Chapter 6 – Maintaining a Healthy Weight Multiple Choice



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Chapter 6 – Maintaining a Healthy Weight
Multiple Choice
1. People are considered obese when their body weight exceeds the recommended weight for their height by ______________ percent.

A) 10


B) 20

C) 30


D) 40
Answer: B

Page: 129


2. People gain weight when they

A) eat high-fat foods.

B) snack between meals.

C) avoid strenuous physical activity.

D) consume more calories than they need.
Answer: D

Page: 134


3. How are the terms overweight and obesity used differently?

A) People who are 1-19 percent above their desired weight are called overweight, while those 20 percent or more above their desired weight are called obese.

B) All cases of above-desired weight are labeled overweight, while only the most extreme cases are considered obesity.

C) People are called overweight when their extra weight is in muscle, and obese when their extra weight is in fat.

D) Both terms mean the same thing.
Answer: A

Page: 129


4. Sandy’s desirable weight is 150 pounds, but she is now about 280. She would be classified as

A) overweight.

B) mildly obese.

C) morbidly obese.

D) severely obese.
Answer: C

Page: 129


5. The body mass index is

A) based on popular body images.

B) an age-graded obesity measure.

C) a height/weight index in metric units.

D) a method of measuring body composition.
Answer: C

Page: 131


6. Ashley is 5’1” and weighs 135 pounds. According to the body mass index chart, she is considered

A) healthy.

B) overweight.

C) obese.

D) morbidly obese.
Answer: B

Page: 132


7. Which of the following is TRUE regarding standardized height/weight tables? They are

A) an excellent method for determining body composition.

B) an excellent method for determining obesity.

C) no longer considered the best way to determine whether body weight is acceptable.

D) a precise method for determining the amount of adipose tissue.
Answer: C

Page: 131


8. WHR assessment procedure was developed

A) to accurately measure the proportions of lean tissue to fat tissue.

B) in response to the growing concern over the rate of obesity in the United States.

C) as a clinical marker for the treatment of obesity.

D) in response to the growing concern over the relationship between the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity and the development of serious health problems.
Answer: D

Page: 131


9. Skinfold measurements, electrical impedance, and hydrostatic weighing are all measures of

A) body composition.

B) obesity.

C) weight.

D) fitness.
Answer: A

Page: 132


10. The principle behind electrical impedance measurement is that

A) body tissues of older people respond differently from those of younger people.

B) electrical currents will be conducted around the outside surfaces of the body.

C) muscles respond to electrical current, while fat does not.

D) fat has a different electrical resistance from muscle.
Answer: D

Page: 157


11. The Bod Pod determines body composition by

A) using a nomogram.

B) measuring displaced air.

C) relating weight to height.

D) measuring electrical resistance under the skin.
Answer: B

Pages: 132-133


12. The normal range of body fat for young adult men is ______________ percent.

A) 10 to 15

B) 15 to 19

C) 20 to 25

D) 25 to 30
Answer: A

Page: 132


13. Which of the following is FALSE regarding a skinfold measurement?

A) It is used to calculate the percentage of body fat.

B) It is a measurement to determine the thickness of the fat layer just under the skin.

C) Only one key site on the body is necessary to accurately determine the percentage of body fat.

D) These measurements are taken using a special device known as a caliper.
Answer: C

Page: 133


14. Which of the following methods is the MOST accurate means of determining body composition?

A) height/weight tables

B) body mass index charts

C) electrical impedance

D) hydrostatic weighing
Answer: D

Page: 134


15. Which of the following BEST explains the causes of obesity?

A) Obesity generally occurs among people who lack sufficient leptin output.

B) Research indicates that genetic makeup is the main cause of most obesity.

C) Although no definitive cause is known, it is believed that several factors play a role.

D) Obesity is the product of overeating and lack of exercise, over which everyone has equal control.
Answer: C

Page: 134


16. Which of the following BEST describes the influence of genetics on obesity?

A) Body type is the only known obesity factor that is strongly affected by genetics.

