Chapter 6—Social Groups and Organizations multiple choice



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Chapter 6—Social Groups and Organizations
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which of the following would be a sociological example of the term “group”?

a.

tennis fans

b.

pedestrians on a street

c.

nursing majors at a university

d.

people sitting on a bus

ANS: C REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Conceptual
2. What is the sociological name for strangers waiting in line to buy concert tickets?

a.

group

b.

clique

c.

social aggregate

d.

social category

e.

social collection

ANS: C REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
3. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of social groups?

a.

common goals

b.

common identity

c.

feeling of unity

d.

group life expectancy of at least three months

e.

shared norms

ANS: D REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
4. The most important quality of primary groups that is missing in secondary groups is:

a.

group goals.

b.

small size.

c.

interaction.

d.

shared expectations.

e.

intimacy.

ANS: E REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
5. Which of the following is an example of a primary group?

a.

members of a local historical society

b.

all the passengers on a given train

c.

college students

d.

members of a family

e.

members of a national honor society.

ANS: D REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Applied
6. Secondary groups:

a.

are impersonal.

b.

are formally organized.

c.

usually have specific goals.

d.

are characterized by less intimacy than primary groups.

e.

all of the above are characteristics of secondary groups

ANS: E REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
7. Someone who occupies a central role or position of dominance and influence in a group would be a:

a.

coordinator

b.

role designator

c.

status occupant

d.

leader

e.

none of the above

ANS: D REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
8. People have formed a social group when they:

a.

have a purpose.

b.

share certain role expectations.

c.

attach importance to what they’re doing together.

d.

begin to feel special in contrast with others.

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Conceptual
9. How would a sociologist describe you and the people you meet and talk to at the bus stop everyday on your way to work?

a.

secondary group

b.

social aggregate

c.

temporary group

d.

primary group

e.

occasional group

ANS: B REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Applied
10. Which of the following is something groups must do in order to function effectively?

a.

choose leaders

b.

define boundaries

c.

set goals

d.

assign tasks

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
11. School class rings, code words, and special handshakes all serve what function?

a.

define group boundaries

b.

develop primary relationships

c.

develop secondary relationships

d.

gain entry into reference groups

e.

make members feel good

ANS: A REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Applied
12. Instrumental leadership refers to leadership that emphasizes the:

a.

necessity of absolute compliance from members.

b.

emotional well-being of members.

c.

personal satisfaction of job performance by all members.

d.

use of tools in the decision-making process.

e.

completion of tasks by members.

ANS: E REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Factual
13. A(n) ____________ is a formal, rationally organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity in which, ideally, every series of actions is functionally related to the purposes of the organization.

a.

gesellschaft

b.

association

c.

collective conscience

d.

bureaucracy

e.

corporation

ANS: D REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


14. In general, social groups, regardless of their nature, have which of the following?

a.

permanence beyond the meeting of members

b.

means for identifying members

c.

goals or purposes

d.

norms for behavior

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
15. Which of the following statements about reference groups is correct?

a.

People experience anticipatory socialization if they want to join a group badly enough.

b.

Reference groups only influence their members.

c.

Membership in a reference group is an ascribed status.

d.

Reference groups only influence behavior in positive ways.

e.

Reference groups are of almost no importance in modern societies.

ANS: A REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
16. Three students stay after class to go over their notes. This group would be called a:

a.

triad.

b.

dyad.

c.

triage.

d.

trio.

ANS: A REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
17. At a restaurant eight people sit down to eat, and as the meal progresses they break up into smaller groups to talk. These smaller groups are called:

a.

dyads.

b.

triads.

c.

out-groups.

d.

subgroups.

ANS: D REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Applied
18. Which of the following is a characteristic of an association?

a.

It can be characterized as a special-interest group.

b.

It is created to serve a specific purpose.

c.

It has official ways of doing things.

d.

all of the above

e.

none of the above

ANS: D REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Conceptual
19. People who meet together and are few enough members so that all members know one another are known as a(n):

a.

total group.

b.

aggregate.

c.

small group.

d.

deviant group.

e.

out group.

