Chapter 5: Light in the Dark Ages



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Chapter 5: Light in the Dark Ages

  • THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Review the section “Ulphilas: Apostle of the Goths” (p. 182).

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • Who invaded the western half of the Roman Empire, and why?
  • What was the impact of the fall of Rome on the faithful?
  • KEY IDEAS
  • The western half of the Roman Empire fell as Germanic tribes migrated into and invaded its territories.
  • Cities were sacked and depopulated, and culture and economic progress declined.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What are the three themes of this chapter?
  • This chapter covers the repercussions of the fall of Rome, the rise and importance of monasticism, and the rise of Islam.
  •  
  • Why is there no clear date for the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire?
  • There was more of a gradual collapse than a dramatic, one-day fall. This disintegration took place over the course of the fifth century.
  •  
  • What did the Romans and the barbarians have in common with respect to human rights?
  • Neither had any conception of fundamental human rights, and both cultures were brutal and violent.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:
  • What effect did the fall of Rome have on religious practice?

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What effect did the fall of Rome have on intellectual activity in the West?
  • It brought about a collapse of intellectual activity in the West, illiteracy becoming the norm. The study of classical literature and philosophy all but ceased. The Church remained the only center of intellectual activity.
  •  
  • What effects did the fall of Rome have on economic activity and demographics?
  • Economic activity fell drastically, crime increased, and the former city-based society became largely rural, centered on towns and villages.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What effect did the fall of Rome have on the Church’s understanding of her relationship with the state?
  • Many Christians and emperors had thought that the destiny of the Catholic Church was intertwined with that of the empire. The collapse of Rome and the western half of that empire prompted Christians to understand that the Church was not wedded to the empire and needed to adapt to a dramatic cultural shift.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following table on the barbarian invasions of the fourth and fifth centuries (cf. p. 183).

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What were the two largest ethnic groups living in northern Europe?
  • The Celtic tribes were the largest; second were the various Germanic tribes.
  •  
  • How did Celtic culture change because of contact with the Roman Empire?
  • The Celts had been powerful warriors, but after Roman occupation they settled into a peaceful, agrarian life.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why did the Romans sometimes invite barbarian tribes to settle along the frontiers of the empire?
  • They allowed tribes to settle in exchange for conscripts for the Roman armies and to increase the declining population of the Empire.
  •  
  • What was the Germanization of the Roman legions?
  • It refers to the process by which an increasing percentage of the soldiers in the Roman military was comprised of people from Germanic tribes.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does the idea of “waves of invaders” mean with respect to the Germanic tribes?
  • One conquering Germanic tribe would be conquered by another Germanic tribe later.
  •  
  • Who were the Franks?
  • They were a Germanic people who settled in Gaul (modern-day France), the ancestors of the modern French, and the first Germanic tribe to convert to orthodox (as opposed to Arian) Christianity.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:
  • To what extent had Christianity penetrated the mentality of the Germanic tribes by the end of the fifth century?

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read the Additional Resources on pages 182–183, and then discuss how people might have felt about the invasions.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Which was the most successful Germanic tribe?
  • The Vandals were most successful.
  •  
  • Who was the Apostle to the Goths?
  • Ulphilas, the Cappadocian who translated the Scriptures into Gothic, enlightened the Goths.
  •  
  • What religion did the barbarian hordes profess?
  • To the extent they were not still pagan, most were Arian Christians.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the origin of the Huns?
  • It is not known exactly, but they swept westward from Central Asia.
  •  
  • How did people in the Roman Empire perceive the Huns?
  • The Huns were terrifying. They slashed their faces, had squat bodies with enormous arms and shoulders, seemed to live on their horses, and stank from the rancid, raw meat they carried.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What was the character of Attila the Hun, and why did he not attack Rome?
  • Attila was a ruthless leader who was also tremendously brave in battle, a skilled diplomat, and a keen military strategist. After Pope St. Leo the Great went out to meet him, Attila withdrew from Italy. It is not known why he did not sack Rome.
  •  
  • What did the Germanic invasions reveal to the Church about her universality?
  • An increasing number of Christians realized that the Church is intended for everyone; the Germanic tribes needed to be evangelized as the Romans had previously.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How was the Germanic character different from the Greco-Roman character?
  • The Germanic peoples were less philosophically and theologically inclined, and they placed less emphasis on order, culture, organization, and law.
  •  
  • To evangelize the Germanic peoples, what was the Church willing to do? What was she unwilling to do?
  • The Church was willing to discard Roman culture without changing the doctrines of the Faith; she was unwilling the change the Deposit of Faith for any reason.