B) Your genetic makeup determines whether you will be obese.

C) There are many possible genetic influences on obesity.

D) Genetics has little direct influence on obesity.
Answer: C

Page: 134


17. The body’s appetite controls are mainly located in the

A) liver.

B) stomach.

C) large intestine.

D) hypothalamus.
Answer: D

Page: 137


18. The appetite center controls

A) when you eat.

B) how much you eat.

C) how your body uses food.

D) when you feel hungry or satisfied.
Answer: D

Page: 137


19. Which of the following BEST summarizes the set point theory?

A) Each person has a point beyond which he or she cannot lose weight.

B) Each person’s body regulates its use of energy to maintain a certain weight range.

C) The body begins to store fat when eating reaches a certain point.

D) Once an overweight person has lost weight, it becomes easier to lose more weight up to a certain point.
Answer: B

Page: 138


20. Changes in the body’s metabolic rate due to a lack, or abundance, of calories is known as

A) adipose recession.

B) digestive generativity.

C) comestible stabilization.

D) adaptive thermogenesis.
Answer: D

Page: 138


21. What is the percentage of people who go on a diet and gain all of their weight back within a year of going off the diet?

A) 90 percent

B) 75 percent

C) 50 percent

D) 25 percent
Answer: A

Page: 138


22. ____________ is second only to tobacco as the leading cause of premature death and disproportionately affects women of color and lower socioeconomic classes.

A) Breast cancer

B) Obesity

C) Stroke

D) Hypertension
Answer: B

Page: 139


23. Many researchers believe that overfed infants become overweight later in life because

A) they develop more fat cells than infants who are not overfed do.

B) the heavy calorie load slows down their metabolisms.

C) overeating habits are established early in life.

D) their fat cells grow in size.
Answer: A

Page: 138


24. According to weight management experts, the single most important factor leading to obesity in the United States is

A) inactivity.

B) family dietary habits.

C) the mass promotion of junk foods.

D) endocrine dysfunction.
Answer: A

Page: 136


25. Your body’s energy needs are based on your diet, your activities, and your

A) general health.

B) basal metabolism.

C) degree of obesity.

D) endocrine function.
Answer: B

Page: 135


26. Consuming about _____ calories more than is needed results in a weight gain of one pound of fat.

A) 2,200


B) 1,500

C) 3,500


D) 2,700
Answer: C

Page: 134


27. Why do the body’s energy requirements decrease with age? Because

A) basal metabolic rate declines with age.

B) older adults are less active than younger adults.

C) aging results in the gradual loss of muscle tissue.

D) some body systems are no longer required in older adults.
Answer: A

Page: 135


28. Which of the following is NOT related to basal metabolic rate?

A) age


B) caloric intake

C) activity level

D) gender
Answer: D

Pages: 135-137


29. The amount of energy our bodies require for the digestion, absorption, and transportation of food is known as the ________________ of food.

A) thermic effect

B) thermatic metabolism

C) molecular fusion

D) hyperthermogenesis
Answer: A

Page: 136


30. According to the experts, you should set a goal to lose no more than __________ pounds a week.

A) 5


B) 2

C) 3


D) 4
Answer: B

Page: 142


31. Effective and lasting weight loss requires

A) a diet that significantly reduces calorie intake.

B) going on a diet for a specific period of time.

C) following a diet plan that is restrictive and demanding.

D) a lifestyle change that includes healthy eating and regular exercise.
Answer: D

Page: 140


32. Which of the following is FALSE regarding a balanced diet supported by portion control? It

A) is best undertaken with a nutritionist and physicians knowledgeable in diet management.

B) is a diet designed to produce rapid weight loss.

C) reflects a nutritionally sound program that offers some probability of success.

D) does not force an individual to adopt a restrictive approach to eating.
Answer: B

Page: 141


33. Why is a diet based on portion control a better idea than so-called low-calorie or fad diets?

A) People enjoy the food more with portion control.

B) Portion control diets achieve results more quickly.

C) Portion control typically cuts more calories from a meal.

