Chapter 4 Neo-Analytic and Ego Aspects of Personality: Identity



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Chapter 4 Neo-Analytic and Ego Aspects of Personality: Identity
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) In childhood, Jung’s ability to take the perspective of a rock

A) disturbed him.

B) was displacement of phallic imaginings.

C) caused him to be diagnosed as mentally ill.

D) suggested to him that he might have more than one form of being.

E) led him to intense prayer.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


2) Jung believed that dreams and “visions”

A) were things that no healthy person would have.

B) should be stopped with the use of moderate electric shocks to the head.

C) were important communications from a paranormal realm.

D) were indicators of psychiatric problems.

E) were foolish signs of an uncontrolled superego.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood

3) Which of the following is NOT a division of the psyche, according to Jung?

A) The paraconscious

B) The personal unconscious

C) The collective unconscious

D) The conscious ego

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


4) Jung believed the “mind” is comprised of __________ parts.

A) five


B) four

C) two


D) three

E) six


Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


5) Which of the following thoughts or experiences might be found in the “personal unconscious”?

A) Joan has an exam to study for later this week, but has opted not to think about it until after Wednesday.

B) Emery had a fight with his girlfriend yesterday, but when surfing, he puts it out of his mind.

C) Neddie was sexually abused at the age of four, but has repressed the memory and doesn’t seem to remember the incident at all.

D) Tracy does not think about her grocery list while she is doing a math problem.

E) All of these would be found in the personal unconscious.

Answer: E

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


6) Archetypes are

A) valuable archaeological artifacts.

B) powerful emotional symbols rooted in our human history.

C) our beliefs about “god” as dictated by religion.

D) worthless copies of artifacts.

E) patterns of emotion or temperament.

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


7) The animus represents the __________, while the anima represents the __________.

A) female element of a man; male element of a woman

B) male element of a woman; animal element of a man

C) female element of a man; animal element of a woman

D) animal element of a man; animal element of a woman

E) male element of a woman; female element of a man

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


8) Little Evelyn was caught stealing by her mother. As she tried to defend herself, she said, “I didn’t mean to do it! My ‘evil twin’ took over.” Evelyn is invoking the __________ archetype.

A) shadow

B) anima

C) mother

D) hero

E) persona



Answer: A

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


9) According to Jung, the socially acceptable front that we present to others is called the

A) visage.

B) facade.

C) shadow.

D) hero.

E) persona.

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


10) A complex is a

A) phenomenon in which sexual problems may be reversed through catharsis.

B) specific, strongly held belief about male-female differences.

C) group of emotionally charged thoughts, feelings, and ideas about a theme.

D) specific, strongly held religious belief.

E) characteristic typically found in women but not men.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


11) Brian is struggling with himself. He’s always been a good student, but lately his grades have been slipping a little bit. He feels like he has nothing in common with those who were once close friends, and yet he doesn’t seem to “fit in” with any other crowd. He will be finishing his degree in history next year, but lately, he’s been wondering whether he really wants to be an historian (and he feels silly that he’s wasted so much valuable time on something that he might not even want to do for the rest of his life). His girlfriend wants to get married after graduation, and he had planned to give her a ring over winter break; however, lately he’s been feeling like marriage should wait. He wants to have time to explore the world and “discover” himself before settling down. Brian seems to have a(n)

A) superiority complex.

B) generativity complex.

C) identity crisis.

D) defeatist attitude (d-crisis).

E) ecological crisis.

Answer: C

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


12) Which of the following is NOT one of Jung’s proposed functions of the mind?

A) Feeling

B) Wishing

C) Intuiting

D) Thinking

E) Sensing

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


13) Jung described two major “attitudes,” which were

A) stability and warmth.

B) warmth and control.

C) extroversion and introversion.

D) neuroticism and stability.

E) extroversion and neuroticism.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


14) Jung believed there were __________ basic personality types.

