Chapter 3: intoduction to statistics the Statistical Process

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The Statistical Process

Plan the Investigation: What? How? Who? Where? Collect the Sample


3.1 Introduction


  • A field of study which implies collecting, presenting, analyzing and interpreting data as a basis for explanation, description and comparison.

  • used to analyze the results of surveys and as a tool in scientific research to make decisions based on controlled experiments.

  • Also useful for operations, research, quality control, estimation and prediction.

Population: a collection, or set of individuals or objects or events whose properties are to be analyzed.

Sample: a group of subjects selected from the population. Sample is a subset of a population.

Data: consist a set of recorded observations or values. Any quantity that can have a number of values is variable. Variables whose values are determined by chance are called random variables.

Data set: a collection of data values. Each value in the data set is called a data value or a datum.

Variable: a characteristics or attribute that can assume different values.

A statistical exercise normally consists of 4 stages:

  1. Collection of data by counting or measuring.

  2. Ordering and presentation of the data in a convenient form.

  3. Analysis of the collected data.

  4. Interpretation of the results and conclusions formulated.

3.1.1 Two branches of Statistics

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