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Brainstorm reactions that Italian Christians of the fifth century might have had toward the invasions (cf. p. 186).

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the following prompt:
  • Apply the words of Jesus Christ to St. Peter to this period of the Church’s history: “You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it” (Mt 16:18).

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 1–4 (p. 210)
  • Practical Exercise 1 (p. 211)
  • Workbook Questions 1–28
  • Read “The Rise of Monasticism” through “Monasticism and the Emergence of a New Christian Culture” (pp. 187–191)

1. Fall of Rome (pp. 178–186)

  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the following prompt:
  • Imagine you are a Christian living in a city in the western half of the Roman Empire and have just heard a barbarian army is approaching your town. Write a diary entry about how you feel and what you imagine is about to happen.

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Discuss the relationship between the following triads:
  • Sex, money, and power
  • Chastity, poverty, and obedience 

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • BASIC QUESTION
  • What were the causes and effects of monasticism?
  • KEY IDEA
  • Monasticism arose out of a desire to leave civilization and devote oneself entirely to prayer and asceticism in imitation of Christ. Monastics gave new life to the Faith, brought civilization to the rural areas, preserved classical learning, and evangelized the Germanic peoples.

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is monasticism?
  • It is a way of life in which a person leaves the everyday world to live a life of self-denial and prayer in order to devote his or her whole life to God.
  •  
  • How is Christian monasticism unique?
  • Though monasticism is practiced by many of the world’s religions, Christian monasticism is unique because its aim is the imitation of Christ.

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What are the two chief types of monasticism?
  • In eremitical monasticism, a person lives alone as a hermit. In cenobitical monasticism, a person lives with others in a community.
  •  
  • Who founded eremitical monasticism?
  • Eremitical monasticism was founded in Egypt by Sts. Anthony the Great and Paul of Thebes.

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Who founded cenobitical monasticism?
  • St. Pachomius, an Egyptian hermit, began cenobitical monasticism (against his will) after people kept flocking to him.
  •  
  • Who wrote the rules for early monasticism?
  • St. Athanasius’ biography of St. Anthony the Great became a handbook for eremitical monastics. St. Pachomius wrote a rule for those who joined him in cenobitical monasticism.

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following table about the earliest monks (cf. p. 189).

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following table about the effects of monasticism on European culture.

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the following question:
  • How would you respond to someone who claims the Church is an enemy of learning?

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 5–8 (p. 210)
  • Workbook Questions 29–34
  • Read “St. Benedict: The ‘Patriarch of Western Monasticism’” through “Gregorian Chant: The Development of Musical Notation” (pages 191–196)

2. The Rise of Monasticism (pp. 187–191)

  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a one-paragraph essay about the major effects of monasticism on Europe (cf. Graphic Organizer, p. 190).

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Listen to a sample of Gregorian Chant.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • BASIC QUESTION
  • What contributions did St. Benedict and his Rule and Pope St. Gregory the Great make to the preservation and spread of Christianity?
  • KEY IDEA
  • St. Benedict’s Rule became the basis of Western monasticism. Pope St. Gregory the Great was a great spiritual leader who served as a temporal ruler as well.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the Rule of St. Benedict?
  • It is a practical guide to monastic life that his monks were to follow.
  •  
  • How was the Rule of St. Benedict a departure from the practices of Eastern monastics?
  • St. Benedict’s Rule is moderate compared to the severe asceticism of the Eastern tradition.
  •  
  • How important was the Rule to the future of monasticism in the West?
  • The Rule was adopted by all but a few monastic communities in the West that were established during the Medieval period, and it is still in use in the modern era.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Work with a partner to prepare and present a brief oral report using the following guidelines.
  • Paraphrase a short excerpt from the Rule of St. Benedict.
  • Interpret how this passage might relate to the life of a monk.
  • Do you think you could live under this rule? Why or why not?