A) 4


B) 16

C) 8


D) 12

E) 20


Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


15) Ken is a very outgoing person. He makes friends easily, jokes with others, and is gullible

(people love to play jokes on him because he is easily drawn into the game). Ken is also considered a good friend because he is a good listener and seems to truly feel what the other person is going through. Based on Jungian theory, Ken’s seems to have a __________

personality.

A) feeling extroverted

B) intuiting introverted

C) wishing extroverted

D) thinking introverted

E) sensing extroverted

Answer: A

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


16) A superiority complex is often a reaction to

A) being raised in a loving and supportive family.

B) getting an A on an exam.

C) a lack of education.

D) feelings of inferiority.

E) learning self-discipline.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


17) Adler’s primary difference with Freud concerned Adler’s

A) desire to be president of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society.

B) rejection of sexuality as the prime motivator.

C) creation of the Society for Free Psychoanalysis.

D) idea that human motivation was very simple.

E) overemphasis on childhood sexuality.

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


18) The concept of “masculine protest” describes

A) boys’ protestations against being taught to “hold in” their emotions.

B) the desire of girls to be societally equal with boys.

C) a desire to be physically dominant over other people.

D) individual striving for competence and independence.

E) girls’ desire to emulate their fathers rather than their mothers.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


19) Which of the following are among the social issues Adler believed everyone had to address?

A) Occupational tasks, societal tasks, and love tasks

B) Political tasks, societal tasks, love tasks

C) Political tasks, love tasks, and biological tasks

D) Occupational tasks, societal tasks, and biological tasks

E) Religious tasks, love tasks, and biological tasks

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


20) Adler’s typology was based on

A) social interest/activity level.

B) the four Greek humors, social interest level, and degree of activity.

C) Freud’s id, ego, and superego.

D) Freud’s id/ego/superego and social interest/activity level.

E) the four Greek humors.

Answer: B

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Analysis
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


21) The importance of birth order was discussed by

A) Horney.

B) Erikson.

C) Adler.

D) Jung.

E) Freud.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


22) Horney believed that what women really wanted was

A) a penis.

B) lots of sexual fulfillment.

C) children.

D) autonomy and control.

E) financial security.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


23) Which of the following is the set of Horney’s styles of adapting to the world?

A) Aggressive, passive, and withdrawn

B) Aggressive, loving, and withdrawn

C) Aggressive, optimistic, and passive

D) Open, loving, and optimistic

E) Loving, optimistic, and pessimistic

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


24) To Horney, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help the person

A) accept his or her “Real Self.”

B) achieve his or her “Ideal Self.”

C) to find his or her “Despised Self.”

D) overcome his or her “Real Self.”

E) become his or her “Mystical Self.”

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


25) Patrice thinks she is a failure. According to her assessment, her grades are bad, she is overweight, and she is unattractive. She also says she doesn’t have any friends. In reality, Patrice does have friends, her grades are fine, and she is an attractive, albeit a slightly plump, young woman. Horney would say that Patrice is over-identifying with her

A) Real Self.

B) Ideal Self.

C) Actual Self.

D) Negative Self.

E) Despised Self.

Answer: E

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


26) Someone who is “moving toward” people would exhibit which of the following behaviors?

A) Withdrawal of emotion

B) Initiating conflicts with others

C) Striving for power

D) Seeking to please others

E) Attempting to control others

Answer: D

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


27) “Basic anxiety” refers to

A) a child’s fear of being bullied and inferior to peers.

B) an adult’s fear of dying alone and with nobody to love them.

C) a child’s fear of being alone, hopeless, and insecure.

D) the fear of death and an endless struggle to escape it.

E) any fear that causes an individual’s heart to beat faster.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


28) Who has sometimes been called the “founder of ego psychology”?

A) White


B) Horney

C) Jung


D) Freud

E) Hartmann

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.4: Report the work done by Anna Freud and Heinz Hartmann on psychoanalysis

Concept/Topic: Anna Freud and Heinz Hartmann


29) Who of the following was an object relations theorist?

A) Jung


B) Erikson

C) Adler


D) Kohut

E) Mahler

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


30) Chris is two years old and well-adjusted. His attachment to his mother is healthy, and he is a happy child. Mahler would say that he is a __________ child.

