Chapter I introduction



Download 2.88 Mb.
Page4/6
Date09.08.2018
Size2.88 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6

Students Perception of Project Work

Project assessment is identical with project work. The teacher should give the assignment in the form of project work to assess the students. This part discusses about students’ perception of project work as their assignment. As mentioned in the problem statement, this study tried to find out the students’ perception of project work. The perception refers to what students think about project work and the effect of project work for them.

Based on the result of interview, the researcher finds that project work is helping, interesting, exciting, fun and different than other assignments. Some students thought that project work wasted their time because they should work on the project for many days but most of the students thought it does not waste time at all. The following table performs the result of students’ interview.



Table 4.2. Students’ Perception to the Project Work

No.

Students’ Perception

Stated by

(Group)

1

Project work is helping

1,2,3,4,5,6

2

Project Work is interesting

1,2,4

3

Project Work is motivating

1

4

Project Work is exciting

2,3

5

Project Work is different from other assignments.

2, 3, 4, 5

6

Project Work does not waste the time

2, 3, 4, 5

Based on the table above, most students perceived that project work is interesting, different from other assignments and does not waste the time. Other perceptions are motivating and exciting. One group of students stated that project work is motivating and two groups stated that project work is different from other assignments.



  1. Project Work is Helping

The appearing opinion is project work can help the students. Students assumed that project work helps them to know how to compete and take responsibility. This assumption can be found in the extract below:

R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What do you think about project work?

Ss: Suka karena membantu .. untuk mengetahui dalam .. berkompetisi dan bertanggung jawab.

I like it because it helps to know how to compete and take responsibility.

(Interview of group 5 number 6)

The extract above shows that students were serious to work on the assignment because they realized that it helped them to take responsibility of it. The students realized as well that they competed with other groups in a good way.

The other opinion which indicates that project work is helping can be seen as follows:



R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What do you think about project work?

Ss: Kita bisa memecahkan sebuah masalah.

We can solve the given problem.

(Interview of group 6 number 6)

The researcher categorizes the extract above as “helping” because the students stated that through project work, they could learn to solve a problem. This project stimulated the students to work together and discuss the given problem then try to solve it.

The similar perception can be seen in the following extract:



R: Apa manfaat tugas proyek untuk kalian?

What is the advantage of project work for you?

Ss: Manfaatnya eee… cukup banyak, karena kita bisa eee… mengetahui kosakata yang belum pernah… yang belum kami ketahui dan juga kita bisa bekerja sama untuk eee… memecahkan masalah itu.

The adavantage…eee… a lot of advantages, we can eee… know words that we do not know and we can work together as well to solve a problem.

(Interview of group 1 number 11)

The extract above is also categorized as “helping” because the students perceived that the advantageous of project work is to help the students knowing new words, to encourage them to solve problems and to work together. This perception is more or less same as the previous extract.

The following extract is the other interview which indicates project work is helping.



R: Apa manfaatnya?

What are the advantages of project work?

Ss: Melatih belajar berbahasa Inggris

Practicing English

Ss: Melatih bagaimana cara membagi teman .. dalam presentasi bahasa Inggris nanti.

To know how to divide friends in English presentation

R: Supaya bisa kerja kelompok.

We can work in a group

(Interview of group 2 number 8)

The extract above implies that project work can help the students creatively. It can be seen when the students stated that “we can solve the given problem”. It indicates that students work seriously on the assignment (project work). The project work helps the students as well to acquire new words, to practice their English and to work together which means they can help each other through the project.

The similar opinion found in interview of group 3 and 6. Students assumed the same thing as the previous extract. Their perception can be found as follows:



R: Menurut kalian, apa manfaat tugas proyek?

In your point of view, what is the advantage of project work?

Ss: Bisa memecahkan soal

We can solve the given problem.

Ss: Bisa bekerja sama

We can work together.

Ss: Lebih teliti

We are more accurate

(Interview of group 3 number 8)

The other question that can identify the perception of the students is “what is the advantage of project work?” The students’ answers are more or less same as the previous one. Project work can help them work more accurately. It helps them to think together in solving the given problem. This perception is supported by the following perception from different group.

R: Menurut kalian, tugas proyek mampu membantu kalian berpikir kreatif?

Do you think project work can help you think creatively?

Ss: Mampu karena .. lebih banyak berbahasa Inggris jadi mengasah otak.

Yes, it can, because we speak more English so we can sharpen our intelligences.

(Interview of group 6 number 12)

The extract above reflects students’ perception of project assessment which can help students to solve the given problem. It was mentioned as well in the previous extracts. The other appearing opinion says that project work help the students think accurately and help the students speak more in English. It proves that project work help the students.

The researcher asked the students in some different ways to figure out the students’ perception. It can be seen as follows:



R: Apa pengaruhnya dalam kemampuan kalian?

What is the effect of project work to you?

Ss: Bisa bicara, terutama menceritakan kembali.

I can speak especially for retelling.

(Interview of group 3 number 15)

The researcher asked about the effect of project work to the students. The answer of this question can tell that project work is helping as well. Students explain that they can speak more English especially in “retelling” session. The similar perception comes to group 4. They stated the similar thing as the extract above.

R: Tugas proyek, menurut kalian mempengaruhi kemampuan kalian?

Do you think, project work affects your ability?