D) Portion control is typically a more rigidly enforced approach.
Answer: A

Page: 141


34. People use fad diets in an attempt to achieve

A) a gradual weight loss.

B) a more nutritionally balanced approach to weight loss.

C) rapid weight loss.

D) making dieting easier and more enjoyable.
Answer: C

Page: 143


35. Dehydration, electrolyte loss, and possible kidney problems are complications associated with which fad diet?

A) The Atkins Diet

B) Eating Thin for Life

C) The New Beverly Hills Diet

D) Jenny Craig
Answer: A

Page: 143


36. Most prescription and over-the-counter diet drugs achieve their purpose by

A) slowing digestion.

B) elevating heart rate.

C) stimulating excretion.

D) suppressing appetite.
Answer: D

Page: 144


37. The problem with the over-the-counter appetite suppressant phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is

A) its association with higher risk of stroke.

B) it actually stimulates the appetite.

C) it interferes with digestion for most people.

D) that research has found it to be ineffective.
Answer: A

Page: 145


38. Which of the following is found in most herbal diet pills?

A) phenylpropanolamine

B) ephedrine

C) aristolochia fangchi

D) dexfenfluramine
Answer: B

Page: 145


39. Gastroplasty achieves its effectiveness as anti-obesity surgery by

A) reducing the size of the stomach.

B) tightening the muscles around digestive organs.

C) shortening the path of food through the digestive tract.

D) routing food away from the areas of greatest absorption.
Answer: A

Page: 147


40. A moderately obese, college-age friend of yours wants to try liposuction to solve her problem with obesity. Why is this a bad idea?

A) Liposuction is cosmetic and not a life-long behavior change.

B) Liposuction is a high risk procedure compared with others.

C) Liposuction is more body sculpting than weight loss.

D) All of the choices are true of liposuction.
Answer: D

Page: 148


41. You are dangerously obese and you are a compulsive eater. The most effective surgical procedure to enable you to lose weight would be

A) liposuction.

B) gastroplasty.

C) body wrapping.

D) gastric band surgery.
Answer: D

Page: 147


42. Tim is thin, and he wants to gain weight for football. He does not have an eating disorder. The best way for Tim to proceed would be to

A) eat only high-fat foods and lift weights.

B) combine a balanced, calorie-dense diet with strength training.

C) train twice a day and consume lots of high-calorie foods.

D) combine resistance training with an over-the-counter weight gaining supplement.
Answer: B

Page: 148


43. The key to maintaining a healthy weight is

A) caloric expenditure through regular exercise.

B) regular counseling sessions.

C) over-the-counter weight loss products.

D) acupuncture.
Answer: A

Page: 135


44. Which of the following is the most effective tool for eliminating fat from the body?

A) dieting

B) education

C) physical activity

D) prescription steroids
Answer: C

Pages: 135


45. All of the following are keys to successful lifetime weight control EXCEPT

A) exercise.

B) dietary modification.

C) psychiatric counseling.

D) problem solving.
Answer: C

Pages: 140


46. Which of the following athletes is LEAST likely to develop an eating disorder?

A) dancer

B) gymnast

C) wrestler

D) power lifter
Answer: D

Page: 149


47. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which a person

A) chews and spits out food.

B) denies his or her own feelings of hunger and avoids food.

C) has binge eating patterns.

D) only eats during the night.
Answer: B

Page: 149


48. Which of the following BEST explains why it is difficult to get an individual with an eating disorder in for treatment at the early stage of the disease?

A) Few programs exist that focus on early-stage intervention.

B) Individuals are most resistant to treatment in the early stages.

C) There are no protocols for early-stage treatment.

D) Individuals refuse to acknowledge that there is anything wrong.
Answer: D

Page: 150


49. Your friend Kristen is obsessed with becoming thinner. She now looks gaunt and frail, she never seems to eat, and she exercises constantly. You think you could help make things better if you could just get her to look in a mirror. Why is it better to seek professional help?

A) People with eating disorders are afraid of mirrors.