A) symbiotic psychotic

B) symbiotic autistic

C) normal symbiotic

D) symbiotic miotic

E) optimal symbiotic

Answer: C

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


31) Who, in his therapy, often played the role of “therapist-qua-parent” in an attempt to help patients develop a healthy self-concept and overcome their narcissism?

A) Klein


B) White

C) Erikson

D) Kohut

E) Hartmann

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


32) A relational perspective suggests that

A) initial patterns of self-other relations influence our self-concepts and social relations later in life.

B) our self-concept early in life leads us to develop healthy or unhealthy relationships later in life.

C) our first romantic adult relationships shape our relationships with our children.

D) we usually look for a romantic partner who represents the opposite of our relationship with our mother.

E) being able to relate to a romantic partner is more important than attraction.

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


33) Erikson believed that the first crisis an individual must struggle with is

A) Industry versus Inferiority.

B) Trust versus Mistrust.

C) Initiative versus Guilt.

D) Identity versus Role Confusion.

E) Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt.

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


34) Eunice is a retired bookkeeper who is now miserable, although she experienced no particular hardships in her life. As she looks back on her life, she sees many things that she wishes she had done differently. For instance, she feels that her work was not a meaningful contribution to society, thinks her adult children don’t have good moral values, and regrets that she did not pursue higher education (she often thought about it, but somehow, things never worked out). Erikson would say that Eunice is experiencing the crisis of __________.

A) Identity versus Role Confusion

B) Trust versus Mistrust

C) Ego Integrity Versus Despair

D) Intimacy versus Isolation

E) Initiative versus Guilt

Answer: C

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


35) Erikson’s theory of development focuses on the idea that

A) one must recognize his or her own feelings.

B) increasing inner unity involves ego repression.

C) growth involves stages in which we resolve conflicts throughout life.

D) trust vs. mistrust develops in adolescence and strongly affects adulthood.

E) libidinal transformation is inferior to reinforcement.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


36) Erikson’s theory is unique and particularly well known for its focus on

A) the importance of identity.

B) continued development in adulthood.

C) the significance of life crisis for encouraging personal growth.

D) development over the life-span.

E) all of these.

Answer: E

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Evaluation
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


37) What is common to the following researchers: Emmons, Little, Cantor?

A) They all believe in a stage-theory approach to personality.

B) They all believe personality is fixed in childhood.

C) They all look at people’s goals as a way of understanding personality.

D) They all study nonverbal behavior as a way of understanding personality.

Answer: C

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Analysis


Learning Objective: LO 4.7: Express the modern approaches to identity

Concept/Topic: Modern Approaches to Identity


38) Who of the following has successfully negotiated Erikson’s stage of Intimacy vs. Isolation?

A) Jill spends a lot of time alone and says she is lonely and depressed.

B) Anthony is thinking of getting engaged to be married but is cheating on his future fiancée; he says she doesn’t understand him.

C) Nathan has a few close friends and just married the woman he has been dating for four years.

D) Tom has lots of friends, but isn’t yet too close to anyone.

E) Elizabeth isn’t sure who she is; with conflicting expectations from her parents and peers, it’s hard for her to sort everything out.

Answer: C

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


39) According to Jung, the collective unconscious consists of powerful emotional symbols called

A) functions.

B) egos.

C) complexes.

D) archetypes.

E) libido.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


40) Karen Horney believed that women often felt inferior to men because

A) they were being realistic and knew they were inferior.

B) they were focused on the collective unconscious idea of the Mother figure.

C) they were experiencing penis envy.

D) they were raised to see men as superior, and society overemphasized securing a man’s love.

E) she did not have an opinion on this topic, due to arguments by L. Hans.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


41) The theorist who expanded psychoanalytic theory to include the life-span was

A) Horney.

B) Erikson.

C) Jung.


D) Adler.

E) Cantor.

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


42) The concept of “basic anxiety” was formed by which theorist?

A) Freud


B) Funder

C) Jung


D) Adler

E) Horney

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


43) The stage at which an individual encounters the crisis of Trust Versus Mistrust is

A) old age.

