Chapter 2 Biological Foundations of Behavior multiple choice



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ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: The Nervous System: Your Body’s Information Superhighway

OBJ: 5-Describe the organization of the nervous system and functions of its parts.

TOP: MOD: 2.2 KEY: Apply | Define/Describe MSC: applied
70. What are the two subdivisions of the autonomic nervous system?

a.

The central and the peripheral nervous systems

b.

The sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems

c.

The voluntary and involuntary nervous systems

d.

The somatic and the peripheral nervous systems

e.

The brain and the spinal cord

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: The Nervous System: Your Body’s Information Superhighway

OBJ: 5-Describe the organization of the nervous system and functions of its parts.

TOP: MOD: 2.2 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual
71. The sympathetic nervous system does all of the following EXCEPT:

a.

increase heart rate.

b.

release glucose.

c.

increase respiration.

d.

draw stored energy from bodily reserves.

e.

promote digestion.

ANS: E PTS: 1

REF: The Nervous System: Your Body’s Information Superhighway

OBJ: 5-Describe the organization of the nervous system and functions of its parts.

TOP: MOD: 2.2 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: factual


72. The ______________ speeds up bodily processes and the _____________ slows them down.

a.

peripheral nervous system; central nervous system

b.

sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system

c.

autonomic nervous system; peripheral nervous system

d.

parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system

e.

peripheral nervous system; autonomic nervous system

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: The Nervous System: Your Body’s Information Superhighway

OBJ: 5-Describe the organization of the nervous system and functions of its parts.

TOP: MOD: 2.2 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual

NOT: WWW
73. The part of the nervous system that allows you to perceive the world around you is the:



a.

autonomic nervous system.

b.

perceptual nervous system.

c.

somatic nervous system.

d.

sympathetic nervous system.

e.

parasympathetic nervous system.

ANS: C PTS: 1

REF: The Nervous System: Your Body’s Information Superhighway

OBJ: 5-Describe the organization of the nervous system and functions of its parts.

TOP: MOD: 2.2 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
74. The brain has ______ major parts and they are called the ______.

a.

four; frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes

b.

two; sympathetic and parasympathetic regions

c.

three; amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus

d.

three; hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

e.

three; medulla, pons, and cerebellum

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


75. Which of the following is NOT part of the hindbrain?

a.

Cerebellum

b.

Reticular formation

c.

Medulla

d.

Pons

e.

Brainstem core

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify | Evaluate/Explain MSC: factual


76. During the past hour, nine-month-old Heather has engaged in each of the following actions. Which action was NOT controlled by her medulla?

a.

Her heart beat accelerated after her older brother shouted “Boo!”

b.

She coughed as some mucus ran down her throat.

c.

She swallowed the saliva in her mouth.

d.

She smiled when she saw the wind move her mobile.

e.

She sneezed after breathing in some dust particles.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: applied NOT: WWW
77. Trina has recently been having trouble staying awake throughout the day. Which area of Trina's brain is related to her difficulty?

a.

Cerebellum

b.

Pons

c.

Medulla

d.

Cerebrum

e.

Hippocampus

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied


78. Which part of the brain controls balance and coordination?

a.

Cerebrum

b.

Cerebellum

c.

Pons

d.

Medulla

e.

Thalamus

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


79. The fact that alcohol often causes problems with balance and coordination suggests that it may have an effect on the:

a.

cerebrum.

b.

corpus callosum.

c.

cerebellum.

d.

thalamus.

e.

reticular formation.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify | Evaluate/Explain MSC: conceptual


80. Regarding the midbrain, which of the following statements is TRUE?

a.

The midbrain plays an important role in the regulation of memory and emotions.

b.

The midbrain is the oldest part of the brain in evolutionary terms.

c.

The midbrain helps to keep the eyes focused when the head moves.

d.

The midbrain contains the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.

e.