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Work with a partner to complete the following table on several Latin-language terms used by Benedictines (cf. p. 189).

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the chief aim of a monk who follows the Rule?
  • The chief aim is to give praise and glory to God.
  •  
  • What was the relationship between Sts. Benedict and Scholastica?
  • They were twins.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What is a religious vow, and what vows do Benedictine monks take?
  • A vow is a solemn promise made voluntarily to God and witnessed by another person. Benedictine monks take lifelong vows of stability, conversion of morals, and obedience. Extension: A vow might be to practice a virtue or perform a specific deed in order to accomplish a future good.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read the excerpt from the Rule of St. Benedict on page 207, and then discuss the Benedictine practice of poverty.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How did St. Gregory’s spend his life before he became a monk?
  • St. Gregory was born into an important, noble family, and he held important civil offices in Rome. After his father died, he sold everything he had and used the money to found seven monasteries and help the poor.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How was St. Gregory the Great’s life as a monk before he became Pope?
  • Pope Pelagius II did not allow St. Gregory to remain a simple monk for long and appointed him one of the seven deacons of Rome and then as nuncio to the court of the emperor.
  •  
  • How was St. Gregory elected Pope, and what was his reaction to this election?
  • After Pope Pelagius II had died, St. Gregory was universally acclaimed the new Pope by the people of Rome. Initially, St. Gregory refused this honor, but he accepted the election eventually as God’s will.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:
  • What is the significance of St. Gregory the Great’s use of the title Servus Servorum Dei for himself and his refusal to acknowledge the title “Ecumenical Patriarch” for the Patriarch of Constantinople?

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Read silently the excerpt from The Book of Pastoral Rule (p. 207), and then discuss St. Gregory the Great’s spiritual state when he was elected Pope and why he decided to accept the election.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why is Pope St. Gregory I called “the Great”?
  • He received this title because of missionary successes and his care for the poor.
  •  
  • What threat did Rome face from the Lombards, and how did St. Gregory avert it?
  • The Lombards threatened to invade. St. Gregory minimized the Lombard threat by negotiating a peace. He influenced a Catholic to marry the Lombard king, which resulted in Catholic children and the eventual conversion of the Lombard people to Christianity.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What do St. Gregory’s actions with the Lombards reveal about the relationship between the Church and state at that time?
  • Relations were strained. The emperor’s exarch in Italy did nothing to help when Rome was under threat, so the Pope acted as the spiritual and temporal ruler of Rome. As a result, the Pope and emperor increasingly viewed each other as competitors.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Discuss leadership using the following questions:
  • What concept of leadership is portrayed by the title Servus Servorum Dei?
  • How is St. Gregory the Great’s concept different from the traditional concept of leadership, for example, that practiced by the pagan Roman emperors?
  • How is St. Gregory the Great’s concept especially appropriate for anyone in the Church who exercises leadership?

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • Whence did musical notation originate?
  • It was invented by monks to catalog chant melodies. The eventual four-line staff, still used for Gregorian Chant in the modern era, was invented by Guido d’Arezzo.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • When was Gregorian Chant revived?
  • Having fallen out of favor beginning in the eighteenth century, it was revived in the latter half of the nineteenth century by Benedictine monks.
  •  
  • What place does Gregorian chant play in modern-day liturgical worship?
  • According to the Council Fathers of the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council, “Gregorian chant is specially suited to the Roman liturgy… [and] should be given pride of place.”

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for two minutes about St. Benedict’s contribution to the survival of the Church and two minutes about St. Gregory the Great’s accomplishments as Pope.

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 9–14 (p. 210)
  • Practical Exercise 6 (p. 211)
  • Workbook Questions 35–53
  • Read “The Rise of Islam” through “The Moral Code of Islam” (pp. 197–202)

3. The Rise of Monasticism (continued) (pp. 191–196)

  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Write a paragraph comparing and contrasting eremitical with cenobitical monasticism.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Read silently the two quotes from the Koran on page 197, and then discuss the following question:
  • At first glance, would Christians and Jews agree with this passage?