B) middle childhood.

C) early adulthood.

D) middle adulthood.

E) infancy.

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


44) In neo-analytic theory, a child’s fear of being alone, helpless, and insecure, which arises from problems in relations with one’s parents (such as lack of warmth), is termed

A) basic anxiety.

B) anal mistrust.

C) learned helplessness.

D) temperamental sensitivity (reticular system).

E) inflexible locus of control.

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


45) According to Erikson, healthy development relates to the capacity of an individual to

A) successfully negotiate and progress through each of life’s ego crises.

B) remain free of neuroses and conflicts.

C) do well according to those who are significant to him.

D) do well in acquiring and retaining desired possessions.

E) avoid life crises.

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


46) An individual who is high in self-monitoring is likely to

A) focus on being consistent in behavior at all times.

B) believe that fate determines life circumstances.

C) be a poor actor.

D) maintain a situational orientation.

E) maintain a dispositional orientation.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.7: Express the modern approaches to identity

Concept/Topic: Modern Approaches to Identity


47) The theorist known for his theory of self-monitoring is

A) Brian Little.

B) Mark Snyder.

C) Erik Erikson.

D) Robert Emmons.

E) Jonathan Cheek.

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.7: Express the modern approaches to identity

Concept/Topic: Modern Approaches to Identity


48) James Pennebaker suggests that disclosing traumas in the form of __________ for 15 minutes a day can improve health.

A) yoga


B) talking out loud to oneself

C) writing a narrative

D) prayer

E) talking to a therapist

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.7: Express the modern approaches to identity

Concept/Topic: Modern Approaches to Identity


49) According to Jung, the mind is divided into three parts. These three parts are

A) the conscious ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious.

B) the conscience, the collective unconscious, and the personal ego.

C) the id, the ego, and the superego.

D) the id, the conscious, and the collective unconscious.

E) the collective ego, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious.

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


50) Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious differs from Freud’s concept of the unconscious in that

A) Jung believed that the unconscious was personal to each individual.

B) Jung’s theory of the unconscious was proven wrong by Freud.

C) Jung’s theory includes archetypes that are common to all people and were formed since the beginning of time.

D) Jung’s theory of the unconscious included separate sections for different aspects of life such as family, work, etc.

E) Jung was more modern than Freud.

Answer: C

Diff: Difficult

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Evaluation
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


51) The shadow archetype is best described as the

A) open, socially acceptable part of the personality.

B) broken, unfixed part of personality.

C) personality that comes out at night.

D) dark, socially unacceptable part of personality.

E) part of personality that is undefined.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


52) A complex, as described by Jung, is a(n)

A) archetype.

B) part of the personal unconscious.

C) group of associations between archetypes.

D) defense mechanism.

E) group of emotionally charged feelings related to a theme.

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood

53) Adler coined the term _______________ to encompass his theory of psychology.

A) Personal Psychology

B) Individual Psychology

C) Great Psychology

D) Adler’s Psychology

E) Collective Psychology

Answer: B

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


54) Adler’s theory of psychology focused on

A) each individual’s view of the world and the people he or she connects with.

B) the unconscious motivations toward pleasure and conscious motivations toward restraint.

C) the conscious controlling the unconscious.

D) unique motivations of individuals and the importance of each person’s perceived niche in society.

E) the importance of family and friends and how important relationships are in a person’s life.

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


55) A boy goes to math class every day and tries to understand the problems. Each day, he falls further and further behind the rest of the class as the problems get harder. Later in life, the boy is afraid of taking math classes and chooses a college major that requires the least amount of math. According to Adler, what has this boy developed?

A) Superiority complex

B) Identity crisis

C) Inferiority complex

D) Conditions of worth

E) Unconditional positive regard

Answer: C

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler

56) A woman who grew up being constantly ridiculed for her fashion choices now tells all her friends what to wear, what the latest fashion styles are, and how they should present themselves. Every opinion she has on fashion is right, and she is quick to defend herself and her arguments. According to Adler, this woman has developed a(n) ________ complex.

