Choose the single best answer to complete each statement.
___ 1. The second-century church grew and developed as it experienced
a. the peace and harmony of being politically correct
b. hostility from outside and conflict within
c. the Council of Lyons and the Council of Rome
d. internal conflicts over ordaining women
___ 2. Apologists are people who
a. use their considerable knowledge and education to defend the faith
b. convince people to undertake a life of severe discipline
c. use their powers of personality to form Christian cults
d. seek user-friendly ways to convince people to become Christian
___ 3. The two orders that evolved first in the church were
a. deacon and deaconess
b. bishop and pope
c. bishop and priest
d. deacon and bishop
___ 4. After the fall of Jerusalem, the church in Rome became central because
a. Peter lived and died there
b. Peter was traditionally seen as the head of the church
c. Rome was the imperial capital
d. all of the above
___ 5. The “peace of Rome” meant
a. citizens experienced untroubled harmony
b. the presence of surplus money and flourishing art and culture
c. a sense of order better than in any other area known at that time
d. an unfailing sense of justice for Roman citizens
___ 6. The Roman Empire’s intolerance of Christianity occurred partially because
a. the empire faced severe threats from the barbarians invading from the north
b. the empire was feeling otherwise strong and capable
c. unpatriotic literature was spread due to the invention of the printing press
d. the empire was facing invasions from northern Africa and Australia
___ 7. Christians were regarded as disloyal citizens because of their refusal to
a. pay interest on Roman loans
b. offer sacrifices to Roman gods
c. participate in the Olympic games
d. do the labor expected of lower-class citizens
___ 8. The pacifism of early Christian citizens of Rome was regarded as
c. a point of public pride
d. a badge of honor
___ 9. Apostates were people who
a. joined the Apostles in Jerusalem
b. renounced their faith
c. didn’t pay taxes
d. preceded the Apostles
___ 10. The Edict of Milan
a. was ordered by the repentant Nero
b. made Christianity the only religion allowed
c. made Christianity a legal religion
d. was the first of the plagues to sweep Europe
___ 11. Emperor Theodosius did the following:
a. made paganism illegal
b. allowed only Christians to serve in the army
c. made Christianity the official religion of the empire
d. all of the above
___ 12. A belief that is contrary to an essential belief of Christianity is called
a. a Gnostic
b. an apostasy
d. a heresy
___ 13. To the Gnostics, salvation
a. was available to all people of goodwill
b. could be achieved only by superhuman effort
c. was impossible and not worth seeking
d. was given only by special privilege to Gnostics
___ 14. Challenges to Christian belief
a. were avoided at all costs
b. were put down by edicts delivered by the pope
c. helped Christians clarify their own belief
d. were hidden as much as possible from the faithful
___ 15. The Council of Nicaea declared that Arianism was a heresy because it was inconsistent with
a. the Edict of Milan
b. the Gospel according to Peter
c. the preaching of Arius
d. the church’s traditional understanding of Jesus
___ 16. The Nicene Creed states that Jesus
a. is one with God
b. was made by God
c. is head of the angels
d. is second to Mary, the mother of God
___ 17. Women were seldom prominent figures in the early history of the church in part because
a. women’s writings were suppressed by Theodosius
b. only men held powerful and public positions
c. women were not interested in the public welfare
d. women voted not to participate in government
Identify the descriptions below with these issues:
a. Arianism b. apostasy c. Gnosticism d. pacifism
Write the letter of the issue in the blank before the description it identifies. You will
use each issue more than once.
___ 18. The renunciation of one’s Christian faith
___ 19. Relatively consistent view of early Christianity toward war
___ 20. Viewed by Romans as a failure to carry out a patriotic duty
___ 21. Denial of Christ’s divinity
___ 22. Denial of Christ’s humanity
___ 23. Held that salvation was the privilege of the few
___ 24. Could be forgiven after public penance
___ 25. Athanasius wrote and spoke strongly and clearly against this heresy
___ 26. Condemned by the Council of Nicaea
___ 27. Led to the formulation of the Apostles’ Creed
___ 28. Theodosius’s declaration reversed this early church tradition
Identify the descriptions below with the appropriate persons. Write the letter of the correct person in the blank before the description. You will use some of the persons more than once.
d. Ignatius of Antioch
___ 29. Persecuted Christians in a consistent, efficient manner
___ 30. Originated the heresy that Jesus was not truly divine
___ 31. Bishop who was taken to Rome to face his martyrdom
___ 32. Slave who was martyred in Lyons
___ 33. Early apologist and martyr
___ 34. Claimed a great military victory in the name of Christ, the Son of God
___ 35. Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire
___ 36. Was the son of Helena, a Christian
___ 37. Eloquently argued against the Arian heresy
___ 38. Opposed Gnosticism
___ 39. Issued the Edict of Milan
True or False
___ 40. The second century marked the beginning of the slow but sure decline of the Roman Empire.
___ 41. Deviation from the official Roman religion was seen as a threat to the well-being of the empire.
___ 42. Romans viewed Christianity as a patriotic movement.
___ 43. Persecution of Christians lasted on and off for about two hundred years.
___ 44. Initially, bishops headed single, relatively small churches.
___ 45. Because Emperor Diocletian had Christian relatives, he was tolerant of Christianity.
___ 46. Christians who offered sacrifices to idols were guilty of apostasy.
___ 47. The church agreed wholeheartedly that apostates should never be allowed to be Christian again.
___ 48. An apostates’s performance of public penance and participation in a rite of re-entry into the church were the roots of what came to be known as the sacrament of reconciliation.
___ 49. Byzantium, or “new Rome,” was eventually named Constantinople.
___ 50. Diocletian moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium because that is where the population of the empire was concentrated.
___ 51. Constantine believed in the separation of church and state.
___ 52. The Gnostics held that because the body is evil, Jesus could not have been human.
___ 53. The Arians held that Jesus was subordinate to God.
___ 54. The Nicene Creed has been an important definition of membership in the Christian church for over sixteen hundred years.
___ 55. Heresies concern any points of theological disagreement within the church.
___ 56. Only Arian bishops used military force to put down those who disagreed with them.
___ 57. Athanasius wrote, “Jesus is related to God as brightness is to light”.
___ 58. Philosophical terms were used in the fourth century to help explain the faith of the church.
___ 59. The complexities of the church’s relationship with civil government, which began with Constantine, no longer affect the church today.
side of the Romans and offer your arguments for the suppression of Christianity.
2. Discuss the positive and negative consequences of the acceptance and tolerance of
Christianity as a legal religion.
3. Explain how heresies develop and how the church deals with them. Use a heresy such as
Arianism or Gnosticism as an example in your explanation.
1. Discuss a political issue that is currently debated in contemporary society and that has
religious or moral overtones. Give your reasoned view about whether the church has intruded
into the deliberations of the government or the government has interfered with the church’s
independence. You might consider life issues, the power of specific religions or
denominations in certain regions of the United States, or government use of religion to
further its own needs.
2. Explore the place of women in the second- through fourth-century church. List any