B) You might destroy your friendship by trying to make her look at herself.

C) She needs counseling to deal with her root problem, which is psychological.

D) Any action that challenges Kristen’s perception of herself might lead to a heart attack.
Answer: C

Page: 151


50. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by

A) rapid weight loss.

B) a binge/purge eating pattern.

C) social isolation.

D) loss of appetite.
Answer: B

Page: 151


51. Harry is lean, muscular, and proud of his appearance, but seems to eat twice as much as a normal person and often sneaks to the bathroom after an eating binge. You suspect he is suffering from

A) an addiction to weight-loss drugs.

B) a digestive dysfunction.

C) anorexia nervosa.

D) bulimia nervosa.
Answer: D

Page: 151


52. Binge eating is

A) accompanied by substance abuse.

B) when a normal-weight person wants to become obese.

C) the newest term for compulsive overeating.

D) when an individual consumes too much food and then vomits to rid himself or herself of that feeling.
Answer: C

Page: 152


53. Which of the following do anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating have in common?

A) They are primarily psychological disorders.

B) Individuals are obsessed with becoming thinner.

C) They are usually caused by dysfunctional family life.

D) Individuals tend to be socially withdrawn in their behavior.
Answer: A

Pages: 149-152


54. The typical treatment for eating disorders is

A) family counseling.

B) a medical examination and nutrition education.

C) a psychotherapy session followed by a self-help nutrition program.

D) medical treatment, where required, and a variety of counseling options.
Answer: D

Page: 153



True/False
55. A negative caloric balance leads to a buildup of adipose tissue.
Answer: False

Pages: 134-135


56. Serious health risks of obesity include an increased threat of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.
Answer: True

Page: 129


57. The weight range deemed appropriate for people, taking into consideration gender, age, and frame size, is termed desirable weight.
Answer: True

Page: 131


58. Height/weight charts are considered the best way to determine whether body weight is acceptable.
Answer: False

Page: 131


59. Skinfold measurements determine the amount of fat under the skin.
Answer: True

Page: 133


60. In general, risk of disease increases with a higher percent of weight, not body fat.
Answer: False

Pages: 132


61. Researchers have established that heredity plays a major role in the development of obesity.
Answer: True

Page: 137


62. Adaptive thermogenesis is a concept that comes from set point theory.
Answer: True

Page: 138


63. Obesity is not caused by a condition known as hypothyroidism.
Answer: False

Page: 137


64. There are ethnic and cultural differences related to the incidence of obesity and what is perceived as healthy weight.
Answer: True

Page: 139


65. Your emotional status has little effect on eating behaviors.
Answer: False

Page: 140


66. People of all ages tend to be as active as did our ancestors only a few generations ago.
Answer: False

Page: 136


67. Many researchers believe that some adults have weight problems because they were overfed as infants.
Answer: True

Page: 138


68. Caloric balance exists when we consume enough calories to maintain basic metabolic processes.
Answer: False

Page: 134


69. An individual’s basal metabolic rate changes as that person ages.
Answer: True

Page: 135


70. Most of the calories we consume are used to support functions such as breathing, blood circulation, and body temperature maintenance.
Answer: True

Page: 135


71. Most people use fad diets in an attempt to achieve a gradual weight loss.
Answer: False

Page: 143


72. Fad diets are often nutritionally unbalanced.
Answer: True

Page: 143


73. Fasting is only recommended as a last-resort, weight-loss measure and then only under medical supervision.
Answer: True

Pages: 143-144


74. A high-quality, commercial weight reduction program will always guarantee significant results.
Answer: False

Page: 144


75. There are currently no effective drug treatments for obesity.
Answer: False

Pages: 144-146


76. Surgical procedures to treat obesity often have unpleasant side effects.
Answer: True

Page: 146-148


77. A gastric band can be tightened or loosened over time to change the size of the passageway into the stomach.
Answer: True

Page: 147


78. Weight gain can be accomplished in a healthy manner.
Answer: True

Page: 148


79. The best approach to lifetime weight control is regular exercise combined with a commercial weight loss plan.
Answer: False