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • BASIC QUESTION
  • What is the origin of Islam, and what are its chief doctrines?
  • KEY IDEA
  • Muhammad founded a new, monotheistic religion based loosely on Judaism and Christianity.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • Why are the rise and basic beliefs of Islam important to the study of the history of the Catholic Church?
  • Islam is a monotheistic religion whose history is linked with the Arab, Asiatic, African, and European peoples, and many wars were fought between Christians and Muslims.
  •  
  • What is the Kaaba, and what is its importance to Muslims?
  • The Kaaba is a large, black stone in Mecca where Abraham is said to have worshiped God. Muslims consider it an axus mundi (“turning-point of the world”), a connection between Heaven and earth, and hence the focal point of prayers in a Muslim’s life.
  •  
  • What happened to Muhammad that changed his life?
  • After having retired to a cave, Muhammad announced that he had received a vision of the Archangel Gabriel, who called him to be the herald of Allah (God).

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the Koran?
  • According to Muhammad, the Koran is a dictation of the words of the Archangel Gabriel.
  •  
  • Was Muhammad certain that he was a prophet?
  • No; Muhammad questioned if he suffered from delusions.
  •  
  • Why is it important the Koran be read in Arabic?
  • Muslims believe it was dictated in Arabic, so those words are the actual words of God.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What does the word Islam mean?
  • It means “submission” and refers to submission to the will of God.
  •  
  • According to Muslims, what did Muhammad do for the world?
  • He was God’s last prophet who brought the perfect religion to the world.
  •  
  • How do Muslims reinterpret the Old and New Testaments?
  • The Koran borrows from them and views Jesus as a prophet. However, it teaches that Jews and Christians have completely misinterpreted the Scriptures.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What did Muhammad claim is the failure of Christianity?
  • He taught that Christians misinterpreted God’s intentions as communicated through Jesus the prophet.
  •  
  • What central mysteries of the Christian Faith are denied by Muslims?
  • The Incarnation, redemption, the atonement, the Resurrection, and the Blessed Trinity are denied.
  •  
  • What is the jizya?
  • It is a tax Jews and Christians have to pay to practice their religion in a Muslim state.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • How were Muhammad’s early relations with Jews?
  • When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he wanted the 500 or so Jews living there to recognize him as a prophet, but they refused, claiming the line of prophets had ended 1000 years earlier. Later, Jews in Mecca evidently supported the pagan Meccans against Muhammad’s army, so Muhammad had Jewish men slaughtered and sold Jewish women and children into slavery.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • In what direction did Muslims originally pray, and to what was this changed?
  • Muslims originally prayed toward Jerusalem, but Muhammad later changed the direction to the Kaaba in Mecca.
  •  
  • What are the five pillars of Islam?
  • They are the required practices for all Muslims: the Profession of the Shahada, prayer, the Hajj, Ramadan, and Zakah.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What are the core beliefs of Islam?
  • They are monotheism, the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the body, justice to the poor, judgment, and a sensual paradise in the next life for the saved.
  •  
  • What is the hejira?
  • It is the “flight” of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina because he was being persecuted by pagan rulers. It marks year one on the Muslim calendar (AH; “after the hejira”).
  •  
  • What is the relationship between throne and altar in Islam?
  • There is a unity between temporal and spiritual authority. As head of the military in Medina, Muhammad expanded the religion.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What is the diet of a Muslim?
  • Islam borrowed some prohibitions from Judaism; Muslims are not to eat pork or drink alcohol.
  •  
  • What do Muslims teach about fidelity within marriage?
  • Adultery is forbidden, though a man may have up to four wives.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What is the chief difference between Christian and Muslim art?
  • Muslims consider any depictions of the image of God or the human person to be a form of idolatry and thus prohibit them. Islamic cultures have developed intricate geometric shapes, stylized writing, and architecture as art forms. Christians, on the other hand, celebrate the depiction of human beings and God since human beings are made in the image of God and God became man, thereby giving an image of himself. Christian cultures have excelled in every art form.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
  •  
  • Complete the following table on the five pillars of Islam.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet for Islamic art and Islamic architecture to view some examples of Muslims’ creative achievements.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 15–18 (p. 210)
  • Practical Exercise 3 (p. 211)
  • Workbook Questions 54–79
  • Read “Jihad” through “Conclusion” (pp. 202–206)

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Free write for five minutes in response to the Key Idea for this lesson:
  • Muhammad founded a new, monotheistic religion based loosely on Judaism and Christianity.