ANS: C REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
20. Who first developed a framework to describe bureaucracies?

a.

Karl Marx

b.

Solomon Asch

c.

Georg Simmel

d.

Max Weber

e.

Émile Durkheim

ANS: D REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


21. Which of the following would NOT be regarded by Weber as a major characteristic of bureaucracy?

a.

heavy reliance on written rules and regulations

b.

a clear-cut division of labor

c.

a tendency toward favoritism and nepotism

d.

a clear distinction between public and private spheres

e.

None of these are major characteristics of bureaucracy according to Weber.

ANS: C REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Conceptual


22. A characteristic of bureaucracy is that power and responsibility making are typically:

a.

informal and unplanned.

b.

democratic and open to discussion.

c.

horizontal.

d.

hierarchical.

e.

longitudinal.

ANS: D REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


23. What term is used to describe how an organization’s written rules and regulations apply equally to all its members with no exceptions due to social or psychological differences?

a.

impartiality

b.

apathy

c.

clear-cut division of labor

d.

hierarchical delegation of power and responsibility

e.

distinction between public and private spheres

ANS: A REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


24. According to Robert Michels, oligarchy often develops in bureaucracies:

a.

if there are no reference groups.

b.

when there are too many people to permit group decision making.

c.

when leadership is too authoritarian.

d.

if leaders are not selected from the appropriate class backgrounds.

e.

when the level of creativity among members is too limited for democracy.

ANS: B REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


25. Michels' Iron Law of Oligarchy holds that bureaucracies:

a.

eventually lead to political dictatorship.

b.

are inevitable in any democratic society.

c.

are outdated forms of social organization.

d.

always become dominated by a small group of self-serving elites.

e.

eventually come to meet the needs of their members.

ANS: D REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


26. Someone who occupies a central role or position of dominance and influence in a group is known as the:

a.

leader.

b.

dictator.

c.

boss.

d.

superior.

e.

bully.

ANS: A REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Factual
27. The style of leadership in which the leader actively proposes tasks and plans to guide the group toward achieving its goals is known as:

a.

expressive.

b.

instrumental.

c.

bureaucratic.

d.

hostile.

e.

heavy-handed.

ANS: B REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Factual
28. The style of leadership in which the leader works to keep relations among group members harmonious and morale high is known as:

a.

expressive.

b.

instrumental.

c.

bureaucratic.

d.

hostile.

e.

heavy-handed.

ANS: A REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Factual
29. Which social category allows an individual to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior?

a.

association

b.

incorporation

c.

reference group

d.

expressive group

e.

subgroup

ANS: C REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Conceptual
30. When another person joins a dyad, a(n) _____ results.

a.

subgroup

b.

reference group

c.

association

d.

triad

e.

expressive group

ANS: D REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Conceptual
31. A splinter group within the larger group is called a:

a.

subgroup.

b.

reference group.

c.

association.

d.

triad.

e.

expressive group.

ANS: A REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
32. Relationships that are intimate, cooperative, and personal are known as:

a.

gesellschaft.

b.

gemeinschaft.

c.

reference.

d.

bureaucracy.

e.

organic.

ANS: B REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
33. Relationships that are impersonal and independent are known as:

a.

gesellschaft.

b.

gemeinschaft.

c.

reference.

d.

bureaucracy.

e.

organic.

ANS: A REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
34. A _____ is a system of fundamental beliefs and values.

a.

gesellschaft

b.

gemeinschaft

c.

collective conscience

d.

bureaucracy

e.

organic

ANS: C REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
35. _____ emerges from people’s commitment and conformity to the society’s collective conscience.

a.

Gesellschaft

b.

Gemeinschaft

c.

Collective conscience

d.

Bureaucracy

e.

