45. All of the following are keys to successful lifetime weight control EXCEPT
B) dietary modification.
C) psychiatric counseling.
D) problem solving.
46. Which of the following athletes is LEAST likely to develop an eating disorder?
D) power lifter
47. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person
A) chews and spits out food.
B) denies his or her own feelings of hunger and avoids food.
C) has binge eating patterns.
D) only eats during the night.
48. Which of the following BEST explains why it is difficult to get an individual with an eating disorder in for treatment at the early stage of the disease?
A) Few programs exist that focus on early-stage intervention.
B) Individuals are most resistant to treatment in the early stages.
C) There are no protocols for early-stage treatment.
D) Individuals refuse to acknowledge that there is anything wrong.
49. Your friend Kristen is obsessed with becoming thinner. She now looks gaunt and frail, she never seems to eat, and she exercises constantly. You think you could help make things better if you could just get her to look in a mirror. Why is it better to seek professional help?
A) People with eating disorders are afraid of mirrors.
B) You might destroy your friendship by trying to make her look at herself.
C) She needs counseling to deal with her root problem, which is psychological.
D) Any action that challenges Kristen’s perception of herself might lead to a heart attack.
50. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by
A) rapid weight loss.
B) a binge/purge eating pattern.
C) social isolation.
D) loss of appetite.
51. Harry is lean, muscular, and proud of his appearance, but seems to eat twice as much as a normal person and often sneaks to the bathroom after an eating binge. You suspect he is suffering from
A) an addiction to weight-loss drugs.
B) a digestive dysfunction.
C) anorexia nervosa.
D) bulimia nervosa.
52. Binge eating is
A) accompanied by substance abuse.
B) when a normal-weight person wants to become obese.
C) the newest term for compulsive overeating.
D) when an individual consumes too much food and then vomits to rid himself or herself of that feeling.
53. Which of the following do anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating have in common?
A) They are primarily psychological disorders.
B) Individuals are obsessed with becoming thinner.
C) They are usually caused by dysfunctional family life.
D) Individuals tend to be socially withdrawn in their behavior.
54. The typical treatment for eating disorders is
A) family counseling.
B) a medical examination and nutrition education.
C) a psychotherapy session followed by a self-help nutrition program.
D) medical treatment, where required, and a variety of counseling options.
True/False 55. A negative caloric balance leads to a buildup of adipose tissue.
56. Serious health risks of obesity include an increased threat of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
57. The weight range deemed appropriate for people, taking into consideration gender, age, and frame size, is termed desirable weight.
58. Height/weight charts are considered the best way to determine whether body weight is acceptable.
59. Skinfold measurements determine the amount of fat under the skin.
60. In general, risk of disease increases with a higher percent of weight, not body fat.
61. Researchers have established that heredity plays a major role in the development of obesity.
62. Adaptive thermogenesis is a concept that comes from set point theory.
63. Obesity is not caused by a condition known as hypothyroidism.
64. There are ethnic and cultural differences related to the incidence of obesity and what is perceived as healthy weight.
65. Your emotional status has little effect on eating behaviors.
66. People of all ages tend to be as active as did our ancestors only a few generations ago.
67. Many researchers believe that some adults have weight problems because they were overfed as infants.
68. Caloric balance exists when we consume enough calories to maintain basic metabolic processes.
69. An individual’s basal metabolic rate changes as that person ages.
70. Most of the calories we consume are used to support functions such as breathing, blood circulation, and body temperature maintenance.
71. Most people use fad diets in an attempt to achieve a gradual weight loss.
72. Fad diets are often nutritionally unbalanced.
73. Fasting is only recommended as a last-resort, weight-loss measure and then only under medical supervision.
74. A high-quality, commercial weight reduction program will always guarantee significant results.
75. There are currently no effective drug treatments for obesity.
76. Surgical procedures to treat obesity often have unpleasant side effects.
77. A gastric band can be tightened or loosened over time to change the size of the passageway into the stomach.
78. Weight gain can be accomplished in a healthy manner.
79. The best approach to lifetime weight control is regular exercise combined with a commercial weight loss plan.
80. Most eating disorders occur because people become psychologically addicted to dieting.
81. Eating disorder victims tend to have low self-esteem.
Pages: 149, 151
82. Chewing and spitting out food without swallowing may indicate a more serious eating disorder.
83. If left untreated, most eating disorders will resolve themselves.
Essay 84. Describe the methods used to measure body fat. List the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Answer: The following are some of the methods available to determine body composition.
1) Electrical impedance uses weak electrical flow directed through the body. Since adipose tissue resists the passage current more than muscle, the electrical impedance can be used to calculate the percentage of body fat. While accurate, this method has a high cost, and fear or discomfort can reduce its practicality.
2) The Body Composition System (Bod Pod) is the newest method that involves an egg-shaped chamber and uses computerized pressure sensors to determine the amount of air displaced by a person’s body. This method is highly accurate, results are achieved in only a few minutes, and it is more comfortable than hydrostatic weighing.
3) Skinfold measurement relies on constant-pressure calipers to measure the thickness of fat just below the skin. While accurate, skinfolds are notorious hard to locate precisely and required a highly trained technician to produce reliable results.
4) Hydrostatic weighing is a precise method that compared a person’s underwater weight with body weight out of water and dry. Once considered the most accurate means of determining body composition, it requires expensive equipment and trained technicians, making this method impractical for the average person.
94. Summarize the set point theory of body weight.
Answer: The set point theory posits that each person’s body is genetically programmed to maintain a certain weight and, in order to maintain this set point, the body will vary its basal metabolic rate in response to both caloric surpluses and caloric deficits.
95. List the components of a successful weight loss plan.
1) Keep a log of the times, settings, reasons, and feelings associated with eating.
2) Set realistic long-term goals (e.g., no more than 2 pounds per week).
3) Don’t deprive yourself of enjoyable foods; reward yourself occasionally with a small treat.
4) Realize that you are making sacrifices for your health and happiness.
5) Eat slowly, as it takes 20 minutes for your brain to signal when you are full.
6) Add more physical activity into your daily routine.
7) Share your commitment with family and friends, and reward yourself when you reach a goal.
8) Keep careful records of daily food consumption and weekly weight loss.
9) Be prepared to deal with occasional setbacks, and see your weight loss program as a lifestyle change, not a diet.
96. Summarize a sound approach to lifetime weight control.
Answer: A sound approach to lifetime weight control includes regular exercise, balanced nutrition based on portion control and current dietary recommendations, lifestyle support, problem-solving, and redefining your personal goals for health.
97. Explain why dieting alone is a poor way to control weight.
Answer: Diets, especially fad diets or commercial programs that sell their own food, tend to induce unusual eating patterns, which most people will not continue for the long term. They will become bored or tired of the effort or unwilling to invest extra money into it. Additionally, diets that do not encourage regular physical activity exclude the most effective tool for losing fat and keeping it off. Dieting alone does not address all the factors (lifestyle habits, nutritional ignorance) that led to obesity in the first place.
98. Why is regular physical activity the cornerstone of weight control?
Answer: Physical activity is the most effective burner of fat. A significant benefit of regular exercise is that it will increase the basal metabolic rate resulting in a higher consumption of calories at rest. Additionally, benefits of regular exercise include heart and muscular strength, as well as flexibility.
99. Briefly compare and contrast the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Answer: Anorexia nervosa is probably the most common disorder as indicated by the victim’s aversion to food and a sense of being overweight even when the victim is drastically underweight. Bulimia nervosa is marked by a similar obsession with the body, but is characterized by a binge-and-purge behavior. Both disorders must be treated with psychological therapies and, in some cases, medical treatment.