4. The Rise of Islam (pp. 197–202)

  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Use the completed Graphic Organizer on page 201 to write a paragraph summarizing the five pillars of Islam.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • ANTICIPATORY SET
  •  
  • Discuss the following question:
  • Imagine you had founded a new religion, believed God wanted everyone to accept it, and persuaded everyone in your town to believe in it. What are some ways you could further expand your religion?

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • BASIC QUESTIONS
  • What is jihad? How did Islam threaten Christianity?
  • KEY IDEA
  • The concept of jihad, coupled with military might, caused Islam to spread rapidly, and Muslims conquered much Christian territory, threatening Europe.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What is jihad?
  • It is a Muslim holy war waged in the name of Allah against infidels. Muslims believe those who die fighting in a jihad will go straight to paradise where they will be met by virgins. Muhammad used jihad to defeat his foes in Mecca.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • How did Islam spread throughout the ancient world?
  • With an obligation to seek converts and wage jihad to destroy unbelievers—aided by a superb military—Islam quickly spread from India throughout the Middle East and North Africa to the Iberian Peninsula.
  •  
  • What effect did the spread of Islam have on Christian North Africa?
  • The Muslim conquest of North Africa effectively ended 600 years of vibrant Christianity.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What split did Islam undergo after the death of Muhammad?
  • Islam split into the Shiites, the party of Ali, and the Sunni, the party of the tradition.
  •  
  • What are the main characteristics of Sunni Muslims?
  • The Sunni, who constitute about 85% of all Muslims, accept the order of succession of the first four caliphs (successors) of Muhammad. They adhere to the doctrines and practices based on the traditions of Muhammad as interpreted by Muslim scholars.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • What are the main characteristics of Shiite Muslims?
  • The Shiites believe the chosen successor of Muhammad was his son-in-law and cousin, Ali. They believe the imam, the successor of Ali, is a spiritual and temporal leader, divinely appointed to judge humans. They are also mystical, emphasizing suffering, martyrdom, veneration of Ali, and praying at the tombs of Muslim prophets.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Search the Internet for information about the Battle of Badr. Discuss to synthesize what you have learned.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • FOCUS QUESTION
  •  
  • In what two European locations was the spread of Islam halted?
  • In the East Emperor Leo III defeated Muslims AD 717 and 740 attempting to take Constantinople. In the West after Spain had fallen, Charles Martel stopped the further spread of Islam into Europe at the Battle of Tours AD 732.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • FOCUS QUESTIONS
  •  
  • What likely would have happened had Europeans lost the battles in the previous question?
  • Muslims most likely would have conquered all of Europe, invading from the east and the south.
  •  
  • What did Muslims do when they had gained control of Jerusalem?
  • They sacked Jerusalem AD 638, cleared the Temple Mount, and built a mosque (the Dome of the Rock) on the site of the Jewish Temple.

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • GUIDED EXERCISE
  •  
  • Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:
  • How might the Jews have felt about the Dome of the Rock?

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT
  •  
  • Study Questions 19–22 (p. 210)
  • Practical Exercises 2, 4–5 (p. 211)
  • Workbook Questions 80–90

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • CLOSURE
  •  
  • Review the criteria for a just war (p. 76), and then discuss the following questions:
  • Were the Christians justified in fighting the Muslims?
  • Is the Muslim method to spread religion by the sword justified by the just war theory?

5. The Rise of Islam (continued) (pp. 202–206)

  • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT
  •  
  • Update your timeline with important events from this chapter.

THE END



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