Ss: Mempengaruhi lebih baik karena eee…disuruh menjelaskan movie itu.

Yes, it does better because eee…we were told to explain the movie.

(Interview of group 4 number 7)

The students perceived that project work affected their speaking ability. They explained that it affected better because they should explain the movie in front of the class so they were serious to prepare it. This students’ statement proved that project work is helping.

The other group told their perception about project work is group 6. They had the same perception as group 4 about “project work is helping”.



R: Apakah ada pengaruhnya terhadap kemampuan bicara?

Does project work give an effect to your speaking ability?

Ss: Ada, karena dilatih untuk menceritakan ulang

Yes, it does. We are trained to retell.

Ss: Menjawab pertanyaan tentang movie

Answer questions about the movie

(Interview of group 6 number 8)



Ss: Karena ada presentasinya

Because it has a presentation

Ss: Menyimpulkan cerita

Sum up the story

Ss: Lebih banyak bicaranya.

We speak more

(Interview of group 6 number 14)


Those extracts indicate that project work is helping because it has an effect. Students stated that they can speak because the project has some parts called retelling, explaining, answering question, presenting the result and summing up the story. Through the project work, the teacher trained the students to speak and they experienced the effect to be better.

  1. Project Work is Interesting

Students perceive that project work is interesting. The results of interview prove that it is interesting. The students perceive it so because project work does not make the students bored and mostly the students like it. It can be seen in the following extract.

R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What do you think about the project work?

Ss: Menurut saya, tugas proyek yang baru ini cukup .. menarik karena tidak bikin bosan karena ada movie bukan cuma buku yang dipake untuk belajar.

I think, the project work was interesting enough because it did not make us bored, we used a movie to learn not only book.

(Interview of group 1 number 7)

This extract shows that project work is interesting because it does not make the students bored. They informed that mostly they got a book to learn English but in project work, they used a movie as media and reference of project. Using a movie as a media and making them into the project is something new for them.

Group 4 stated their perception about project work in a following extract.



R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What do you think about project work?

Ss: Suka

I like it

Ss: Mengasah otak

Sharpen the intelligence.

Ss: Suka

I like it

(Interview of group 4 number 6)

The students like to work on the project because they can think intensively without cheating to other groups’ work.

Both extracts above show that project work is interesting. It is because the assignment does not make the students feel bored. As they told that most of the assignments are from the text book. They sometimes felt bored of the assignments. It can be noticed by the statement below:



R: Pernahkah merasa bosan belajar bahasa Inggris?

Have you felt bored in learning English?

Ss: Pernah, kalau ada tugas

I have, when I have a lot of assignments.

Ss: Kalau menjelaskan terlalu cepat jadi biasanya tidak jelas.

When teacher explained too fast and usually it wasn’t clear.

(Interview of group 5 number 2)

Those statements indicate that students sometimes felt bored in learning English when they have a lot of assignments. They seemed they did not like when they had assignment from the teacher. Otherwise, project work as their assignment becomes an interesting assignment because the students like it. The other circumstance in which the students feel bored is when the teacher explained too fast and it was not clear.

The following extract is about some assignments that students always have. Those assignments sometimes made them bored.

R: Tugas apa yang biasanya diberikan?

What kinds of assignment do you have?

Ss: Vocabulary

Vocabulary

Ss: Mengisi titik-titik



Fill in the blank

Ss: Menjawab pertanyaan



Answering questions

(Interview of group 5 number 3)

Based on the two extract above, project work is interesting as well because it encourages the students to sharpen their intelligence. They should think a lot about the project. It is not like the previous assignments like memorizing vocabularies; fill in the blank and answering questions based on the text.


  1. Project Work is Motivating

The third perception comes up is about motivation. Students think that project work motivates them. The extract below performs students’ perception of project work.

R: Apakah tugas proyek memotivasi kalian dalam belajar bahasa Inggris?

Does project work motivate you in learning English?

Ss: Iya karena tugas proyek ini tidak membosankan dalam belajar bahasa Inggris eee… dan juga memotivasi kita untuk lebih giat lagi dalam belajar bahasa Inggris.

Yes, it does. Because this project is not boring to learn English eee… and also it motivates us to be more diligent in learning English.

Ss: Dengan movie tersebut movie itu bisa memotivasi kita karena ada beberapa kata dari movie tersebut kita dapat mengetahui ejaan dan pengucapan kata yang benar.

The movie can motivate us because it has some words that we know how to pronounce well.

(Interview of group 1 number 10)

The data above shows that project work motivates the students to learn English and to be more diligent. As mentioned in the previous point that “project work is interesting”, some assignments make them bored. It can make the students lazy to learn English. The other fact found in this research is “project work is interesting” and it can motivate the students to be more diligent.

The motivation rises up after given a project because they compete each other to do their best on the project. They should present their result in front of the class and nobody wants to embarrass her or himself.



  1. Project Work is Exciting

Project work is an exciting assignment. Students perceive that it is exciting, fun and relax. They said it as shown on extract below:

R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What is your opinion about project work?

Ss: Menyenangkan

Exciting

Ss: Seru

Fun

R: Santai

Relax

(Interview of group 2 number 7)

This group mentioned that project work is exciting, fun and relaxing. Unfortunately, the students in this group did not explore more their reasons why they perceived like that. The only stated their impressions of project work without giving further comment.