Social solidarity

ANS: E REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
36. In a(n) _____, the society’s collective conscience is strong and there is a great commitment to that collective conscience.

a.

organically integrated society

b.

mechanically integrated society

c.

corporation

d.

bureaucracy

e.

association

ANS: B REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
37. A(n) _____ depends on the cooperation of individuals in many different positions who perform specialized tasks.

a.

organically integrated society

b.

mechanically integrated society

c.

corporation

d.

bureaucracy

e.

association

ANS: A REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
38. Which of the following is a characteristic of a bureaucracy?

a.

a clear-cut division of labor

b.

a hierarchy

c.

rules and regulations

d.

impartiality

e.

all of the above

ANS: E REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


39. In a bureaucracy, people are hired because they:

a.

have collective conscience.

b.

belong to the right associations.

c.

have personal contacts within the company.

d.

have the ability and skills to do the job.

e.

are used to working in corporations.

ANS: D REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Conceptual


40. Which of the following statements is true about institutions in society?

a.

Institutions move frequently and change their address, so they are mobile.

b.

Institutions provide stability in the organization of a society that balances change and uncertainty.

c.

Institutions are so corrupt today that it is unclear how they function to benefit the majority of people in our society.

d.

Institutional patterns have always been ideal types rather than identifiable fundamental relationships.

ANS: B REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Factual
41. Society’s fundamental needs are fulfilled through:

a.

social networking.

b.

primary group relationships.

c.

economic networks at the large group level.

d.

social institutions.

ANS: D REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Factual
42. Social interactions and decisions of individuals make sense in the collective context of:

a.

social organization.

b.

personal value systems.

c.

whether people are acquaintances or close.

d.

the number of competing primary groups in a person’s life.

ANS: A REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Conceptual
43. The American Sociological Association is a(n):

a.

loose network of people interested in sociology.

b.

primary group.

c.

special interest group.

d.

occupational identity.

ANS: C REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Applied
44. A professional association is:

a.

a secondary group.

b.

a primary group.

c.

the source of role order in an occupation.

d.

a splinter or subgroup of bureaucracy.

ANS: A REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Conceptual
45. The strength of weak ties refers to:

a.

the influence of family and primary groups even at a geographic distance.

b.

how institutions use bureaucratic rules to bind diverse people together.

c.

the likelihood of finding something you need through an acquaintance in a network.

d.

how pattern-driven human beings are because we copy one another in social action.

ANS: C REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 5.3

MSC: Conceptual
46. Groups tend to:

a.

descend to the level of the worst member.

b.

mimic or copy the behavior of the most successful member.

c.

often pattern their rules after historical precedents that are part of collective memory.

d.

ascend to the level of a core of regular leaders.

ANS: A REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Factual
TRUE/FALSE
1. Taken together, all the fans at a basketball game have the characteristics necessary to be referred to as a social group.

ANS: F REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Applied
2. New members are more threatening to small groups than to large groups.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Conceptual
3. Associations tend to have goals that are not clearly defined.

ANS: F REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
4. We function as part of large groups by serving as employees in a large corporation or as a patron of a large business.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
5. A hallmark of bureaucracy in its ideal form is its impartiality towards members.

ANS: T REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


6. In a bureaucracy, a clear distinction is made between the employee’s personal lives and their working lives.

ANS: T REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


7. People traveling on a bus that have no interaction with one another are considered a social group.

ANS: F REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Applied
8. People are sometimes defined as being a part of a specific group because they share certain characteristics.

ANS: T REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
9. People with similar characteristics do not become a social group unless concrete, dynamic interrelations develop among them.

ANS: T REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
10. Social groups can be large, small, or long-lasting, but cannot be temporary.

ANS: F REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Conceptual
11. Primary groups are characterized by face-to-face association and cooperation.

ANS: T REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
12. All groups must have a purpose, a goal, or a set of goals.

ANS: T REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
13. It is not important for group members to know what needs to be done or who is doing it.

ANS: F REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
14. Leadership is always held by the same person within a group.

ANS: F REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
15. Social solidarity emerges from people’s commitment and conformity to the society’s collective conscience.

ANS: T REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
16. Gemeinschaft relationships are intimate, cooperative, and personal.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
17. Gesellschaft relationships are impersonal and independent.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
18. Associations are splinter groups within a larger group.

ANS: F REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.5

MSC: Factual
19. A mechanically integrated society is one in which a society’s collective conscience is strong and there is a great commitment to that collective conscience.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
20. A mechanically integrated society depends on the cooperation of individuals in many different positions who perform specialized tasks.