A) inferiority

B) superiority

C) ego-defensive

D) narcissistic

E) conditioned

Answer: B

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


57) Organ inferiority refers to the idea that

A) the brain is inferior to the body.

B) everyone has one bad organ that will fail.

C) everyone is born with some physical weakness.

D) the body is inferior because of organs.

E) everyone’s heart is inferior to the brain.

Answer: C

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


58) Karen Horney is known for her

A) rejection of the concept of penis envy.

B) concept of basic anxiety.

C) concept of the “Real Self” (our perceptions of the inner core of personality).

D) concept of the “Despised Self” (our perceptions of our own inferiority).

E) all of these.

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


59) In Horney’s view, a person who adapts to the world by being compliant has adopted a(n) ________ style of adaptation.

A) withdrawn

B) aggressive

C) lonely

D) passive

E) driven

Answer: D

Diff: Moderate

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


60) Which of the following characterizes Object Relations Theories?

A) Theories that have to do with how people relate to the material world

B) Theories that have to do with how people learn in school

C) Theories that have to do with how people cooperate with others in a group

D) Theories that have to do with psychic drives and the importance of relations with others in defining ourselves

E) Theories that have to do with how people react in stressful situations in which an object is the cause, i.e., a person’s computer breaks during a project

Answer: D

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


61) Erikson’s theory differed from Freud’s theory in that Erikson’s theory

A) extended development through adulthood.

B) ignored the childhood development process.

C) concentrated on how females developed.

D) only applied to adults.

E) came long before Freud’s theory.

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson

62) Erikson’s stage of Trust vs. Mistrust is best described as the

A) first stage, in which a baby learns to either trust or mistrust that his or her needs will be taken care of.

B) first stage, in which a baby trusts the mother and mistrusts the father.

C) second stage, in which a child learns to trust themselves and mistrust the world.

D) second stage, in which a child learns to either trust or mistrust his or her abilities.

E) last stage, in which a person either forms a trustful or mistrustful bond with a partner.

Answer: A

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


63) Erikson’s concept of an identity crisis refers to what?

A) Losing your memory due to emotional strain

B) Feelings of insecurity that lead to a person pretending to be someone he or she is not

C) A crisis that occurs after the true identity of a person emerges in a relationship

D) A failure to succeed in life

E) A failure to overcome an ego crisis, which results in one’s inability to know who he or she is, and the struggle to find out

Answer: E

Diff: Easy

Type: MC
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
64) According to Carl Jung, the personal __________ is the component of the mind that contains thoughts and feelings that are not currently part of conscious awareness.

Answer: unconscious

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


65) The __________ comprises a deep level of unconsciousness and is made up of powerful emotional symbols called __________ that are common across all people.

Answer: collective unconscious; archetypes

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


66) Jung categorized sensing, thinking, feeling, and intuiting as the __________.

Answer: four functions of the mind

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


67) According to Jung, people who are __________ direct their libido toward things in the external world, whereas people who are __________ are more inwardly focused.

Answer: extroverted; introverted

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


68) Alfred Adler stressed the unique motivations of individuals and the importance of each person’s perceived niche in society in his __________ Psychology.

Answer: Individual

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


69) According to Adler, when feelings of overwhelming helplessness and powerlessness that cause one to feel inferior become pervasive, a(n) __________ may develop.

Answer: inferiority complex

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


70) An individual struggling to overcome an inferiority complex might fabricate a(n) __________ as a way of maintaining a sense of self-worth.

Answer: superiority complex

Diff: Moderate

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Application


Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


71) In Adler’s theory, __________ inferiority is the idea that everyone is born with some physical weakness at which point incapacity and disease are most likely to take place, but the body attempts to make up for the deficiency in another area.

Answer: organ

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


72) The concept that an individual is driven to lash out against the inability to achieve or master something as a reaction to perceived helplessness is called __________ drive.

Answer: aggression

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


73) Adler created a(n) __________ using the Greek idea of the four __________, which he renamed as Ruling-Dominant, Getting-Leaning, Avoiding, and Socially Useful.