The midbrain is the largest part of the brain.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: factual
81. Brianna, a new mother, is able to sleep through the noise of her husband watching a boxing match on TV. However, as soon as the baby wakes up and gives a little cry, Brianna wakes up. The part of the brain that filters out the TV noise but allows her to hear the baby's cry, even in her sleep, is the:

a.

basal ganglia.

b.

hypothalamus.

c.

amygdala.

d.

reticular formation.

e.

hippocampus.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied


82. Which of the following is NOT a function of the reticular formation?

a.

Connects the hindbrain with the forebrain

b.

Regulates attention

c.

Regulates arousal

d.

Controls heartbeat

e.

Screens irrelevant visual and auditory information

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: factual
83. The forebrain contains all of the following structures EXCEPT the:

a.

thalamus.

b.

basal ganglia.

c.

hypothalamus.

d.

amygdala.

e.

cerebellum.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: factual
84. Which is a cluster of nerve cells that plays a key role in regulating voluntary movement such as walking?

a.

Basal ganglia

b.

Medulla

c.

Reticular formation

d.

Limbic system

e.

Thalamus

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


85. Which brain structure is best described as a "relay station"?

a.

Hypothalamus

b.

Thalamus

c.

Basal ganglia

d.

Limbic system

e.

Cerebellum

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: conceptual


86. All of the following senses are routed through the thalamus EXCEPT:

a.

touch.

b.

taste.

c.

smell.

d.

vision.

e.

hearing.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify | Evaluate/Explain MSC: factual


87. Which brain structure regulates such bodily functions as thirst and hunger, fluid concentrations, and body temperature?

a.

Reticular formation

b.

Hippocampus

c.

Thalamus

d.

Medulla

e.

Hypothalamus

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


88. Damage to the hypothalamus might result in which of the following behaviors?

a.

Excessive eating

b.

Jerky muscle movement

c.

Increased sexual desire

d.

Impulsivity

e.

Falling down

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: applied


89. Regarding the limbic system, which of the following statements is TRUE?

a.

It is located in the midbrain.

b.

It regulates hunger and thirst.

c.

It includes the basal ganglia.

d.

It plays a role in emotional processing and memory.

e.

It is important in controlling balance and coordination.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: factual
90. After a motorcycle accident in which she wasn't wearing a helmet, Vanessa has difficulty responding emotionally to unpleasant stimuli. Vanessa most likely experienced damage to which brain structure?

a.

Medulla

b.

Amygdala

c.

Thalamus

d.

Hippocampus

e.

Cerebellum

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied


91. The ___________ is located just behind the amygdala and can be described as playing an important role in the formation of memories.

a.

hypothalamus

b.

thalamus

c.

hippocampus

d.

cerebellum

e.

pons

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


92. The cerebral cortex accounts for approximately what percentage of the brain's total mass?

a.

25%

b.

40%

c.

50%

d.

80%

e.

90%

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
93. What is the thin, outer layer of the cerebrum called?

a.

Corpus callosum

b.

Cerebral cortex

c.

Basal ganglia

d.

Reticular formation

e.

Forebrain

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


94. Which of the following describes the corpus callosum?

a.

It is the thin outer layer of the cerebrum.

b.

It links the brain and the peripheral nervous system.

c.

It consists of four parts: the occipital, parietal, frontal, and temporal lobes.

d.

It consists of the left and right hemisphere.

e.

It is the connection between the two cerebral hemispheres.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual


95. Regarding the organization of the cerebral cortex and cerebrum, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a.

The cerebral cortex is divided into four parts, with the occipital and parietal lobes in the right hemisphere and the frontal and temporal lobes in the left hemisphere.

b.

In general, each of the cerebral hemispheres controls feeling and movement on the opposite side of the body.

c.

The cerebral hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum.

d.

The cerebrum consists of two large masses, called the left and right hemispheres.

e.

The cerebral cortex forms the thin, outer layer of the largest part of the forebrain, the cerebrum.