The next group gave more comment. The students in this group had a same opinion about project work as the previous group but they gave a reason in giving a statement.



R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What do you think about project work?

Ss: Seru

Exciting

Ss: Eee…bisa membuat penasaran

Eee…it can make us curious

Ss: Mengasyikkan

Fun

(Interview of group 3 number 7)

This extract performs that project work is exciting and fun. The students think that this assignment (project work) can make them curious. They were waiting for the next activity in the project.

Those two extracts perform that project work is exciting, fun and relaxing. Students think it so because project work can make them curious. This project could encourage their curiosity which makes them think that project work is exciting.



  1. Project work is different from other assignments

Project work, in students’ point of view, is different than other assignments. Students explained that mostly they would have the same assignments all the times but for the midterm assignment, they had a different assignment. The following extracts are the students’ interview about it.

R: Apa pendapat kalian tentang tugas proyek?

What is your opinion about project work?

Ss: Beda dari yang lain

Different than others

(Interview of group 2 number 7)

The following extracts show some assignments which students always had. They explained that mostly their assignments were always about vocabulary. The following extract explains the assignments which students always had.

R: Bentuk tugas yang paling sering diberikan itu seperti apa?

What kinds of assignment do you always have?

Ss: Sejauh ini tugas yang paling sering dikasi itu semacam .. bukan .. semacam kosakata yang -- dari bahasa Inggris diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia.

So far, teachers always give us vocabularies assignment. We should translate from English into Indonesian.

(Interview of group 1 number 4)

The extract above informs that students always had vocabulary. They needed to memorize all the words that teacher gave. The other assignment is translating a text from English into Indonesia or vice versa. When project work came, the students felt it was different because their teacher usually gave them the same assignments. The other group supported the statement of group 1. It can be seen as follows:

R: Bagaimana model tugas yang diberikan oleh guru? Seperti apa tugas yang diberikan?

What kind of assignment do the teachers give you?

Ss: Mencari kata-kata, melengkapi kalimat.

Figuring out the words, completing the sentences

(Interview of group 2 number 3)

The students in this group mentioned that mostly students had some assignments namely figuring out the words and completing the sentences. Figuring out the words can be like matching words or finding out the meaning of the words. Completing the sentences means teacher gave the students some blank sentences then the students should fill the blank with the right words. These assignments are more like written assignment. They are different with project work.

Students in group 3 mentioned as well about their assignments which they always had. They can be seen on the extract below:



R: Tugas yang diberikan biasanya seperti apa sehingga kalian sangat bosan?

What kinds of assignment which the teachers gave you and you felt bored?

Ss: Menghapal kosakata

Memorizing words

Ss: Bentuk tulisan

Writing

Ss: Menjawab pertanyaan

Answering questions

Ss: Mengisi titik-titik

Fill in the blank

Ss: Menyalin

Rewriting

(Interview of group 3 number 3)

This extract shows as well about some assignments which the teacher always gave the students. They are memorizing words, writing, answering questions, filling in the blank and rewriting. The students admitted that they felt bored when they had those assignments. When the teacher gave project work, the students felt it was different than others. Those assignments mentioned previously more focused on writing form. Project work is different than other assignments because it not only focused on writing skill but also speaking skill.

“Project work is different” implicitly is stated by the students. They mentioned some assignments that they always worked on. They did not mentioned about project work. It indicated that project work is a new assignment for the students and it is different than other assignments. Group 4 mentioned some assignments that teacher usually gave them. They can be seen as follows:



R: Tugas seperti apa yang biasa diberikan oleh guru?

What kind of assignment that you have?

Ss: Berdialog

Dialogue

Ss: Mengisi titik-titik

Filling in the blank

Ss: Mencari kosakata

Looking for the words

Ss: Menjawab pertanyaan

Answering questions

(Interview of group 4 number 3)

Based on the extract above, there are four assignments which students always have. They are dialogue, filling in the blank, looking for words and answering the questions. This group of students has a similar opinion as the previous group. This group mentioned some same assignments as the groups before. Those assignments are filling in the blank, answering questions, looking for the words or figuring out the words. It indicates that teacher assigned the students almost the same assignments. Project work makes the class different.

Project work as a different assignment is implicitly stated as well by group 5 and 6. They did not tell that “project work is different” directly. They only mentioned that they always had some assignments which are repeatedly done. They did not mention “project work” as their assignment. This means that project work is new assignment and different than other ones. The researcher assumed that those assignments focused on writing and memorizing without any practice in a real life situation whereas project work focused on speaking and writing skills. Those assignments can be found in the following extracts.



R: Tugas apa yang biasanya diberikan?

What kinds of assignment do you have?

Ss: Vocabulary, Mengisi titik-titik, Menjawab pertanyaan

Vocabulary, Filling in the blank, Answering questions.

(Interview of group 5 number 3)



R: Model tugas yang sering diberikan itu seperti apa?

What kinds of assignment do you always have?

Ss: Mencatat di papan tulis

Write on the white board

Ss: Kebanyakan ambil dari buku paket

Mostly, the assignments are from the textbook.