Answer: typology; humors

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


74) According to Karen Horney, __________ is a child’s fear of being alone, helpless, and insecure that arises from problems in the child’s relations with his or her parents.

Answer: basic anxiety

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


75) The neoanalytic approaches to personality that focus on the object of psychic drives and the importance of relations with other individuals in defining ourselves are sometimes called __________.

Answer: object relation theories

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


76) According to Margaret Mahler, __________ children form emotional ties that are so strong, they are unable to form a sense of self.

Answer: symbiotic psychotic

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


77) According to Margaret Mahler, children who formed normal ties with their mothers are __________ children who develop empathy and the sense of being a separate, but loving, person.

Answer: normal symbiotic

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


78) In Erikson’s stages of __________ formation, personality develops through a series of eight stages as life unfolds. He expanded Freud’s stages of development to include __________.

Answer: identity; adulthood (or life-span development)

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


79) According to Erikson, the confusion and uncertainty experienced during adolescence about one’s abilities, associations, and future goals is called a(n) __________.

Answer: identity crisis

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


80) Snyder’s concept of __________ involves self-observation and self-control guided by situational cues to the social appropriateness of behavior.

Answer: self-monitoring

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.7: Express the modern approaches to identity

Concept/Topic: Modern Approaches to Identity


81) According to Horney, the __________ Self is the inner core of personality that we perceive about ourselves, and the __________ Self is what we hope to achieve.

Answer: Real; Ideal

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


82) __________ Versus __________ is Erickson’s sixth stage of ego development (and where Erickson breaks totally new ground from Freud) in which young adults learn to interact on a deeper level with others.

Answer: Intimacy; Isolation

Diff: Easy

Type: SA
Bloom’s: Understanding


Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
83) Describe Jung’s idea of the collective unconscious. (What is it, where does it come from, what is its purpose?) How does this idea of Jung’s fit with modern personality theory?

Diff: Easy

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood


84) Describe Horney’s rejection of Freud’s idea of penis envy. What was her alternative explanation?

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Analysis
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


85) Briefly describe object relations theories. How are they different from traditional psychoanalytic theory? What do they have in common with psychoanalytic theory?

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Analysis
Learning Objective: LO 4.5: Analyze the object relations theories as propagated by different theorists

Concept/Topic: Object Relations Theories


86) List and briefly describe Erikson’s eight stages of development. Choose one and describe what would happen if this crisis was not successfully negotiated.

Diff: Easy

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


87) What does it mean to say that Erikson “emphasized a balanced outcome as optimal for each of these eight ego crises”?

Diff: Easy

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson


88) What is a “functionalist” approach to personality? How would a researcher like Snyder go about studying your personality and identity?

Diff: Easy

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.7: Express the modern approaches to identity

Concept/Topic: Modern Approaches to Identity


89) List and define four of Jung’s archetypes. Provide an example of how each archetype is present in modern culture.

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.1: Probe the development of the Carl Jung school of psychology as distinct from that of Freud

Concept/Topic: Carl G. Jung and Selfhood`


90) Describe Adler’s inferiority and superiority complexes. Discuss a situation that may lead to the development of each.

Diff: Moderate

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Application
Learning Objective: LO 4.2: Recognize the three fundamental social issues that need to be addressed as suggested by Alfred Adler

Concept/Topic: Alfred Adler


91) Define what Karen Horney meant by the Real Self, the Despised Self, and the Ideal Self. According to Horney, how should therapy address these different selves?

Diff: Easy

Type: ES
Bloom’s: Understanding
Learning Objective: LO 4.3: Describe Karen Horney’s theories on culture and feminism

Concept/Topic: Karen Horney


92) Describe at least two aspects of Erikson’s theory that make it unique. How does his theory differ from Freud’s? How is it similar?

Diff: Difficult



Type: ES
Bloom’s: Evaluation
Learning Objective: LO 4.6: Examine how identity formation is a lifelong process as propagated by Erik Erikson

Concept/Topic: Erik Erikson

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