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: factual
96. In the cerebral cortex, ________ is to vision as ________ is to hearing.

a.

occipital; parietal

b.

temporal; frontal

c.

frontal; parietal

d.

parietal; temporal

e.

occipital; temporal

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify | Evaluate/Explain MSC: conceptual


97. Which lobe processes information related to touch and body movement?

a.

Occipital

b.

Temporal

c.

Parietal

d.

Frontal

e.

Cerebral

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: conceptual


98. Damage to which portion of the cerebral cortex would most likely interfere with a person's hearing?

a.

Temporal lobe

b.

Occipital lobe

c.

Parietal lobe

d.

Association cortex

e.

Somatosensory cortex

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: factual


99. After a car accident, Brandon lost some of his visual abilities. Which portion of Brandon's cerebral cortex was probably damaged in the accident?

a.

Somatosensory lobe

b.

Temporal lobe

c.

Parietal lobe

d.

Frontal lobe

e.

Occipital lobe

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied

NOT: WWW
100. Which lobe processes somatosensory information?

a.

Occipital

b.

Frontal

c.

Temporal

d.

Parietal

e.

Cerebral

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


101. Following brain damage, Takami cannot feel stimulation of her arms. She probably suffered damage to which portion of the brain?

a.

Frontal lobe

b.

Parietal lobe

c.

Temporal lobe

d.

Occipital lobe

e.

Corpus callosum

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied


102. Which of the following statements is TRUE about the frontal cortex?

a.

It processes information related to hot and cold temperature.

b.

It contains the somatosensory cortex.

c.

It processes auditory information.

d.

It can be described as containing "you."

e.

It is involved in processing visual stimuli.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Define/Describe | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: conceptual
103. Which part of the forebrain is sometimes described as the “executive center” and can be likened to the central processing unit of a computer?

a.

Frontal lobes

b.

Temporal lobes

c.

Cerebral lobes

d.

Parietal lobes

e.

Occipital lobes

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: conceptual


104. The majority of the cerebral cortex is made up of the _______________.

a.

frontal lobes

b.

parietal lobes

c.

corpus callosum

d.

association areas

e.

occipital lobes

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


105. Which part of the brain is best described as responsible for piecing together sensory input to form meaningful perceptions of the world?

a.

Frontal lobes

b.

Association areas

c.

Temporal lobes

d.

Parietal lobes

e.

Occipital lobes

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory

OBJ: 6-Identify major brain structures/Describe their organization and role in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.3 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


106. Sonal is at a brain research center, participating in a study. She is hooked up to a machine that measures electrical activity in her brain through the use of electrodes attached to her scalp. Which technique is the researcher using with Sonal?

a.

Computed tomography

b.

Electroencephalography

c.

Positron emission tomography

d.

Magnetic resonance imagery

e.

Lesioning

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied


107. Which technique can best be described as taking snapshots of the brain in action?

a.

Computed tomography

b.

Electroencephalography

c.

CT scan

d.

Magnetic resonance imagery

e.

Functional magnetic resonance imagery

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


108. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans work by:

a.

measuring the reflection of a narrow X-ray beam as it passes through the brain.

b.

tracing the amount of glucose used in different parts of the brain.

c.

measuring the signals emitted by the brain when placed in a strong magnetic field.

d.

destroying parts of the brain to observe the effects on behavior.

e.

using mild electrical currents to observe the effects of stimulating parts of the brain.

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual

NOT: WWW
109. Which technique can best be described as using measurement of radioactive isotopes to evaluate the activity of the brain?

a.

Electroencephalography

b.

Computerized tomography

c.

Lesioning

d.

Magnetic resonance imaging

e.

Positron emission tomography

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


110. To see whether Jay's headaches were caused by a tumor, Dr. Ariton passed an X-ray beam through Jay's head from different angles to produce a three-dimensional image. Dr. Ariton was using which imaging technique?

a.