Ss: Mengisi titik-titik

Fill in the blank

Ss: Menjawab pertanyaan dari teks

Answer questions based on the texts

Ss: Mencari kosakata

Find out the words

Ss: Percakapan

Conversation

(Interview of group 6 number 2)

These two groups mentioned filling in the blank, answering questions and finding out the words are the assignments which students normally did. Group 6 adds that mostly the assignments are from the textbook. The teacher assigned them as well to make conversation. It can help themselves to converse based on the conversation that they write or memorize. Project work is different because the students are stimulated as well to speak English.

Based on the data above, taken from six groups of students, their opinion is almost same. Before project work which conducted in midterm examination, they always had same assignments. Those are translating the words from English into Indonesian, completing the sentences, memorizing the words, writing, answering questions based on the text, filling in the blank, rewriting and making conversation. They told that they always kept having those assignments before the teacher gave them the project.



  1. Project Work does not Waste the Time

Before conducting this research, the researcher predicted that students would think that project work would waste their time. It could be burdening and make them hard about the assignment. Some students perceived that project work took time to do but they had no problem with it because they compared to their other activities which took more time.

R: Menurut kalian tugas proyek menyita waktu atau tidak?

Do you think project work took your time?

Ss: Tugas proyek tersebut saya rasa tidak terlalu mengganggu karena.. selain itu kami juga di sini punya kegiatan ekstra yang lebih menguras misalnya ini yang baru-baru yang sedang .. saya lakukan ini LDK dari jam setengah 3 sore sampai jam .. 5 pagi baru pulang.

I do not think the project work disturbed me because we have some extra activities here which take more time, for example the event called LDK is on going now. I should join it starting at 3 pm to 5 am. I go home at 5 am.

(Interview of group 1 number 9)

The extract above indicates that students did not complain about the use of time in doing project work. Other extracts can be found as follows:

R: Tugas proyek menurut kalian menyita waktu?

Do you think project assessment takes time?

Ss: Tidak

I do not think so.

(Interview of group 2 number 9)



R: Menurut kalian, tugas proyek ini menyita waktu?

Do you think this project work wastes your time?

Ss: Tidak

No, it doesn’t

(Interview of group 3 number 12)



R: Tugas proyek menyita waktu atau tidak?

Does project work waste your time?

Ss: Menyita

It does

Ss: Menyita tapi tidak mengganggu

It does but it doesn’t disturb

(Interview of group 5 number 9)



R: Apakah tugas proyek menyita waktu?

Does project work waste our time?

Ss: Tidak

No, it doesn’t.

(Interview of group 6 number 9)

On the other perception, a few students perceived that it wasted time because they should watch the movie for many hours then they needed to think after watching. It is found in one group of students which performs in the following abstract.

R: Tugas proyek menyita waktu atau tidak?

Does project work waste your time?

Ss: Menurut saya menyita waktu karena kita harus nonton film berjam-jam setelah itu dipikir lagi.

I think it does because we need to watch the film for many hours and then we need to think about it again.

(Interview of group 4 number 8)


The researcher believes that those students who said that project work wasted time did not like to watch a movie. They complained only about the time that they used in watching movie but they like the rests of activities like discussion, retelling or presentation. It is proved by the extract below.

R: Tugas proyek, menurut kalian mempengaruhi kemampuan kalian?

Do you think, project work affects your ability?

Ss: Mempengaruhi lebih baik karena eee…disuruh menjelaskan film itu.

Yes, it does better because eee…we were told to explain the film.

(Interview of group 4 number 7)

Both previous extracts above seem contradictory. In one point, the students stated that project work wasted students’ time but the other point of view, the students stated that project work affected their speaking ability. It made them better because they were told to explain the film. Related to this perception, the researcher assumed that project work wasted time purely because of the film. They did not think that project work was boring or any kind of negative perception. The researcher concludes that mostly students like project work but a few students do not like a certain activity.


  1. Discussion

This section refers to the interpretation of findings. As explained above, this research has two main point of findings namely how the teacher managed the assessment and the students’ perception of project work. The first part of this section mainly discusses about teacher’s management of assessment and followed by the second part which mainly discusses the students’ perception.

  1. Teacher’s Management

As performed in the findings section, the teacher had six steps in assigning and assessing students. They are grouping, explaining, consultation, planning, process and report of project. The first three steps are teacher-centered and the rests are students-centered. In grouping, teacher let the students to choose their own members. It is for making the students comfortable in doing the project. The students sat with their friends in a same group as in picture 1 shows in the finding.

The seats arrangement can help the students to work together and discuss about their assignment. The teacher explained to the teacher that all members in a group need to work together and help each other to have a good result in presentation. Students would have a lot of discussion because they need to talk about their plans and to divide themselves into some parts of the assignment. They need a good position to communicate each other.

After grouping, the teacher explained what the students need to do. She told the students that the assignment was for assessment in midterm. She explained as well the activities in the project. Students watched a movie called “Exam”. This movie can encourage the students because it is a psychological thriller which stimulates the students to think. The movie tells about eight people have an exam. It takes 80 minutes and consists of one question only, and that there are three rules: they must not talk to the invigilator or the armed guard by the door, spoil their paper, or leave the room. Not obeying the rules will result in disqualification (for detail information about the movie, see appendix 5).

The teacher listed some things that should include in their presentation. They are retelling the movie, telling the question in the movie, telling the students’ favorite scene, telling the moral message and telling the thing that they disagree. They have two weeks to do their assignment. During the process of the their assignment, the researcher noticed that students did not consult to their teacher however the teacher explained that they could consult if they have any difficulties.