Page: 144


80. Most eating disorders occur because people become psychologically addicted to dieting.
Answer: False

Page: 140


81. Eating disorder victims tend to have low self-esteem.
Answer: True

Pages: 149, 151


82. Chewing and spitting out food without swallowing may indicate a more serious eating disorder.
Answer: True

Page: 152


83. If left untreated, most eating disorders will resolve themselves.
Answer: False

Pages: 151-152



Essay
84. Describe the methods used to measure body fat. List the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Answer: The following are some of the methods available to determine body composition.
1) Electrical impedance uses weak electrical flow directed through the body. Since adipose tissue resists the passage current more than muscle, the electrical impedance can be used to calculate the percentage of body fat. While accurate, this method has a high cost, and fear or discomfort can reduce its practicality.

2) The Body Composition System (Bod Pod) is the newest method that involves an egg-shaped chamber and uses computerized pressure sensors to determine the amount of air displaced by a person’s body. This method is highly accurate, results are achieved in only a few minutes, and it is more comfortable than hydrostatic weighing.

3) Skinfold measurement relies on constant-pressure calipers to measure the thickness of fat just below the skin. While accurate, skinfolds are notorious hard to locate precisely and required a highly trained technician to produce reliable results.

4) Hydrostatic weighing is a precise method that compared a person’s underwater weight with body weight out of water and dry. Once considered the most accurate means of determining body composition, it requires expensive equipment and trained technicians, making this method impractical for the average person.


Pages: 132-134
94. Summarize the set point theory of body weight.
Answer: The set point theory posits that each person’s body is genetically programmed to maintain a certain weight and, in order to maintain this set point, the body will vary its basal metabolic rate in response to both caloric surpluses and caloric deficits.
Pages: 138-139
95. List the components of a successful weight loss plan.
Answer:
1) Keep a log of the times, settings, reasons, and feelings associated with eating.

2) Set realistic long-term goals (e.g., no more than 2 pounds per week).

3) Don’t deprive yourself of enjoyable foods; reward yourself occasionally with a small treat.

4) Realize that you are making sacrifices for your health and happiness.

5) Eat slowly, as it takes 20 minutes for your brain to signal when you are full.

6) Add more physical activity into your daily routine.

7) Share your commitment with family and friends, and reward yourself when you reach a goal.

8) Keep careful records of daily food consumption and weekly weight loss.



9) Be prepared to deal with occasional setbacks, and see your weight loss program as a lifestyle change, not a diet.
Page: 142
96. Summarize a sound approach to lifetime weight control.
Answer: A sound approach to lifetime weight control includes regular exercise, balanced nutrition based on portion control and current dietary recommendations, lifestyle support, problem-solving, and redefining your personal goals for health.
Pages: 140-142
97. Explain why dieting alone is a poor way to control weight.
Answer: Diets, especially fad diets or commercial programs that sell their own food, tend to induce unusual eating patterns, which most people will not continue for the long term. They will become bored or tired of the effort or unwilling to invest extra money into it. Additionally, diets that do not encourage regular physical activity exclude the most effective tool for losing fat and keeping it off. Dieting alone does not address all the factors (lifestyle habits, nutritional ignorance) that led to obesity in the first place.
Pages: 141-142
98. Why is regular physical activity the cornerstone of weight control?
Answer: Physical activity is the most effective burner of fat. A significant benefit of regular exercise is that it will increase the basal metabolic rate resulting in a higher consumption of calories at rest. Additionally, benefits of regular exercise include heart and muscular strength, as well as flexibility.
Pages: 135-136
99. Briefly compare and contrast the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Answer: Anorexia nervosa is probably the most common disorder as indicated by the victim’s aversion to food and a sense of being overweight even when the victim is drastically underweight. Bulimia nervosa is marked by a similar obsession with the body, but is characterized by a binge-and-purge behavior. Both disorders must be treated with psychological therapies and, in some cases, medical treatment.
Pages: 148-152

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