Electroencephalography

b.

Computerized tomography

c.

Lesioning

d.

Magnetic resonance imaging

e.

Positron emission tomography

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied


111. Which technique has helped scientists understand why people cannot tickle themselves?

a.

Functional MRI

b.

MRI

c.

PET scan

d.

EEG

e.

Lesioning

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


112. Scientists were able to discover how individual neurons in the visual cortex respond to particular types of visual stimuli using which experimental method?

a.

Electrical recording

b.

Electrical stimulation

c.

Lesioning

d.

PET scan

e.

Computed topography scanning

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


113. A lesion is:

a.

an electrode that is placed in the brain to stimulate neurons.

b.

an electrode that is placed in the brain to record neural activity.

c.

damage in the tissue of the brain.

d.

a doughnut-shaped device used to produce an image of the brain.

e.

an image generated by a PET scan.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual
114. Electrical stimulation involves:

a.

applying electrical shocks to the brain to treat extreme cases of depression.

b.

using electricity to destroy brain tissue to observe effects on behavior.

c.

placing electrodes in brain tissue to record changes in electrical activity in response to certain stimuli.

d.

attaching electrodes to the scalp to measure electrical currents in the brain.

e.

passing a mild electric current through certain parts of the brain to determine their functions.

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual


115. Lesioning is:

a.

removing a section of brain tissue to determine its functions..

b.

stimulating a section of brain tissue to determine its functions.

c.

imaging a section of brain tissue to determine its functions.

d.

destroying a section of brain tissue to determine its functions.

e.

radiating a section of brain tissue to determine its functions.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: Methods of Studying the Brain

OBJ: 7-Identify and describe methods to study workings of the brain.

TOP: MOD: 2.4 KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual


116. Of the following people, who is most likely to be relying primarily on the use of the right hemisphere?

a.

Anthony, who is giving a speech

b.

Becca, who is reading a book

c.

Clarita, who is writing a story

d.

Jamal, who is performing math computations

e.

Dominic, who is listening to music

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

OBJ: 8-Explain how the two halves of the brain differ in their functions.

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: applied

NOT: WWW
117. Scientists use the term __________ to describe the division of functions between the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

a.

all-or-none principle

b.

plasticity

c.

split-brain

d.

handedness

e.

lateralization

ANS: E PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
118. All of the following are areas of right-hemisphere dominance EXCEPT:

a.

understanding spatial relationships.

b.

recognizing faces.

c.

solving problems.

d.

interpreting gestures.

e.

expressing emotion.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

OBJ: 8-Explain how the two halves of the brain differ in their functions.

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Evaluate/Explain MSC: factual


119. Regarding handedness and language dominance, which of the following statements is TRUE?

a.

Among the majority of right-handed people, the right hemisphere is dominant for language.

b.

Among the majority of left-handed people, the right hemisphere is dominant for language.

c.

The right hemisphere is dominant for language among right-handed people, and the left hemisphere is dominant for language among left-handed people.

d.

About 15 percent of left-handed people show a pattern of mixed dominance.

e.

Compared to right-handed people, left-handed people are more likely to be left-hemisphere dominant.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

OBJ: 8-Explain how the two halves of the brain differ in their functions.

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Evaluate/Explain MSC: factual


120. Broca's area is located in the ________ lobe, and Wernicke's area is located in the ________ lobe.

a.

left frontal; left temporal

b.

left frontal; right frontal

c.

right frontal; left temporal

d.

right frontal; right temporal

e.

right temporal; left temporal

ANS: A PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
121. As a result of the car accident, two friends sustained a brain injury. Patrick had significant damage in his Broca's area, whereas Angelo had significant damage in his Wernicke's area. Consequently, Patrick was unable to ________, and Angelo was unable to ________.

a.

use his left hand; use his right hand

b.

think clearly; express emotions

c.

speak; understand speech

d.

dance; sing

e.

write; read

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied
122. Regarding handedness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a.