Planning, process and report the project are students-centered. The teacher assessed these three activities. She assessed two aspects in planning section called preparation and title. Teacher assessed how the students prepared their project, how they divide themselves to breakdown their parts in the project and how they discuss to determine a title. According to Syamsudduha (2012) about the criteria of project assessment, the teacher should assess students’ objective, topic, background, research area, respondent and complete question list in planning section, yet in direct observation, the researcher did not find the teacher told the students to make objective, topic, background, research area and respondents. She only told the students to make the review of the movie orally based on question list.

Ideally, a project should result a product as Haryati (2013) explored that a project is more efficient and produces an economical product. Related to language project in language learning, the product is more like literary work but project conducted by the students does not focus on the product. The teacher tended to have the students make a review orally. It is probably because of the students’ level. In this level, the teacher only focuses on one of productive skills namely speaking skill. The teacher explained to the students that actually there must be a written form in this project but for that time, they need to focus on the presentation.

The next assessment is the assessment of project process. It has four aspects to assess namely getting information, writing, analyzing data and concluding. Students watched the movie carefully and the teacher sometimes asked them while watching. Some appearing questions from the teacher were “Who do you think will be the winner?”, “Why do you think so?” and “Do you change your mind?”. Students kept speaking English when they answered their teacher. Some students wrote the information from the movie but they did not need to show it to the teacher. They wrote only for reminding them about what they need to talk about in presentation (See appendix 4)

The next part of this section is analyzing data and concluding Students analyzed the data through discussion. They tried to figure out the questions list. The rule was students should speak English in discussion. The discussion should mainly discuss about the questions list that they had when teacher explained previously. After analyzing the data, the students should conclude their discussion. They had better to have a same opinion in one group.

After the process, the section came up was report of project. It consisted of four aspects to assess called presentation, retelling, telling experience and performance. There were five things should involve in presentation. They are retelling the movie, telling the question in the movie, telling the students’ favorite scene, telling the moral message and telling the thing that they disagree. Presentation covered the overview of the project. The leader of the group presented this part. He or she should explain as well about their project process. Two members retold the movie and its moral message. Then the rests told the experiences which include telling the things, they disagreed, telling their favorite scene and the reason why they liked it. Favorite scene might be different per each member but only one member could tell everything in this part.

The other aspect assessed is performance. It is about the body language of the students, the intensity of looking at the note, fluency and accuracy. The researcher noticed that the teacher used her own way to assess the students. Especially for report of project based on Syamsudduha’s category in 2012, the teacher needs to assess the project by considering the systematic of writing, suggestion and the use of language. In this research, the teacher only considered the use of language.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher found out that teacher reduced some assessed aspects in the theory and replaced them with other aspects that teacher thought it might be useful. But the result, this activity affects the students’ productive skill especially for speaking ability. It can be seen on the students’ perception in the following section.

One interesting thing appeared on the research. It was about project work. Haryati (2013) and Stoller in Renandya (2002) are two experts explained about project work. They explored project work but in one point of view, they are different. Haryati (2013) explained that project work produces an economical product whereas Stoller in Richards and Renandya (2001) explained that Project work culminates in an end product (e.g., an oral presentation, a poster session, a bulletin-board display, a report, or a stage performance). If the teacher follows Haryati’s theory, it can be concluded that students did not result any product in their project. Otherwise, the teacher follows Stoller in Renandya (2002) theory, the students resulted a product namely an oral presentation. The researcher assumed that the teacher follows Stoller in Renandya (2002) theory because the teacher did not force the students to result a concrete product such as a written review.



On the other point of view, the researcher noticed that the teacher did not follow Stoller’s (Renandya: 2002) theory about the steps of doing project. As mentioned in chapter 2, Stoller in Renandya (2002) has ten steps in doing project work. Some steps were conducted by the teacher, some steps were not the following table illustrates the steps conducted by the teacher and some were not.

Table 4.3 Steps in Project Work

No

Steps

Teacher

Students

1

Students and instructor agree on a theme for the project.





2

Students and instructor determine the final outcome.





3

Students and instructor structure the project.





4

Instructor prepares students for the language demands of information gathering

-

-

5

Students gather information.

-



6

Instructor prepares students for the language demands of compiling and analyzing data.

-

-

7

Students compile and analyze information.

-



8

Instructor prepares students for the language demands of presentation of the final project.

-



9

Students present final product.

-



10

Students evaluate the project.





The first step is instructor and students agree on a theme for the project. Teacher and students in observed class did this step. After grouping, the teacher explained what they were going to do. The teacher gave them some choices (novel, articles and movie) and the students voted which theme that they agreed with. They agreed to do a project related to a movie. Then, the teacher gave them three kinds of movie and mostly students voted for a movie called “Exam”.

Then, the teacher and students did as well the second step of Stoller in Renandya (2002). Students and instructor determine final outcome. Teacher described that the outcome focused on the students’ speaking ability. The students needed to present, retell and tell their experience related to the movie. Some students complained about those activities but teacher explained the objectives of it then they understood.