ANS: F REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Conceptual
21. An association is a formal, rationally organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity in which, ideally, every series of actions is functionally related to the purposes of the organization.

ANS: F REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.5

MSC: Conceptual
22. The benefit of true bureaucracies is that they embody all of the features of Weber’s model.

ANS: F REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Conceptual


23. One thing that most bureaucracies have in common is a structure that separates those whose responsibilities include keeping in mind the overall needs of the entire organization from those whose responsibilities are much more narrow and task-oriented.

ANS: T REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


24. A major problem with large scale social groups is that they generally lack common identity and a feeling of unity, and they fail to share and communicate common goals.

ANS: F REF: Functions of Social Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
25. Primary groups involve intimacy, informality, and emotional investment in one another.

ANS: T REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
26. Secondary groups have specific goals, formal organization, and much less intimacy than primary groups.

ANS: T REF: The Nature of Groups OBJ: 6.1

MSC: Factual
27. In order to function properly, groups benefit from focusing on defining boundaries, choosing leaders, and allowing these characteristics to emerge in an organic fashion.

ANS: F REF: Functions of Groups OBJ: 6.2

MSC: Conceptual
28. A reference group is a group or social category that an individual uses to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior.

ANS: T REF: 125 OBJ: 6.2 MSC: New


29. When individuals alter their behavior and attitudes toward those in a group they wish to join, they are engaging in anticipatory socialization.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Conceptual
30. Purposefully created special-interest groups that have clearly defined goals and official ways of doing things are called associations.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 6.3

MSC: Factual
31. Bureaucracy is a modern form of large association.

ANS: T REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Conceptual


32. A bureaucracy is a formal, rationally organized social structure with clearly defined patterns of activity that are functionally related to the purposes of the organization.

ANS: T REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Factual


33. Applying Robert Michels’ concept, you can conclude that ANY of the formally organized bureaucracies will inevitably develop oligarchy.

ANS: T REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 6.6 MSC: Applied


34. Institutions are systems for organizing standardized patterns of social behavior.

ANS: T REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Factual
35. Social networks are built on weak ties of acquaintances.

ANS: T REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 5.3

MSC: Conceptual
36. It is hard to build a network through the impersonal structures of associations.

ANS: F REF: Reference Groups OBJ: 5.3

MSC: Conceptual
37. The rules and regulations of bureaucracies are rarely written down.

ANS: F REF: Bureaucracy OBJ: 5.5 MSC: Factual


38. As an institution, the family functions to regulate and socialize sexual behavior.

ANS: T REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Factual
39. Experts always solve problems better than crowd sourcing.

ANS: F REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Conceptual
40. An institution is a system for organizing standardized or predictable patterns of social behavior in a society.

ANS: T REF: Institutions and Social Organization

OBJ: 6.7 MSC: Factual
ESSAY
1. Discuss the functions of groups. Identify six criteria that groups must have to function properly.

ANS: Not Provided REF: Functions of Groups

OBJ: 6.2 MSC: Conceptual
2. Discuss reference groups. How does socialization occur in reference groups? Differentiate between positive and negative reference groups. Give examples.

ANS: Not Provided REF: Reference Groups

OBJ: 6.3 MSC: Conceptual
3. Think of an association you are familiar with or one that you have read about. How do the formal structure and informal structure help the organization to function and help its members? Outline the characteristics of associations. Discuss general and specific goals. Connect to your example.

ANS: Not Provided REF: Reference Groups

OBJ: 6.3 MSC: Applied
4. Why is bureaucracy a successful form of organization? Outline and discuss Max Weber’s model of bureaucracy with an appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of bureaucracies. You can use an established bureaucracy to illustrate your points.

ANS: Not Provided REF: Bureaucracy

OBJ: 6.5 MSC: Applied
5. Discuss Robert Michels’ Iron Law of Oligarchy. What, according to Michels, is the relationship between bureaucracy and democracy? What are the potential results for a democratic society? Explain.

ANS: Not Provided REF: Bureaucracy



OBJ: 6.6 MSC: Conceptual

Introduction to Sociology 12e


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