Prenatal hormones, genetics, and social factors all influence the development of handedness.

b.

Males are more likely than females to be left-handed.

c.

About 95% of fetuses suck their right thumbs.

d.

When one parent is left-handed and one parent is right-handed, the chances of their offspring being left-handed are 1 in 2.

e.

Forcing a child to switch to his or her non-dominant hand can cause the child to develop emotional problems.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Evaluate/Explain MSC: factual
123. Split-brain patients are the result of an operation that severs the:

a.

cerebrum.

b.

cerebellum.

c.

corpus callosum.

d.

cortex.

e.

reticular formation.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
124. In a split-brain research study, what will happen when a pencil is presented in the patient's visual field?

a.

The patient will be able to pick out the pencil from a group of objects, but not be able to say "pencil" regardless of which visual field the pencil is presented to.

b.

The patient will be able to say "pencil," but will not be able to pick out the pencil from a group of objects regardless of which visual field the pencil is presented to.

c.

The patient will be able to say "pencil" when the pencil is presented to the right visual field, but not when it is presented to the left visual field.

d.

The patient will be able to say "pencil" when the pencil is presented to the left visual field, but not when it is presented to the right visual field.

e.

The patient will be able to pick out the pencil from a group of objects, but will not be able to say "pencil" when the pencil is presented to the right visual field.

ANS: C PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

OBJ: 8-Explain how the two halves of the brain differ in their functions.

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: factual

NOT: WWW
125. Phineas Gage showed severe personality changes following an accident that damaged his:

a.

temporal cortex.

b.

hypothalamus.

c.

hippocampus.

d.

prefrontal cortex.

e.

cerebellum.

ANS: D PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
126. __________ is the brain's ability to adapt and reorganize itself following trauma or surgical alteration.

a.

Aphasia

b.

Plasticity

c.

Biofeedback

d.

Concordance

e.

Depolarization

ANS: B PTS: 1 REF: The Divided Brain: Specialization of Functioning

TOP: MOD: 2.5 KEY: Identify MSC: factual
127. Annabelle was experiencing disturbances in her sleep-wake cycles. This may be due to dysregulation of the hormone, ________, which is secreted by the ________ gland.

a.

ACTH; pituitary

b.

melatonin; pineal

c.

epinephrine; thyroid

d.

ACTH; pancreas

e.

melatonin; hypothalamus

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System

OBJ: 9-Apply knowledge of the endocrine system to the roles of hormones in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.6 KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: applied
128. The hormone ________ is to the pituitary gland as the hormone ________ is to the pancreas.

a.

ACTH; oxytocin

b.

oxytocin; insulin

c.

insulin; norepinephrine

d.

norepinephrine; melatonin

e.

melatonin; ACTH

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System

TOP: MOD: 2.6 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


129. The male sex hormones are produced by the ________, and female sex hormones are produced by the ________. Collectively, these glands are called the __________.

a.

testes; ovaries; gonads

b.

ovaries; testes; gonads

c.

testes, ovaries; adrenals

d.

adrenals; ovaries; testes

e.

testes; adrenals; gonads

ANS: A PTS: 1

REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System

TOP: MOD: 2.6 KEY: Identify MSC: factual


130. Jake’s coach noticed that Jake had significantly increased his muscle mass and was extremely irritable and belligerent in recent months. He suspected that Jake was injecting anabolic steroids, a synthetic form of which hormone?

a.

Insulin

b.

Melatonin

c.

Testosterone

d.

Progesterone

e.

Estrogen

ANS: C PTS: 1

REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System

OBJ: 9-Apply knowledge of the endocrine system to the roles of hormones in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.6 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied

NOT: WWW
131. Charlize is excessively anxious and irritable and has been losing weight. Charlize probably has an excess of which type of hormone?



a.

Thyroid

b.

Melatonin

c.

ACTH

d.