“Students and instructor structure the project”. It is the third step of Stoller in Renandya (2002). In this research, both teacher and students had this step. They structured the project very well. The teacher only explained the structure of the project then the students discuss in structuring their project. As explained by Stoller in Renandya (2002), a question that students should consider is what information is needed to complete the project? The teacher did it well. She stimulated the students to figure out the questions that teacher gave. Those are what is the movie talked about? What is the moral thing about it? Which is your favorite scene? Etc. then, the students developed those questions to be an information.

“Instructor prepares students for the language demands of information gathering”. The teacher and the students did not do this step. Actually, the teacher prepared it in a form of consultation but no student came. This step can help the students who have a problem with their project. They can consult to their teacher and make some discussions about their project which probably they guess they have made a mistake.

“Students gather information”. Ideally, students gather information through some ways that potentially are relevant for students. Those ways can interview, observation or book. In this research, students gather information through a movie. They did not conduct an interview or read a book. The teacher only had them watch the movie and collect information as much as possible.

Step 6 says that instructor prepares students for the language demands of compiling and analyzing data. The teacher did not really do this step. Based on the theory, in this step, the teacher should make a preparation for the demands of the compilation and analysis where the students can organize their project. This is conducted after the students gather the information. In this research, the teacher only explained in the first meeting how the students organize the project.

Step 7 says that students compile and analyze information. Stoller in Renandya (2002) stated that students compile and analyze information to identify data that are particularly relevant to the project. The researcher found that the students did this step. They made a note to keep the important information. Then, they discussed with their own group in analyzing data. Each student had a responsibility. They had already divided themselves into some parts of project. It eased them in doing the project.

Step 8 says instructor prepares students for the language demands of presentation of the final product. This step involves some process namely practicing oral presentation, receiving feedback, editing and revising written report. This step was not conducted by the teacher either. On the observation, the researcher saw the students prepare themselves in practicing oral presentation and had a feedback or correction from other members in a same group. As mentioned, there is no written report which consequences no editing and revising written report.

Step 9 explains about students’ presentation of final product. Students applied this step. Their product is oral presentation. They presented their opinion about the given movie. In reporting, they explained the overview of presentation, retelling the movie, telling experience which involved their opinion about the movie, their favorite scene, the moral side of the movie and the thing that they did not like in the movie.

“Students evaluate the project” is the last step of doing a project work. In this step, it says that it is worthwhile to ask the students about the project to reflect and give them a feedback. The students and the teacher in this research did this step. They had a long discussion after presentation. The reflection and feedback were not only from the teacher but also were from the students. They were more active to criticize their friends from the different groups. For the first presenter, other group seemed reluctant to express what they were thinking about but teacher stimulated them to express. The teacher gave them a feedback and asked the students who listened to the presentation about their opinion of the presenter. One or two group began to say something, then the more presenters, the more opinion appeared.

The researcher assumes that project assessment can be applied in assessing students in project-based learning considering how the teacher managed the project assessment which involved team work, responsibilities, presentation and production. Moreover, to apply project assessment in PBL, the teachers need to know the differentiation between assessment in project assessment and PBL. It can be easier to apply project assessment in PBL because they apply the same task which is project work. Apart from that, both project assessment and PBL do not consider only one aspect but some aspects namely work collaboration, authentical problem solving, curriculum-based and interdisciplinary. This is in line with Solomon’s theory in Simpson (2011). Solomon in Simpson (2011) explained that project-based learning is a learning process that trains the students to be responsible for their own given tasks. Such approach forces the students to work collaboratively, to solve problems that are authentic, curriculum-based and often interdisciplinary.

Pertaining to the assessment used in PBL, the researcher believes that there is no theorist proposed project assessment in PBL. The depiction of such assumption can be seen in the following collection of various theories. Mansoor (1997) stated that in PBL students can be assessed through peer assessment, self assessment and rubric assessment. In another word, Hellstrom, D et.al (2009) explained that in project-based learning, students have been assessed in a variety of ways. Those ways can be self assessment, peer assessment, co-assessment, portfolio assessment, performance assessment and reflective journals.

Similarly, Berge et. al in Simpson (2011) also described that assessment of PBL can be different and challenging. Students in PBL are assessed by various assessment such as traditional pencil and paper assessment, performance-based assessment and portfolio assessment. In addition, Tamim and Michael (2013) stated that teachers mainly used rubrics to assess students in project-based learning.

Based on the perception from the theorists above, the researcher realizes that project assessment has a big opportunity to apply in PBL, since none of the experts recommends project assessment as an assessment in PBL. The application of project assessment in PBL is beneficial knowing the fact that the assessments in PBL are peer assessment, self assessment, performance assessment and rubric assessment. By applying project assessment in PBL, the teachers do not merely focus on one stage of project work; instead, they can focus on all stages of project work.



  1. Students’ Perception to the Project Work

Regarding to the students’ perception, this research as well tried to find out what students think about they think that project work is helping, interesting, exciting, motivating and different than other assignments. The researcher interviewed six groups of students in different level of achievement. Each group consisted of five students. The six mentioned perceptions above appeared intensively in interview.

According to Haryati (2013) stated that project work gives an opportunity for the learners to express completely their competence and it produces a value of competence which they can take responsibility of it. One of the findings supported this theory (See Interview of group 5 number 6). During the process of project, the students were serious to work on their project. This assignment is different from others because they have no time to cheat because they worked with their own group and they had their own responsibility individually.

