Learner-directed


    • Children sit quietly,
    • follow directions,
    • listen attentively, and
    • talk only when called upon.
  • Children experience:
    • Less autonomy
    • Gains in academics in different areas, but gains!
    • Less positive reactions to schooling
    • Higher tests scores


    • listen to literature and nonfiction being read aloud.
    • Children act out and discuss the readings.
    • Children express their understanding of the readings through art.
  • Classroom management
    • arranging the room,
    • planning the activities,
    • observing behavior, and
    • organizing groups for
    • socialization in the classroom.

Societies Expectations and Challenges

  • How do we transmit the society’s diverse cultural heritage, as well as prepare individuals for the future?
    • Schools have preventative programs:
      • sex education
        • to avoid unplanned pregnancies,
      • health classes
        • discussing the danger of substance abuse,
      • conflict resolution,
      • AIDS

Note: Advising Insert

  • Review checklist to see which classes you need and those you have already taken
  • Go to:
  • Select CSI Course Schedule
  • Adjust down arrow to Summer
  • Review available classes

Blind side ( In class: 2 min. write; think-pair-share)

  • How has community resources help this child? Schooling?
  • How has a new supportive family helped this child?
  • Yours, Mine, Ours:

Influences on School Curriculum

  • Schools have:
    • computer literacy and technology due to the workforce, creating a change in the way we view curriculum.
    • On-line class requirement for HS
  • Our macrosystem (belief/value) has changed to accommodate indirectly (exosystem) the child’s inevitable future.

Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)of 1964

  • Economic Opportunity Act (EOA)of 1964
    • federal money for preschool programs for disadvantaged children
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 (Title1) reauthorized by the NCLB DSIB #1
    • provided federal aid to education for math and reading or full school programs
  • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (revised in 1990 to become the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: IDEA)
    • mandated a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) for all children with disabilities.
  • Three important Acts:

Influences on School Curriculum

  • Bilingual Education was
    • mandated in school districts with high population rates of children whose native language was not English.
  • During the 1980’s
    • federal aid education was reduced;
    • public education was to be the responsibility of the states.
  • ESL/ELL:
    • English as a Second Language/
    • English Language Learners

A “Nation at Risk” report fosters reform

  • A “Nation at Risk” report fosters reform
    • Demand for change in the public schools
        • “Have lost the sight of the basic of schooling.”
        • “Mediocrity threatens our very future as a nation and a people.”
        • More capable people must be motivated to train and stay in the teaching profession.
  • Education goals were announced in 1990 and in 1999
    • via the “Educational Excellence for All Children Act” proposed by President Bill Clinton

Educational Excellence for All Children Act Curriculum Goals

  • By 2000 (Consensus on schooling goals/Expectations).
    • 1. Ready to learn. ******* DSIB #1
    • 2. Graduation (90%) and drop-out rates (10%)
    • 3. Grades 4, 8, and 12th demonstrate competency.
    • 4. American students will be first in the world in science and mathematics achievements.
    • 5. Every adult American will be literate.
    • 6. Free of drugs and violence. have 10 goals

School Philosophy

  • Schools and students will rise to the expectations and standards set forth.
  • Size, Organization, Attitude …affect the Learning Environment
    • Supportive Family-school linkages
      • enable children to understand the connection between school learning and the world of work,
      • as well as discovering new role models to emulate.
  • School-family Linkages
  • How families can help schools accomplish their goals and established Acts ??????

Predicting Success

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  • Success Indicators

What Makes a Difference:???

  • Does the organization of the school and the school organization, itself?
  • Does size of class or school?
  • Does student/teacher/parent attitudes??

Family attitudes and beliefs: School is NOT important

  • Family
    • does not believe that school is very significant
    • does not take much interest in the child’s homework .
  • Schools in poor communities
    • extra challenges in educating children
    • fewer economic resources
    • lack of supportive attitudes toward the school.

Mesosystem Influences: School is IMPORTANT

  • Family tells children
    • school is important,
    • school will help them achieve in life,
    • the teacher knows best.
  • Parents
    • see to it that children do their homework
    • respond to teacher’s requests for behavioral change.

How can parent be “involvement”?

  • Decision making- determining school programs and policies;
  • Participation- working in the classroom as paid and volunteering instructional assistants;
  • Partnership-providing home guidance to their children to support learning.


  • A Child’s Readiness to Learn
    • A healthy start
    • Empowered parents
    • Quality preschool
    • Neighborhoods for learning
    • Connections across the generations

School-Family Linkages

  • The effectiveness of the school as a socializing agency depends to a major degree on the kinds of families its children come from - community.
    • School are less effective, educating children from low-socioeconomic-status families.
    • The school’s influence in the socvalue placed on the schoolialization process differs according to the by the family.


  • Individual learning styles may
  • determine which type of learning
  • environment is optimal.
  • Planning/delivery options:
      • by watching? visual
      • By listening? auditory
      • By moving his or her body? Kinesthetic
      • Does the child achieve more alone or in a group?
    • Is the child motivated by:
      • pleasing the teacher?
      • concrete rewards?
      • internalized interest?

School-Peer Group Linkages

  • School-peer group linkages – children’s attitudes about learning influenced by their peer group
    • can become dependent on their peers for approval
  • Cooperative learning settings
    • can increase student-achievement more than a teacher-directed setting.
    • Improves student self-esteem, social relations, and acceptance of students with disabilities who have been mainstreamed or included.

Socialization Influences of Class Size

    • School-Community Influences:
    • Small classes,
      • more learning activities
      • greater interaction among students
      • enables them to understand one another.
        • Teachers
          • more time to monitor students’ “on-task” behavior
          • provide quicker and more thorough feedback.
        • Students
          • hold more leadership positions than those in large schools.
          • More choices of activities in large schools.

School-Community Linkages

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  • All Rights Reserved.
  • Large class (more than 25 students)
    • Less interaction with teacher
    • Less frequent interaction in discussion
  • Small class (less than 20)

Teachers’ Characteristics Competent teacher

  • Teachers
    • who work closely with each child and
    • who understand group dynamics are more likely to provide a successful and rewarding learning environment.
  • Successful teachers communicate well and are responsive to students.
  • Ineffective teachers are aloof, critical, and negative.

Pygmalion in the Classroom (DSIB #1)

  • Teachers receive data about students at the beginning of the school year,
  • influence their expectations of students for achievement and behavior
  • self-fulfilling prophecies
  • Expectations
    • do not by themselves have a direct impact on student behavior;
  • it is only when
    • expectations are communicated to the students and
  • selective reinforcement
    • results in shaping their behavior

Teacher-School Responses to Ethnic Diversity DSIB #3

  • Macrosystem ideology
    • school is responsible for socializing the ethnically diverse;
    • those who live and work here must learn good citizenship.
  • Philosophies : (TERMS)

Cultural Pluralism DSIB #3

  • This philosophy
    • embraces the ideals of mutual appreciation
    • understanding of various cultures in society;
    • cooperation of diverse groups;
    • coexistence of different languages, religious beliefs and life styles;
    • autonomy for each group to work out its own social purposes and future without interfering with the rights of other groups.

Ethnically diverse students who perform poorly in school do so for a number of possible reasons: (Good information for Essay Question)

  • Ethnically diverse students who perform poorly in school do so for a number of possible reasons: (Good information for Essay Question)
  • DSIB #3
    • 1. Inappropriate curricula and instruction.
    • 2. Differences between parental and school norms.
    • 3. Lack of previous success in school.
    • 4. Teaching difficulties.
    • 5. Teacher perceptions and standards.
    • 6. Segregation
    • 7. Differences in teacher/student backgrounds.

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