Insulin

e.

Cortical steroids

ANS: A PTS: 1

REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System

OBJ: 9-Apply knowledge of the endocrine system to the roles of hormones in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.6 KEY: Apply | Identify MSC: applied
132. Ella is experiencing premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Which of the following statements about her is FALSE?

a.

Ella is in a majority group: 75% of all women experience some form of PMS.

b.

Ella’s bloating and irritability are symptoms of her PMS.

c.

Ella has an imbalance of hormones—either too little estrogen or too little progesterone.

d.

Ella’s PMS may be influenced by what her culture teaches her about menstruation.

e.

Ella may be experiencing some disturbances in the functioning of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

ANS: C PTS: 1

REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System

OBJ: 9-Apply knowledge of the endocrine system to the roles of hormones in behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.6 KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: applied

NOT: WWW
133. Which of the following is the best definition of genotype?



a.

Structures in a cell's nucleus that house a person's genes

b.

Observable physical and behavioral characteristics

c.

A trait influenced by multiple genes interacting in complex ways

d.

The basic unit of heredity that contains a person's genetic material

e.

An organism's genetic code

ANS: E PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture TOP: MOD: 2.7

KEY: Define/Describe MSC: factual


134. Which of the following types of studies have been used to demonstrate that there is likely a genetic component to schizophrenia?

a.

Sibling study

b.

Adoptee study

c.

Twin study

d.

Fraternal Twin study

e.

Familial association study

ANS: C PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture TOP: MOD: 2.7

KEY: Identify MSC: factual


135. Which type of study provides the clearest way to address the nature-nurture question?

a.

Twin study

b.

Adoptee study

c.

Split-brain study

d.

Familial association study

e.

Human genome study

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 10-Identify and describe scientific methods used to study roles of genes and environment in behavior. TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Identify | Evaluate/Explain

MSC: conceptual NOT: WWW
136. Dr. Werner theorized that people inherit their sense of humor. Therefore, she did a twin study and found that 70 percent of identical twins received similar scores for humor, whereas only 30 percent of fraternal twins did. Those numbers represent:

a.

genotypes.

b.

concordance rates.

c.

plasticity rates.

d.

lateralization rates.

e.

releasing factors.

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 10-Identify and describe scientific methods used to study roles of genes and environment in behavior. TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Apply | Identify

MSC: applied
137. Twenty-three-year-old Thomas has schizophrenia. Familial association studies suggest that which of Thomas's relatives is most likely also to have schizophrenia?

a.

One of his parents

b.

One of his grandparents

c.

His older sibling

d.

His dizygotic twin

e.

His monozygotic twin

ANS: E PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 11-Evaluate the influence of genetics on personality and behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: applied

NOT: WWW
138. According to research examining the relationship between genetics and shyness (Reiss et al., 2000), parents who are overprotective of a shy child may:



a.

accentuate the child’s shyness.

b.

minimize the child’s shyness.

c.

see the child outgrow his/her natural shyness over time.

d.

also have outgoing children who tend to dominate the shy child.

e.

have relatively little influence on the child’s genetically determined shyness.

ANS: A PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 11-Evaluate the influence of genetics on personality and behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Evaluate/Explain MSC: conceptual
139. A landmark study of monozygotic twins separated at birth and those reared together revealed a high level of similarity among the twins across a range of personality traits (Tellegen et al, 1988). This would indicate that:

a.

genetics and environment play an equal role in the development of personality.

b.

environment plays a significant role in personality development.

c.

genetics plays a significant role in personality development.

d.

the study was flawed; there should have been personality differences in the twins reared apart.

e.

the study was flawed; there should have been 100% concordance in the twins raised together.

ANS: C PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 11-Evaluate the influence of genetics on personality and behavior.

TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Evaluate/Explain MSC: conceptual
140. A familial association study is used to determine the:

a.

degree of environmental similarity between twins raised apart.

b.

extent to which adopted children share the same characteristics as their adoptive parents.

c.

extent to which the same disorders or traits are shared among family members.

d.

extent to which family members have different traits or characteristics.

e.

extent to which family members participate in shared activities.

ANS: C PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 10-Identify and describe scientific methods used to study roles of genes and environment in behavior. TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Define/Describe

MSC: conceptual
141. In a twin study, an investigator compares concordance rates of fraternal and identical twins. A concordance rate is best described as the:

a.

degree of genetic similarity between the twins.

b.

degree of environmental similarity between the twins.

c.

degree to which twins resemble their parents.

d.

percentage of shared traits or disorders.

e.

percentage of genetic overlap.

ANS: D PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 10-Identify and describe scientific methods used to study roles of genes and environment in behavior. TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Define/Describe

MSC: conceptual
142. Adoptee studies describe efforts to:

a.

examine similarity between adopted children and non-adopted children.

b.

examine similarity between adopted children and their biological or adoptive parents.

c.

measure the genetic similarity between adopted children.

d.

assess the extent to which adopted children share similar characteristics as non-adopted children raised in the same household.

e.

examine differences similarity between adopted children and the general population.

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: Genes and Behavior: A Case of Nature and Nurture

OBJ: 10-Identify and describe scientific methods used to study roles of genes and environment in behavior. TOP: MOD: 2.7 KEY: Define/Describe

MSC: conceptual
143. Dr. Asha Bombay is interested in the use of brains scans for selecting job applicants. Based on the text, which of the following research is most relevant to her work?

a.

Researchers have identified memory circuits in the human brain that help them remember how to perform certain tasks.

b.

Researchers have been able to differentiate between extroverts and neurotics by monitoring their reactions to proposed work tasks.

c.

Researchers found that activation in a particular area of the prefrontal cortex was a reliable predictor of how well subjects performed work tasks.

d.

Researchers have been able to detect ADHD through brain scans, which can be used to weed out job applicants who are impulsive and distractible.

e.

Researchers have explored how brain activation patterns in response to positive and negative images reveal which individuals are better suited for particular tasks.

ANS: E PTS: 1

REF: Looking Under the Hood: Scanning the Human Brain

OBJ: 12-Apply knowledge of brain scanning techniques. TOP: MOD: 2.8

KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: applied NOT: WWW
144. As discussed in the text, which of the following have researchers demonstrated through the use of brain scans?

a.

Identified memory circuits in the human brain that hold life experiences

b.

Found that activation of a particular area of the prefrontal cortex while people watched a public service announcement on sunscreen use predicted their actual sunscreen use

c.

Installed a brain scan facility at a major corporate location to allow for a more scientifically precise selection of executives

d.

Blocked the dopamine receptors of compulsive shoppers to dull the pleasure they receive from spending money

e.

Set up fMRI equipment in federal government offices to use as reliable lie detectors for those applying for sensitive government positions

ANS: B PTS: 1

REF: Looking Under the Hood: Scanning the Human Brain

OBJ: 12-Apply knowledge of brain scanning techniques. TOP: MOD: 2.8

KEY: Apply | Evaluate/Explain MSC: conceptual
145. How might brain scans be useful for clinical psychologists in the near future?

a.

By helping to determine how much money people are likely to make in their lifetimes

b.

By helping to predict who will make the best use of therapy

c.

By helping to predict who will respond best to medication

d.

By helping to reliably diagnose disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder

e.

By helping determine whether clients would benefit more from psychodynamic or behavioral therapies

ANS: D PTS: 1

REF: Looking Under the Hood: Scanning the Human Brain

OBJ: 12-Apply knowledge of brain scanning techniques. TOP: MOD: 2.8

KEY: Apply MSC: conceptual
ESSAY
1. Describe the main components of a neuron and explain how it transmits information internally.