Two of six findings, related to the students’ perception, are same as the theory. Those are project work is helping and different from others. In the other point of view, four other findings namely project work is motivating, interesting, exciting and does not waste the time. Haryati (2013) does not mention these four findings. Those three perceptions are supported by some statements of students on extracts in findings. The other supporting statements are interview of group 3.13, interview of group 2. 10, interview of group 4.10, interview of group 5.8 and interview of group 6.11. These interviews indicate that project work is really interesting, exciting and motivating. The researcher let them imagine if they have a chance to choose their assignment, they preferred to have project work because it was not boring. They could think and discuss without cheating because they had different responsibility in their group.

The statement “Project work is not boring” implicitly tells that students liked doing project. They experienced of working on the assignment without hoping the other students’ help except their own members. They can work with their own friends and figure out all the things which may appear in their project. This assignment stimulates the students as well to do their best because at the end of the assessment, they should present their report in front of the class. They did not want to embarrass themselves in front of other groups.

As performed in findings section, the students stated that they have more time to speak English with this assignment. They could speak more English as well. (See Interview of group 6 number 1 and group 3 number 15). This proves that they had a chance to practice their English. This chance can be one of motivations for them to have more practice. The students can be motivated as well when they seriously did their project because they wanted to be better than other groups.

Stoller in Renandya (2002) stated that project work is potentially motivating, stimulating, empowering and challenging. It usually results in building students confidence, self-esteem and autonomy as well as improving students’ language skill, content learning and cognitive abilities. This theory supported the finding of this research. Students orally stated the project work as motivating assignment which actually has been stated by Stoller in Renandya (2002).

Students did not mention directly that project work is stimulating, empowering and challenging assignment as Stoller in Renandya (2002) explained in his theory but the researcher assumes that actually students implicitly agree with Stoller’ theory (Renandya: 2002)unfortunately they did not state it orally. Based on the interview, the students always said that some activities in project work made them speak. It indicates that project work actually stimulated them to speak.

The researcher predicts the project work is probably not helping, motivating, interesting, exciting and different than others if the teacher is not creative. The teacher should be creative to decide what kind of project should be done by the students. The teacher should know what the students really need. He or she needs to consider what kind of project that students need to do and what kind of project which students really can involve to the assignment.

Based on the findings and discussion above, there must be a further investigation about project assessment and project work, especially for exploring project on different skills, the reason of teachers why they did not follow all steps based on the theory.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter discusses the conclusion of the research and the suggestion proposed.



  1. Conclusion

Based on the preceding findings and discussion, the researcher concludes that:

  1. Project assessment assesses four aspects namely planning, collecting data, processing data and report. Teacher can break them down in managing the assessment. In this study, the teacher manages the assessment by dividing those aspects into some parts. Planning consists of preparation and title, collecting data is getting information, processing data consists of writing, analyzing data and concluding, and report of project consists of presentation, retelling, telling experience and performance.

  2. In managing the assessment, the teacher does not totally follow one theory. She adopted some theories and mixed them in applying this assessment.

  3. Considering the process of project assessment and the definition of project-based learning, the students who learn through PBL approach can be assessed by applying project assessment.

  4. Students perceive that project work in project assessment is helping, interesting, motivating, exciting, different than others and does not waste the time.



  1. Suggestion

Considering the result of this research, the researcher suggests that:

  1. It is better to assess the students by applying project assessment in a particular period of time such as mid-term examination.

  2. In a process of the project assessment, the teacher should be creative in assigning the students of doing project work and should direct the students effectively.

  3. Despite the absence of writing in the project report, it is worth suggesting to the next researcher or the teacher to be able to implement writing skill in students’ project report.

  4. Since this research focuses on speaking skill, the researcher suggests to the next researcher that there are still many things to explore and investigate related to project assessment especially for productive skills. It does not mean that the receptive skills cannot be explored. It can be the challenge for the next researcher to investigate the similar study focusing on the receptive skills that can be associated with the perception of the teacher about project assessment of project work.


BIBLIOGRAPHY
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2013. Dasar-dasar Evaluasi Penidikan. Bumi Aksara: Jakarta.
Brown, H. Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles: an Interactie Approach to Language Pedagogy. Second Edition. Addision Wesley Longman, Inc.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2004. Language Assessment: Principle and Classroom Practices. White Plains, Pearson Education, Inc: N.Y.

Clark, H. Herbert and Clark, Eve V. 1977. Psychology and Language: an Introduction to Psycholinguistics. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc: United States of America.

Davis, Josephine D. 2010. Project Assessment and Evaluation Plans. Atlanta.

Gay, L.R, Mills. et.al. 2006. Educational Research: Competencies for Analysis and Application.8th edition, Pearson Merrill Prentice hall: Ohio.

Genesee, Fred and Upshur, John A. 1996. Classroom-Based Evaluation in Second Language Education. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Harris, Michael and McCan, Paul. 1994. Assessment. Macmilan Publisher Ltd: N.Y.

Haryati, Mimin. 2013. Model dan Teknik Penilaian pada Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan.Second Edition. Referensi: Jakarta.

Haryanto. 1998. Motivasi dan Strategi Belajar Pada Pembelajar Bahasa Inggris yang Berhasil di SMU. Unpublished Dissertation. PPs IKIP: Jakarta.
Hellstrom, D. et.al. 2009. Group in Project-Based Learning-Students in higher engineering courses. Den 2: A Utvecklingskonferensen for Sveriges Ingenjorsutbildningar, LTH.
Jabu, Baso. 2008. English Language Testing. UNM Publisher: Makassar.

Keputusan menteri (Kepmen) No.53/4/2001 tentang Pedoman Penyusunan Standart Pelayanan Minimal Penyelenggaraan Persekolahan Bidang Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah(DIKDASMEN).From https://www.google.com/search?q=keputusan+menteri+%28Kepmen%29+No.53%2F4%2F2001+tentang+Pedoman+Penyusunan+Standart+Pelayanan+Minimal+Penyelenggaraan+Persekolahan+Bidang+Pendidikan+Dasar+dan+Menengah+%28DIKDASMEN%29&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:id:official&client=firefox-a retrieved at 18-9-2013

Luoma, Sari. 2004. Assessing Speaking. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Mansoor, Inaam et.al. 1997. Project-Based Learning and Assessment. Arlington Public School: Virginia.

Mia. 2012. Mathematics is the King and the Servant of Science. Retrieved from http://miamtk.wordpress.com/2012/01/13/proyek-mia-mulia/ on 18-9-2013.

Miles, M.B & Huberman, A.M. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook 2nd Edition. Sage Publications: California.


Moleong, Lexy, J. 2009. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif Edisi Revisi. Remaja Rosdakarya: Bandung.
Nastu, Jennifer. 2009. Project-Based Learning Engages Students, Garners Results. eSchool News. Retrieved from http://www.eschoolnews.com/2009/01/27/esn-special-report-2/ on 18-02-2015.

Nation, I.S.P. and Macalister John. 2009. Language Curriculum Design. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group: New York and London.

Notebaert, A. J. 2009. Student Perceptions about Learning Anatomy. Published Dissertation. University of Iowa: Iowa.

Richard, Jack C and Renandya, Willy A. 2002. Practice Methodology in Language Teaching, an Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge University Press: New York.

Richards, Jack C and Richard, Schmidt. 2002. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics Third Edition, Pearson Education: London.
Rousova, Vlasta. 2008. Project-Based Learning: Halloween Party. Diploma Thesis. Maryk University BRNO.
Schunk, D.H., and Meece, J. L. 2009. Students Perceptions in the Classroom. Routledge: New York.
Simpson, Jantima. 2011. Integrating Project-Based Learning in an English Language Tourism Classroom in a Thai University. Australian Catholic University: Australia.
Smith, K. Q. N. 2008. Learning Styles and Students’ Perception of Teachers’ Attitudes andIts Relation to Truancy among African American Students in Secondary Education. Published dissertation. Louisiana State University: Louisiana.

Syamsudduha. 2012. Penilaian Kelas. Alauddin University Press: Makassar.

Tamim, Suha., and Grant, Michael M. 2013. Definitions and Uses: Case Study of Teachers Implementing Project-Based Learning. Article 3. Volume 7. Issue 2. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning.

Udin, Imran Trista. 2013. An Evaluation of the Speaking Assessment Task Used by an English Teacher at SMK Negeri 4 Makassar (A Case Study). Unpublished Thesis Pascasarjana UNM: Makassar.



Walgito, Bimo. 1991. Psikologi Sosial (Suatu Pengantar). Andi Offset: Yogyakarta.
Yam, Lee Hong Sharon and Rossini, Peter. 2010. Implementing a Project-Based Learning Approach in an Introductory Property Course. 16th Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference Wellington: New Zealand.

APPENDICES

Appendix 1

Daftar Pertanyaan

        1. Bagaimana metode pelajaran yang digunakan oleh guru anda?

        2. Apakah anda memahami tugas yang diberikan oleh guru anda?

        3. Sistem tugas apa yang paling anda sukai?

        4. Apakah anda menyukai tugas besar yang ditugaskan?

        5. Apakah tugas besar menyita waktu anda?

        6. Apakah tugas besar membantu anda berpikir kreatif? JikaYa, jelaskan bagaimana!

        7. Apa manfaat yang anda peroleh dalam melaksanakan tugas besar?

        8. Apakah tugas besar mempengaruhi kemampuan anda berbicara dalam bahasa Inggris?

        9. Bagaimana tugas besar dapat memotivasi anda dalam belajar bahasa Inggris?

        10. Apakah dalam mengerjakan tugas besar membuat anda berpikir bahwa bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa yang sulit dipahami?

Appendix 2

Students’ Assessment sheets

Appendix 3

Documentation

  1. Preparation

The picture above was taken when the teacher explained what the students needed to do. She told about the project work. It is a new kind of assignment that the students never had before. The assignment was a part of their midterm test. The teacher explained that they would have a week to do their projects, they should work together with their group, and they could decide themselves about their parts in a group. Some students had a questions related to this project but the teacher explained it well so all students could understand it at the end.



After giving the instructions to the students, the teacher grouped them into six groups. The way of grouping was very simple. The teacher asked the students, what kind of grouping they want and the students wanted to make group based on their seats as performed on the picture above. In the regular class, the seat arrangement of this class was always like that. The students sat every day on the same chair with their best friends that they were comfortable with.

  1. Process


    Download 2.88 Mb.

    Share with your friends:
1   2   3   4   5   6




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page