ANS:


There are four main components to a neuron: dendrites, which receive information from other neurons; a soma (cell body), which handles basic metabolic functioning of the neuron and contains the neuron's genetic instructions; an axon, which conveys information toward other neurons; and terminal buttons, which release neurotransmitters to adjacent neurons. Normally, the inside of the neuron is negatively charged (–70 mV) with respect to the outside because of the unequal distribution of ions. Information is conducted along the axon by means of an action potential, a rapid change in electric potential from –70 mV to +50mV and back again. This occurs when the neuron receives adequate stimulation from the neurons communicating with it.

PTS: 1 REF: Neurons: The Body’s Wiring TOP: MOD: 2.1


2. Explain the difference between antagonists and agonists and why they are important from a pharmaceutical point of view.

ANS:


Antagonists are drugs or chemicals that interfere with or reduce the availability of certain neurotransmitters. For example, antipsychotic drugs block the receptor sites for the neurotransmitter dopamine, thereby decreasing the amount of excess dopamine in the brain. Agonists do the opposite. They are chemicals, or drugs, that increase the availability of neurotransmitters by interfering with their reuptake or by binding to their receptor sites and mimicking their actions. For example, the drug Prozac increases the availability of the neurotransmitter serotonin by preventing its reuptake by the transmitting neuron. Some psychological disorders are due to irregularities in the activity of certain neurotransmitters. For example, in schizophrenia, increased levels of dopamine are linked to positive symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. Because antagonists work to block receptor sites and therefore blunt the activity of neurotransmitters, identifying the antagonist that blocks dopamine has made it possible to develop antipsychotic drugs that alleviate those symptoms. On the other hand, sometimes it's necessary to increase the available amount of a transmitter. Symptoms of depression have been linked with decreased levels of serotonin. When Prozac increases the availability of the neurotransmitter, the symptoms of depression wane.

PTS: 1 REF: Neurons: The Body’s Wiring TOP: MOD: 2.2


3. Describe how the nervous system is organized and the function of its various parts.

ANS:


The nervous system is composed of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS contains the brain and spinal cord. The PNS consists of the nerves that carry information away from (efferent, or motor, nerves) and into (afferent, or sensory, nerves) the CNS. The PNS consists of the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system conveys information between the CNS and sense organs and muscles. The autonomic nervous system controls internal bodily processes such as heartbeat and respiration. It contains two divisions, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The sympathetic division speeds up most bodily processes and releases energy. The parasympathetic division helps the body replenish stores of energy.

PTS: 1 REF: The Nervous System: Your Body’s Information Superhighway

TOP: MOD: 2.2
4. Outline the structure and function of the cerebral cortex.

ANS:


The cerebral cortex has a left and right hemisphere, each of which contains four primary divisions or lobes. The two hemispheres are connected by a broad band of fibers called the corpus callosum. The frontal lobe is at the front. It is the central executive that involves higher functions such as problem solving and decision making. At the very rear of the frontal lobe is a thin slice called the motor cortex. This contains neurons that control voluntary muscle movement. Behind the frontal lobe is the parietal lobe.

At the front of the parietal lobe is the somatosensory cortex. This is where sensations from the parts of the body are received. At the rear of the brain is the occipital lobe. It is the primary station for initial processing of visual information. At the side of the brain is the temporal lobe, where initial processing of auditory information occurs.

PTS: 1 REF: The Brain: Your Crowning Glory TOP: MOD: 2.3
5. Discuss the relationship between hormones and behavior.

ANS:


Excess or deficient hormone levels have been found to affect behavior. For example, excess thyroid hormones are linked to anxiety and irritability. In males, excess testosterone is associated with aggression, whereas deficiencies of testosterone are associated with lack of sexual desire for both men and women. There is also some evidence to suggest that fluctuations in, or sensitivity to, the levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone before and during females' menstrual cycles are responsible for the symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

PTS: 1 REF: The Endocrine System: The Body’s Other Communication System



TOP: MOD: 2.6



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